Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a microelectromechanically (MEMS) tunable photonic ring resonator add–drop filter, fabricated in a simple silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based process. The device uses electrostatic parallel plate actuation to perturb the evanescent field of a silicon waveguide, and achieves a 530 pm resonance wavelength tuning, i.e., more than a fourfold improvement compared to previous MEMS tunable ring resonator add–drop filters. Moreover, our device has a static power consumption below 100 nW, and a tuning rate of 62pm/V, i.e., the highest reported rate for electrostatic tuning of ring resonator add–drop filters.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (2)

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. M. Chu and K. Hane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1411 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, and A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1331 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

D. Sadot and E. Boimovich, IEEE Commun. Mag. 36(12), 50 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Wibbeler, G. Pfeifer, and M. Hietschold, Sens. Actuators A 71, 74 (1998).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Abdulla, S. M. C.

Asghari, M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baker, N.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berenschot, E.

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Boimovich, E.

D. Sadot and E. Boimovich, IEEE Commun. Mag. 36(12), 50 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chan, E.

Chen, H.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 15915 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. M.

H. M. Chu and K. Hane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L.

Davies, J.

de Boer, M. J.

de Ridder, R. M.

Dijkstra, M.

Dong, P.

Driessen, A.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Errando-Herranz, C.

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Transducers (IEEE, 2015), p. 1001.

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2015), p. 53.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Gentry, C. M.

Geuzebroek, D. H.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gylfason, K. B.

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2015), p. 53.

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Transducers (IEEE, 2015), p. 1001.

Hane, K.

H. M. Chu and K. Hane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hietschold, M.

J. Wibbeler, G. Pfeifer, and M. Hietschold, Sens. Actuators A 71, 74 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Jansen, H. V.

Kauppinen, L. J.

Kelderman, H.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Klein, E. J.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krijnen, G. J. M.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Krug, W.

Kuo, Y.-H.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. G.

Liang, H.

Liao, Y.

Lipson, M.

Lopez-Garcia, M.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luck, D. L.

M. R. Watts, W. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Luo, X.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nielson, G. N.

M. R. Watts, W. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Niklaus, F.

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2015), p. 53.

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Transducers (IEEE, 2015), p. 1001.

O’Brien, J. L.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pfeifer, G.

J. Wibbeler, G. Pfeifer, and M. Hietschold, Sens. Actuators A 71, 74 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D. B.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poon, A. W.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[Crossref]

Poon, J. K. S.

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, and A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1331 (2004).
[Crossref]

Popovic, M. A.

Qian, W.

Raday, O.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sadot, D.

D. Sadot and E. Boimovich, IEEE Commun. Mag. 36(12), 50 (1998).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

Scheuer, J.

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, and A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1331 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sengo, G.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shafiiha, R.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Sih, V.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sorel, M.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stemme, G.

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Transducers (IEEE, 2015), p. 1001.

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2015), p. 53.

Strain, M. J.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, P.

Takayesu, J.

Thompson, M. G.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Urquhart, P.

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Wang, H.

Wang, J.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Wibbeler, J.

J. Wibbeler, G. Pfeifer, and M. Hietschold, Sens. Actuators A 71, 74 (1998).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, and A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1331 (2004).
[Crossref]

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Yu, S.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, J.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zortman, W.

M. R. Watts, W. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 2009), paper CPDB10.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. Sadot and E. Boimovich, IEEE Commun. Mag. 36(12), 50 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. M. Chu and K. Hane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1411 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, and A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1331 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photonics 1, 232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (2)

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

J. Wibbeler, G. Pfeifer, and M. Hietschold, Sens. Actuators A 71, 74 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. R. Watts, W. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 2009), paper CPDB10.

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2015), p. 53.

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Transducers (IEEE, 2015), p. 1001.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Most applications of tunable add–drop filters require a large number of densely packed devices with low cross-talk. Here, we demonstrate a low-power MEMS tunable add–drop filter fabricated by a simple SOI-based process. Parallel plate actuation of a free-standing cantilever that contains the ring resonator waveguide changes the waveguide geometry. This affects the effective refractive index of the resonant optical mode, resulting in a shift of resonance wavelength.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. FEM eigenmode simulations show the effect of vertical displacement of the ring resonator waveguide in relation to the static silicon rim on the effective mode index. Electrostatic actuation with a voltage V results in downward movement of the waveguide, which thus translates into redshift ( λ V > 0 ) of the resonance wavelength of the ring resonator as the waveguide approaches the static rim, and blueshift ( λ V < 0 , shaded area) as the waveguide moves away from it.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Top view schematic and (b) SEM of the MEMS tunable ring resonator add–drop filter. Light couples from the input waveguide into the ring waveguide, half of which is encircled by a static silicon rim separated by a through etched slot. A suspended cantilever is formed by the slot and the etch holes. Tuning is achieved by electrostatic actuation of the cantilever by an applied voltage, and the resonance wavelength shift is detected at the through and the drop ports.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Transmission spectra at the through and drop ports of the device in Fig. 3(b). (b) An enlarged view of the shaded area in (a), showing the movement of the spectra under actuation voltages between 0 and 21.5 V. The saturation of the line color decreases with voltage.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Resonance shift, (b) free spectral range (FSR), and (c)  3 dB bandwidth (BW) of the MEMS tunable add–drop filter, under actuation voltages from 0 to 21.5 V. The data is from the drop port spectra and averaged over the 15 resonances shown in Fig. 4. The triangles indicate one standard deviation ( 1 σ ). The device presents a maximum resonance shift of 530 pm with a linear tuning rate of 7.6 GHz / V ( 62 pm / V ) for actuation voltages between 12 and 21.5 V.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Reported Performance of Tunable Add–Drop Filters Based on Ring Resonators Working at a Wavelength of 1550 nm a

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