Abstract

We report a ternary-coupled plasmonic system consisting of excitons of J-aggregated dye, localized surface plasmon polaritons of Ag nanoparticles, and propagating surface plasmon polaritons of continuous Ag film. J-aggregate dyes are uniformly self-assembled on colloidally synthesized Ag nanoprisms forming plexcitonic nanoparticles, which are placed at a distance nanometers away from the Ag thin film. The reflection measurements, corroborated by theoretical predictions, reveal that the strong coupling of plasmon polaritons and plexcitons results in a newly formed plasmon–exciton–plasmon hybridized state that we call here, reportedly for the first time, a plexcimon state. The hybrid plasmonic system shows dispersion characteristics similar to a coupled resonator optical waveguide. The group velocity of the plexcimon state approaches zero at the band edges. The ultrahybrid plasmonic system presented here is promising for a variety of light–matter interaction studies, including polariton lasers, plasmonic devices, plasmonic waveguiding, and spectroscopy.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (6)

A. F. Koenderink, A. Alu, and A. Polman, Science 348, 516 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Torma and W. L. Barnes, Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 013901 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

J. Gong, R. Dai, Z. Wang, and Z. Zhang, Sci. Rep. 5, 9279 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zengin, M. Wersall, S. Nilsson, T. J. Antosiewicz, M. Kall, and T. Shegai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 157401 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Balci, E. Karademir, and C. Kocabas, Opt. Lett. 40, 3177 (2015)
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. Balci, C. Kocabas, E. Karademir, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Lett. 39, 4994 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. E. Gomez, H. Giessen, and T. J. Davis, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 23963 (2014).

C. W. Hsu, B. G. DeLacy, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nano Lett. 14, 2783 (2014).

2013 (2)

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nano Lett. 13, 5866 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Balci, Opt. Lett. 38, 4498 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Moreau, C. Ciraci, J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Q. Wang, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nature 86, 492 (2012).

S. Balci, C. Kocabas, S. Ates, E. Karademir, O. Salihoglu, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. B 86, 235402 (2012).

2009 (1)

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. T. Fofang, T. H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 8, 3481 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1983 (1)

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765 (1983).

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

A. F. Koenderink, A. Alu, and A. Polman, Science 348, 516 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anquillare, E.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

Antosiewicz, T. J.

G. Zengin, M. Wersall, S. Nilsson, T. J. Antosiewicz, M. Kall, and T. Shegai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 157401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ates, S.

S. Balci, C. Kocabas, S. Ates, E. Karademir, O. Salihoglu, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. B 86, 235402 (2012).

Aydinli, A.

S. Balci, C. Kocabas, E. Karademir, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Lett. 39, 4994 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Balci, C. Kocabas, S. Ates, E. Karademir, O. Salihoglu, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. B 86, 235402 (2012).

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Balci, S.

Barnes, W. L.

P. Torma and W. L. Barnes, Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 013901 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chilkoti, A.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nano Lett. 13, 5866 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciraci, J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Q. Wang, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nature 86, 492 (2012).

Ciraci, C.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nano Lett. 13, 5866 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciraci, J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Q. Wang, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nature 86, 492 (2012).

Dai, R.

J. Gong, R. Dai, Z. Wang, and Z. Zhang, Sci. Rep. 5, 9279 (2015).
[Crossref]

Davis, T. J.

D. E. Gomez, H. Giessen, and T. J. Davis, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 23963 (2014).

DeLacy, B. G.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

C. W. Hsu, B. G. DeLacy, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nano Lett. 14, 2783 (2014).

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fofang, N. T.

N. T. Fofang, T. H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 8, 3481 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fountain, A. W.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

Giessen, H.

D. E. Gomez, H. Giessen, and T. J. Davis, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 23963 (2014).

Gomez, D. E.

D. E. Gomez, H. Giessen, and T. J. Davis, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 23963 (2014).

Gong, J.

J. Gong, R. Dai, Z. Wang, and Z. Zhang, Sci. Rep. 5, 9279 (2015).
[Crossref]

Halas, N. J.

N. T. Fofang, T. H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 8, 3481 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hall, D. G.

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765 (1983).

Hill, R. T.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nano Lett. 13, 5866 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciraci, J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Q. Wang, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nature 86, 492 (2012).

Holland, W. R.

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765 (1983).

Hsu, C. W.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

C. W. Hsu, B. G. DeLacy, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nano Lett. 14, 2783 (2014).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

C. W. Hsu, B. G. DeLacy, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nano Lett. 14, 2783 (2014).

Johnson, S. G.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

C. W. Hsu, B. G. DeLacy, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nano Lett. 14, 2783 (2014).

Kall, M.

G. Zengin, M. Wersall, S. Nilsson, T. J. Antosiewicz, M. Kall, and T. Shegai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 157401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karademir, E.

Kocabas, A.

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kocabas, C.

Koenderink, A. F.

A. F. Koenderink, A. Alu, and A. Polman, Science 348, 516 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lacey, S.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

Lassiter, J. B.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nano Lett. 13, 5866 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, R. K.

McGuire, F.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nano Lett. 13, 5866 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miller, O. D.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

Mirin, N. A.

N. T. Fofang, T. H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 8, 3481 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mock, J. J.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nano Lett. 13, 5866 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciraci, J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Q. Wang, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nature 86, 492 (2012).

Moreau, A.

A. Moreau, C. Ciraci, J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Q. Wang, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nature 86, 492 (2012).

Neumann, O.

N. T. Fofang, T. H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 8, 3481 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, S.

G. Zengin, M. Wersall, S. Nilsson, T. J. Antosiewicz, M. Kall, and T. Shegai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 157401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nordlander, P.

N. T. Fofang, T. H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 8, 3481 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[Crossref]

Park, T. H.

N. T. Fofang, T. H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 8, 3481 (2008).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

A. F. Koenderink, A. Alu, and A. Polman, Science 348, 516 (2015).
[Crossref]

Prodan, E.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[Crossref]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
[Crossref]

Radloff, C.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[Crossref]

Salihoglu, O.

S. Balci, C. Kocabas, S. Ates, E. Karademir, O. Salihoglu, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. B 86, 235402 (2012).

Scherer, A.

Senlik, S. S.

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shegai, T.

G. Zengin, M. Wersall, S. Nilsson, T. J. Antosiewicz, M. Kall, and T. Shegai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 157401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nano Lett. 13, 5866 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciraci, J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Q. Wang, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nature 86, 492 (2012).

Soljacic, M.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

C. W. Hsu, B. G. DeLacy, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nano Lett. 14, 2783 (2014).

Torma, P.

P. Torma and W. L. Barnes, Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 013901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Valdes, E.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

Wang, Q.

A. Moreau, C. Ciraci, J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Q. Wang, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nature 86, 492 (2012).

Wang, Z.

J. Gong, R. Dai, Z. Wang, and Z. Zhang, Sci. Rep. 5, 9279 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wersall, M.

G. Zengin, M. Wersall, S. Nilsson, T. J. Antosiewicz, M. Kall, and T. Shegai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 157401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wiley, B. J.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nano Lett. 13, 5866 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciraci, J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Q. Wang, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nature 86, 492 (2012).

Xu, Y.

Yagloski, R.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

Yariv, A.

Zander, Z.

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

Zengin, G.

G. Zengin, M. Wersall, S. Nilsson, T. J. Antosiewicz, M. Kall, and T. Shegai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 157401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

J. Gong, R. Dai, Z. Wang, and Z. Zhang, Sci. Rep. 5, 9279 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

D. E. Gomez, H. Giessen, and T. J. Davis, J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 23963 (2014).

Nano Lett. (4)

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nano Lett. 13, 5866 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. T. Fofang, T. H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 8, 3481 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. G. DeLacy, O. D. Miller, C. W. Hsu, Z. Zander, S. Lacey, R. Yagloski, A. W. Fountain, E. Valdes, E. Anquillare, M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nano Lett. 15, 2588 (2015).

C. W. Hsu, B. G. DeLacy, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nano Lett. 14, 2783 (2014).

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciraci, J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Q. Wang, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, Nature 86, 492 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Balci, C. Kocabas, S. Ates, E. Karademir, O. Salihoglu, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. B 86, 235402 (2012).

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765 (1983).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zengin, M. Wersall, S. Nilsson, T. J. Antosiewicz, M. Kall, and T. Shegai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 157401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Torma and W. L. Barnes, Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 013901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Gong, R. Dai, Z. Wang, and Z. Zhang, Sci. Rep. 5, 9279 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Koenderink, A. Alu, and A. Polman, Science 348, 516 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic representations of (a) plexciton and (b) plexcimon formations in a strong coupling regime.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Extinction spectrum of Ag NPs. The inset indicates the Ag NPs in a reaction vessel, (b) absorption spectrum of J-aggregate, (c) extinction spectrum of plexcitonic nanoparticles. The dispersion curve obtained from (d) bare 10 nm Si 3 N 4 –40 nm Ag film, (e) Ag film covered with J-aggregates in a PVA matrix, and (f) 10 nm Si 3 N 4 –40 nm Ag film covered with bare Ag NPs. The blue and red regions indicate the low and high reflectivity, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Extinction spectrum of the plexcitonic nanoparticles and uncoupled (free) TDBC dye molecules before centrifugation. (b) Extinction spectrum of the plexcitonic nanoparticles after centrifugation.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Strong PP and weak PEP couplings. (a) PSPP reflection curves of 10 nm Si 3 N 4 –40 nm Ag film. (b) With strong PP coupling, the polariton reflection curve obtained from bare Ag NPs separated from the 40-nm-thick Ag film by a 10 nm Si 3 N 4 film. The upper and lower polariton bands are at 550 nm and 675 nm , respectively. (c) With weak PEP coupling, the polariton reflection curve obtained from plexcitonic nanoparticles separated from the 40-nm-thick Ag film by 10 nm Si 3 N 4 .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) SPP reflection curves of 10 nm Si 3 N 4 –60 nm Ag film. (b) Polariton reflection curve obtained from the Ag NPs separated from the 60-nm-thick Ag film by a 10 nm Si 3 N 4 film. The upper and lower polariton bands are at 475 nm and 700 nm , respectively. (c) Reflection curve obtained from plexcitonic nanoparticles separated from the 60-nm-thick Ag film by a 10 nm Si 3 N 4 film. The raw experimentally obtained data are shown in (d), (e), and (f), which correspond to the processed data in (a), (b), and (c), respectively.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Dispersion curve (wavelength versus angle) of the plexcimons, (b) dispersion curve (frequency versus momentum) of the plexcimons, (c) calculated group velocity of the plexcimons.

Equations (7)

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ω ± = κ 2 + ω 0 2 ± 1 2 A + ( κ ω 0 ) 2 .
Ω = ω + ω = A = N V e ε 0 m ,
ω ± = κ 2 + ω 0 2 i γ 4 ± 1 2 A + ( κ ω 0 + i γ 2 ) 2 .
Ω = ω + ω = A γ 2 4 .
ε ( ω ) = 1 ω p 2 ω 2 + i γ ω ,
ω ( k ) = Ω [ 1 + κ cos ( k D ) ] ,
v g ( k ) = Ω D κ sin ( k D ) .

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