Abstract

We have fabricated a Si racetrack optical modulator based on a III–V/Si hybrid metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. The III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter was integrated to a Si racetrack resonator with a coupling length of 200 µm and a coupling gap of 700 nm. The fabricated Si racetrack resonator demonstrated a small VπL of 0.059 Vcm. For 10-dB optical intensity modulation, the Si racetrack resonator showed a 60% smaller driving voltage than a Mach–Zehnder interferometer modulator with the same phase shifter, leading to a better balance between high energy efficiency and large modulation bandwidth.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

With the upcoming 5G era in the next few years, billions of smart devices will seamlessly connect with each other on the cloud, demanding an extremely large data throughput in cloud data centers where these smart devices are hosted [13]. As a technology fully compatible with the conventional CMOS fabrication process [46], the Si photonics platform provides solutions for high-speed, low-energy, and low-cost optical interconnections, giving rise to the increased adoption of Si photonic transceivers inside data centers [79]. An optical modulator, which encodes electrical signals into optical signals, is an indispensable component in an optical transceiver. Energy efficiency and modulation bandwidth are two of the most important performance metrics for optical modulators. Conventional Si optical modulators are all based on the free-carrier dispersion effect, in which the Si refractive index is manipulated by changing the free carrier density via a p-i-n or p-n junction. However, these two types of device are either limited in modulation bandwidth (p-i-n type) or modulation efficiency (p-n type) [1016].

In 2004, a Si optical modulator based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure was demonstrated [17]. The high-density free carriers that accumulated on the MOS interfaces induce a large refractive index change. Additionally, the improved overlap between the optical mode and the accumulated free carriers resulted in a high modulation efficiency. Moreover, the modulation bandwidth is only limited by the resistance–capacitance (RC) constant, which means that the modulation bandwidth can be easily scaled by changing the thickness of the oxide layer [18,19]. Despite these improvements, there is an unavoidable disadvantage of MOS-type optical modulators, which is the trade-off relationship between energy consumption and modulation bandwidth. A low energy consumption ($\; C\Delta {\textrm{V}^2}/2$) requires a high modulation efficiency, which means a large capacitance. This is because a larger capacitance can induce a large refractive index change through the accumulation of more free carriers on the MOS junction interfaces, reducing the driving voltage swing ($\Delta V$). Assuming an inversely proportional relationship between $\Delta V$ and C [20], if C is increased by n times, the resulting energy consumption will be accordingly reduced by n ($C\Delta {\textrm{V}^2}/nC{({\Delta \textrm{V}/n} )^2}$) times. On the other hand, the 3-dB modulation bandwidth is determined by $1/({2\pi RC} )$, which is also inversely proportional to the capacitance C. Thus, the relationship between the energy per bit and the modulation bandwidth of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical modulator based on a Si MOS optical phase shifter is as shown by the black line in Fig. 1.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Relationship between energy per bit and bandwidth. The black and blue lines indicate MZI optical modulators based on a Si-oxide-Si MOS optical phase shifter and a III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter, respectively. The red line indicates a microring resonator with a III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

In our previous study, we have demonstrated a III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter by bonding a thin n-type III–V membrane on a p-type Si waveguide, enabling an efficient optical phase modulation with low optical absorption loss [21,22]. A VπL as small as 0.047 Vcm has been achieved owing to the efficient electron-induced refractive index change in InGaAsP. Compared with that of a Si MOS optical phase shifter, the modulation efficiency of the III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter was improved by fivefold, leading to a 25-fold reduction in power consumption, as shown by the black and blue lines in Fig. 1. To further improve this relationship, it is promising to integrate the III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter with a microring resonator. Recently, the thin-film lithium niobate microring modulator [23] or the heterogeneous integration of hybrid material on the microring/racetrack resonator has been reported, such as Barium Titanate/SiN [24], thin film-lithium niobate/SiN platforms [25]. The strong optical resonance of a microring resonator at the resonating wavelengths, represented as a high quality factor ($Q$), enables a low-energy optical intensity modulation with a small $\Delta V$. On the other hand, the improvement of energy efficiency does not degrade the RC-limited modulation bandwidth since both R and C of the phase shifter remain constant. As long as the Q is not high enough to impose limitation on the modulation speed [2628], the 3-dB modulation bandwidth is still RC-limited. In this case, compared with a MZI optical modulator with the same phase shifter, the microring resonator is capable of enhanced energy efficiency with the same modulation bandwidth. Thus, the relationship between energy consumption and modulation bandwidth breaks, as shown by the red line in Fig. 1. In this work, we present the design, fabrication and characterization of a Si racetrack resonator with a III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. Compared with that of a MZI optical modulator with the same hybrid phase shifter, the energy consumption of the Si racetrack resonator is effectively reduced by 6.25-fold.

2. Device design

A schematic of a Si racetrack resonator with a III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter is shown in Fig. 2(a). The passive Si components, including the Si input/output coupler, Si bus waveguide, and Si racetrack, were fabricated on a SOI wafer with a 225-nm-thick Si layer. The width and etching depth of the Si rib waveguide were designed to be 550 and 115 nm, respectively. The radius of the Si bends was assumed to be 5 µm. In order to integrate the III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter on the Si rib waveguide, it is necessary to place 45-µm-long III–V tapers at both the input and output ports of the hybrid phase shifter to smoothen the optical mode transition with small insertion loss. There is a 5-µm-long passive Si rib waveguide between the 180-degree Si bend and the III-V taper. It is inserted to minimize the optical loss induced by the optical mode mismatch between the Si bend and straight waveguides. Thus, the total length of the Si racetrack is 200 µm. Figure 2(b) shows a cross-sectional schematic of a III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. A 200-nm-thick n-type InGaAsP layer is bonded to a 225-nm-thick p-type Si waveguide with a 6-nm-thick Al2O3 layer as the gate oxide layer. Under the metal contact to n-type InGaAsP, an n++-InGaAs/n-InP double layer was inserted to reduce the contact resistance. For the same purpose, the Si layer was also partially heavily doped. Figure 2(c) shows the simulated optical mode profile of the III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. The optical mode centers on the MOS interfaces between InGaAsP/Al2O3/Si, where the free carriers accumulate. The overlap of optical mode and carrier accumulation enhances the optical phase modulation efficiency. Figure 2(d) shows the numerically calculated transmissions of a MZI modulator and a racetrack resonator. The transmission function of a MZI modulator is ${T_{MZI}} = \frac{{{P_{out}}}}{{{P_{in}}}} = \frac{{1 + \textrm{cos}({\Delta \varphi + \pi } )}}{2}\; $ [29], where Δφ+π is the optical phase difference between the two MZI arms. To compare the capability of optical intensity modulation with a racetrack resonator, we set π phase shift as the starting phase in the MZI transmission function so that the MZI interference peak and racetrack resonance peak are at the same position in the plot. The transmission function of a racetrack resonator is ${T_{RT}} = \frac{{{P_{out}}}}{{{P_{in}}}} = \frac{{{a^2} - 2ra\cos ({\Delta \varphi } )+ {r^2}}}{{1 - 2racos({\Delta \varphi } )+ {{({ra} )}^2}}}$ [30], where r is the self-coupling coefficient, and a is the single-pass amplitude transmission, which will be discussed in detail later. In the calculation, a = r=0.62 leads to a Q of 3264. From Fig. 2(d), the optical intensity of the racetrack resonator changes more rapidly than that of a MZI modulator near the resonance wavelength, resulting in power efficient optical intensity modulation.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of Si racetrack resonator with III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. (b) Cross-sectional schematic of III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. (c) Simulated optical mode profile of III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. (d) Numerically calculated transmission of a MZI modulator and a racetrack resonator.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

In [31], we presented a unique Si racetrack resonator design with a coupling length of 21 µm to integrate the III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. However, in this work, we used a conventional Si racetrack structure by simply engineering the coupling gap. Given a coupling length of 200 µm, the coupling gap of the directional coupler should be well designed to obtain a strong optical resonance and a high Q [30]. We have designed and fabricated Si racetrack resonators with various coupling gaps ranging from 300 to 900 nm. Figure 3(a) shows the transmission spectra of Si racetrack resonators with III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifters and different coupling gaps. The Si racetrack resonators with 300 and 700 nm coupling gaps show a strong resonance peak with a Q of 2498 and 3368, respectively. In contrast, Si racetrack resonators with 500 and 900 nm coupling gaps show no resonance peak for wavelength range from 1540 to 1560 nm. This can be explained by the variation of cross-coupling coefficient (κ) with the coupling length. The optical coupling was achieved by the directional coupler structure between the Si racetrack and the bus waveguide. The κ is defined as ${\kappa ^2} = si{n^2}\left( {\frac{{\pi L\Delta n}}{{{\lambda_0}}}} \right)$ [30], where L is the coupling length, λ0 is the resonance wavelength, and Δn is the effective refractive index difference of the first two modes supported by the directional coupler, which can be obtained from simulation [32]. The optical power attenuation in the racetrack is defined as $1 - {a^2} = 1 - {e^{ - \alpha L}}$. Under critical coupling condition, $\; 1 - {a^2} = {\mathrm{\kappa }^2}$. As shown by Fig. 3(b), the Si racetrack resonators with 300 and 700 nm coupling gaps have a large κ2 around 0.7∼0.8. In contrast, the Si racetrack resonators with 500 and 900 nm coupling gaps have a small κ2 around 0.1. The presence of resonance peaks of Si racetrack resonators with 300 and 700 nm coupling gaps and the absence of resonance peak of Si racetrack resonators with 500 and 900 nm coupling gaps indicate that the power loss inside the racetrack is high (${a^2} \approx 0.7\sim 0.8 > 0.1$). This can be attributed to the adoption of a half-etching Si rib waveguide, a small bend radius, and an imperfect fabrication process. By refining the design and fabrication process in the future, we expect the optical loss of the Si racetrack to be reduced. In the case of a low-loss Si racetrack, the coupling gap should be increased to balance the optical loss and coupling strength for a good resonance condition. In the following measurement, we focus on the Si racetrack resonator with the coupling gap of 700 nm for its high Q value.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) Transmission spectra of Si racetrack resonators with III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifters and different coupling gaps. (b) κ2 as a function of coupling length.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3. Fabrication process

Figure 4 shows the fabrication process flow of the Si racetrack resonator with a III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. The procedure was conducted on a SOI wafer with a 225-nm-thick Si layer and a 3-µm-thick SiO2 buried oxide (BOX) layer, as shown in Fig. 4(a). The Si passive components, including Si input/output couplers, Si waveguide, and Si racetrack resonator, were defined by KrF lithography and ICP etching. The width and etching depth of the Si rib were 550 and 115 nm, respectively, as shown in Fig. 4(b). Then, the Si layer was doped as p-type by boron ion implantation. The doping concentrations were 1 × 1019 cm−3 for the heavily doped Si region and 1 × 1018 cm−3 for the remaining Si region. Next, a 3-nm-thick Al2O3 layer was deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on both the Si waveguide and the InGaAsP layer which is lattice-matched to an InP wafer. Prebonding annealing was carried out on the Si and InP wafers at 700 and 400 °C for 40 min, respectively. After that, the Si and InP wafers were cleaned by ultrasonic water and bonded together with a pressure of 500 N and at a temperature of 300 °C for 1 h. Then, the InP wafer was selectively removed with HCl solution. The etch-stop layers (InGaAs/InP/InGaAs) on the InP wafer were chemically removed by wet etching. The InGaAs layer was etched using H3PO4:H2O2:H2O=1:1:7, whereas the InP layer was etched using HCl:H3PO4 = 1:4. As shown in Fig. 4(d), the III–V mesa was defined by EB lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). Then, a 250-nm-thick SiO2 layer was deposited as a cladding layer by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), as shown in Fig. 4(e). After the contact via formation, a Ni/Au stack was evaporated on the device using EB evaporator. Finally, as shown in Fig. 4(f), the contact pads were formed by the lift-off process. Figure 4(g) shows a microscopy image of the fabricated Si racetrack resonator.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a)–(f) Fabrication process flow of Si racetrack resonator with III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. (g) Plan-view images of fabricated Si racetrack resonator.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

4. Characterization and analysis

The fabricated Si racetrack resonator with a III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter was evaluated at the C-band. A Santec TSL-510 tunable laser was used as a light source. The input light was firstly coupled into the Si waveguide through a lensed fiber. The polarization of the input light was adjusted to the transverse electric (TE) mode. The output modulated optical signals were collected using a single-mode fiber via an objective lens. The output power was evaluated using an Agilent 81618A InGaAs power meter. During the measurement, the Si racetrack resonator was mounted on a stage with a Peltier cooler. The temperature was maintained at 23 °C to eliminate the effect of temperature variation. Figure 5(a) shows the transmission spectra from the Si racetrack resonator with different Vg applied. The resonance peak was shifted to the short-wavelength region by increasing Vg. With increasing Vg, the extinction ratio increased and then decreased, which indicated that the racetrack resonator went through over-coupled, critical-coupled and under coupled conditions [33]. At Vg = 0.8 V, the extinction ratio reaches maximum, which is desired for optical intensity modulation. Thus, in the following discussion, we focus on the Vg ranging from 0 to 0.8 V. In this Vg range, Q varies from 3368 to 4077 with the highest Q of 4077 achieved at Vg = 0.8 V. The Q varies with Vg from 3368 to 4077 due to the free-carrier-induced optical loss [30]. The FSR of the racetrack was 1.42 nm. From the FSR and the wavelength shift induced by different Vg, the relationship between phase shift and Vg was obtained, as shown in Fig. 5(b). The modulation efficiency (VπL) extracted from the gradient of the plot was 0.059 Vcm. From simulation, the oxide thickness is expected to be around 6 nm. Considering the capacitor area, the intrinsic capacitance is 316 fF. However, the accumulation capacitance measured at 1 MHz frequency is 777 fF. This is due to the presence of parasitic capacitances, which can be easily removed by adopting a Si waveguide embedded in SiO2 layer [34]. In the following discussion, we used the calculated intrinsic capacitance without considering any parasitic effect.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a). Transmission spectra of fabricated Si racetrack resonator at different Vg and (b) optical phase shift as a function of Vg.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The optical intensity modulation characteristics at a wavelength of 1549.38 nm are shown in Fig. 6. For optical intensity modulation from −6 to −16 dB, the ΔV required by the Si racetrack is 0.553 V. The characteristics of optical intensity modulation by a Si MZI optical modulator with the same III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter were calculated and plotted in Fig. 6. The transfer function of the MZI optical modulator is given by ${I_o} = \frac{{{I_i}}}{2}[{1 + cos({\Delta \phi } )} ]$, where $\Delta \phi $ is the phase difference between the two arms of the MZI optical modulator induced by the phase shifter [12]. In the calculation of the performance of MZI optical modulator, a VπL of 0.059 Vcm was assumed, which is the same as that of the Si racetrack resonator. According to the calculation, a ΔV of 1.37 V is required for a Si MZI optical modulator to achieve 10 dB (from −6 to −16 dB) optical intensity modulation. Compared with a Si MZI optical modulator with the same phase shifter, the Si racetrack resonator reduced ΔV by 60% for the same level of optical intensity modulation. Since the static power consumption of the III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter is negligibly small [35], the total power consumption is dominated by the dynamic power consumption (CΔV2/2). The energy consumption of the Si racetrack resonator was reduced to 0.16-fold that of a Si MZI optical modulator with the same phase shifter for the same 10-dB optical intensity modulation.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Characteristics of optical intensity modulation by fabricated Si racetrack resonator and Si MZI optical modulator with the same phase shifter.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 7 shows the calculated energy consumption ratio (red) of a Si racetrack resonator to a MZI optical modulator with the same phase shifter. The energy consumption ratio is defined as the ratio of dynamic power consumption of a racetrack resonator to that of a MZI modulator, which is ${E_{ratio}} = \frac{{C{{(\Delta {V_{RT}})}^2}/2}}{{C{{(\Delta {V_{MZI}})}^2}/2}} = \frac{{{{(\Delta {V_{RT}})}^2}}}{{{{(\Delta {V_{MZI}})}^2}}}$, where ΔVRT and ΔVMZI are the driving voltage of the Si racetrack resonator and the MZI modulator, respectively. With increasing Q, the energy consumption of the Si racetrack resonator decreases owing to the rapid change in optical intensity near the resonating peak. The energy consumption ratio of 0.16, as demonstrated in the measurement, indicated a Q of 3233. On the other hand, the photon-lifetime-limited bandwidth also decreases with Q, as shown by the blue line in Fig. 7. The photon-lifetime-limited bandwidth is expressed as ${f_{photon}} = \frac{c}{{\lambda Q}}$, where c is the light speed in vacuum. Thus, an excessively high Q will limit the achievable modulation bandwidth owing to an excessively long photon lifetime. The photon-lifetime-limited bandwidth is 60 GHz with a Q of 3233. In pseudo-random data transmission, there is 50% possibility of symbol change between “0” and “1”. Thus, the energy per bit is calculated as ${E_{bit}} = \frac{{C{{({\Delta V} )}^2}}}{4} = 24.2\; \textrm{fJ}/\textrm{bit}$ [12]. The energy per bit here does not include the energy consumed for temperature stabilization.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Energy consumption ratio (red) of racetrack resonator to MZI optical modulator and photon-lifetime-limited bandwidth (blue) as a function of Q.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 8 shows the benchmarking of 3-dB modulation bandwidth and VπL. The 3-dB modulation bandwidth is determined by both the RC constant and the photon lifetime, as expressed by $\frac{1}{{f_{3dB}^2}} = \frac{1}{{f_{RC}^2}} + \frac{1}{{f_{photon}^2}} = {({2\pi RC} )^2} + {\left( {\frac{{\lambda Q}}{c}} \right)^2}$[39]. The RF characterization was not performed on the current device due to the presence of parasitic capacitances which can be easily removed by using a Si waveguide embedded in SiO2 [34]. In the following discussion, we used the theoretically calculated 3-dB modulation bandwidth. The calculated f3dB is 38 GHz, which is limited by the RC constant. By increasing the oxide thickness of the III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter, we can scale up the f3dB along the blue line as shown in Fig. 8. This trend also indicates another way of improvement, which is to increase the photon-lifetime-limited bandwidth by adopting a smaller Q. However, a small Q will degrade the advantage of low-energy optical modulation of the Si racetrack resonator compared with that of a Si MZI optical modulator, as discussed in the last paragraph. The choice of Q will depend on the balance between energy consumption and bandwidth requirement. Figure 8 also shows the results (red dots) of Si microring [2629] and racetrack [30] optical modulators based upon the carrier depletion effect. Compared with pure Si optical modulators, our racetrack optical modulator significantly reduced VπL owing to the efficient III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. For instance, a 50-GHz modulation bandwidth is predicted with a VπL of 0.127 Vcm by scaling the sandwiched oxide thickness to around 13 nm. In conclusion, a low-energy optical modulation is achievable while maintaining a large modulation bandwidth simultaneously.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Benchmarking with Si microring/racetrack resonator based on free-carrier plasma dispersion effect [3640].

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

5. Conclusion

In order to improve the energy–and–bandwidth trade-off relationship of Si MOS-type optical modulators, it is very effective to integrate a III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter into a Si racetrack resonator. In this study, we have successfully demonstrated a Si racetrack resonator with a III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. The gap between the Si racetrack and the Si bus waveguide was carefully designed for a strong optical resonance condition. The fabricated Si racetrack resonator exhibited a Q of 3233 and a VπL of 0.059 Vcm. Compared with a Si MZI optical modulator with the same optical phase shifter, the Si racetrack resonator has reduced the power consumption by 84% for 10-dB optical intensity modulation. Hence, it is promising for high-speed and low-power optical modulation applications.

Funding

New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (JPNP13004).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

1. S. Li, L. D. Xu, and S. Zhao, “5G Internet of Things: A survey,” J. Ind. Inf. Integration 10, 1–9 (2018). [CrossRef]  

2. H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

3. X. Zheng and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Si photonics technology for future optical interconnection,” in 2011 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP), (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–11.

4. K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019). [CrossRef]  

5. X. Wang and J. Liu, “Emerging technologies in Si active photonics,” J. Semicond. 39(6), 061001 (2018). [CrossRef]  

6. A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014). [CrossRef]  

7. Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012). [CrossRef]  

8. D. Nikolova, S. Rumley, D. Calhoun, Q. Li, R. Hendry, P. Samadi, and K. Bergman, “Scaling silicon photonic switch fabrics for data center interconnection networks,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1159–1175 (2015). [CrossRef]  

9. D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016). [CrossRef]  

10. W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007). [CrossRef]  

11. D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015). [CrossRef]  

12. J. Witzens, “High-speed silicon photonics modulators,” Proc. IEEE 106(12), 2158–2182 (2018). [CrossRef]  

13. E. Li and A. X. Wang, “Theoretical Analysis of Energy Efficiency and Bandwidth Limit of Silicon Photonic Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(23), 5801–5813 (2019). [CrossRef]  

14. M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012). [CrossRef]  

15. T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, and A. E.-J. Lim, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012). [CrossRef]  

16. S. Jain, S. Rajput, V. Kaushik, and M. Kumar, “High speed optical modulator based on silicon slotted-rib waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 434, 49–53 (2019). [CrossRef]  

17. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004). [CrossRef]  

18. M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

19. J. Fujikata, M. Takahashi, S. Takahashi, T. Horikawa, and T. Nakamura, “High-speed and high-efficiency Si optical modulator with MOS junction, using solid-phase crystallization of polycrystalline silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4), 042202 (2016). [CrossRef]  

20. Q. Li, J.-H. Han, T.-E. Lee, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Equivalent oxide thickness scaling for efficient III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 2019 Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), (IEEE, 2019), paper TuA3-4.

21. J.-H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 486–490 (2017). [CrossRef]  

22. J.-H. Han, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Extremely high modulation efficiency III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator fabricated by direct wafer bonding,” in 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2016), paper 25-5.

23. M. Bahadori, L. L. Goddard, and S. Gong, “Fundamental electro-optic limitations of thin-film lithium niobate microring modulators,” Opt. Express 28(9), 13731–13749 (2020). [CrossRef]  

24. J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019). [CrossRef]  

25. A. N. R. Ahmed, S. Shi, A. J. Mercante, and D. W. Prather, “High-performance racetrack resonator in silicon nitride-thin film lithium niobate hybrid platform,” Opt. Express 27(21), 30741–30751 (2019). [CrossRef]  

26. B. Pile and G. Taylor, “Small-signal analysis of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14913–14928 (2014). [CrossRef]  

27. G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013). [CrossRef]  

28. M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013). [CrossRef]  

29. Y. Li, Y. Zhang, and Y. Huang, “Any bias point control technique for Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2412–2415 (2013). [CrossRef]  

30. W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012). [CrossRef]  

31. Q. Li, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Si racetrack modulator with III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 45th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (IET, 2019), paper 1-3.

32. https://support.lumerical.com/hc/en-us/articles/360042304694-Evanescent-waveguide-couplers

33. M. A. Swillam, A. O. Zaki, K. Kirah, and L. A. Shahada, “On chip optical Modulator using epsilon-Near-Zero Hybrid plasmonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 6669 (2019). [CrossRef]  

34. Q. Li, C. P. Ho, J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, S. Takahashi, K. Toprasertpong, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Low parasitic capacitance III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator toward high-speed modulation,” in 2020 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper Th2A.16.

35. Q. Li, J.-H. Han, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Ultra-power-efficient 2× 2 Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch based on III-V/Si hybrid MOS phase shifter,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35003–35012 (2018). [CrossRef]  

36. J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), Th4A.7.

37. M. Pantouvaki, S. Srinivasan, Y. Ban, P. D. Heyn, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, H. Chen, J. D. Coster, N. Golshani, and S. Balakrishnan, “Active components for 50 Gb/s NRZ-OOK optical interconnects in a silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 631–638 (2017). [CrossRef]  

38. R. Dubé-Demers, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Ultrafast pulse-amplitude modulation with a femtojoule silicon photonic modulator,” Optica 3(6), 622–627 (2016). [CrossRef]  

39. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, and X. Zheng, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009). [CrossRef]  

40. P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3246–3248 (2010). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. S. Li, L. D. Xu, and S. Zhao, “5G Internet of Things: A survey,” J. Ind. Inf. Integration 10, 1–9 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.
  3. X. Zheng and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Si photonics technology for future optical interconnection,” in 2011 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP), (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–11.
  4. K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  5. X. Wang and J. Liu, “Emerging technologies in Si active photonics,” J. Semicond. 39(6), 061001 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Nikolova, S. Rumley, D. Calhoun, Q. Li, R. Hendry, P. Samadi, and K. Bergman, “Scaling silicon photonic switch fabrics for data center interconnection networks,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1159–1175 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Witzens, “High-speed silicon photonics modulators,” Proc. IEEE 106(12), 2158–2182 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. Li and A. X. Wang, “Theoretical Analysis of Energy Efficiency and Bandwidth Limit of Silicon Photonic Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(23), 5801–5813 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, and A. E.-J. Lim, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Jain, S. Rajput, V. Kaushik, and M. Kumar, “High speed optical modulator based on silicon slotted-rib waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 434, 49–53 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.
  19. J. Fujikata, M. Takahashi, S. Takahashi, T. Horikawa, and T. Nakamura, “High-speed and high-efficiency Si optical modulator with MOS junction, using solid-phase crystallization of polycrystalline silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4), 042202 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. Q. Li, J.-H. Han, T.-E. Lee, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Equivalent oxide thickness scaling for efficient III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 2019 Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), (IEEE, 2019), paper TuA3-4.
  21. J.-H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 486–490 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. J.-H. Han, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Extremely high modulation efficiency III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator fabricated by direct wafer bonding,” in 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2016), paper 25-5.
  23. M. Bahadori, L. L. Goddard, and S. Gong, “Fundamental electro-optic limitations of thin-film lithium niobate microring modulators,” Opt. Express 28(9), 13731–13749 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. N. R. Ahmed, S. Shi, A. J. Mercante, and D. W. Prather, “High-performance racetrack resonator in silicon nitride-thin film lithium niobate hybrid platform,” Opt. Express 27(21), 30741–30751 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  26. B. Pile and G. Taylor, “Small-signal analysis of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14913–14928 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Li, Y. Zhang, and Y. Huang, “Any bias point control technique for Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2412–2415 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  31. Q. Li, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Si racetrack modulator with III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 45th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (IET, 2019), paper 1-3.
  32. https://support.lumerical.com/hc/en-us/articles/360042304694-Evanescent-waveguide-couplers
  33. M. A. Swillam, A. O. Zaki, K. Kirah, and L. A. Shahada, “On chip optical Modulator using epsilon-Near-Zero Hybrid plasmonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 6669 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  34. Q. Li, C. P. Ho, J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, S. Takahashi, K. Toprasertpong, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Low parasitic capacitance III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator toward high-speed modulation,” in 2020 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper Th2A.16.
  35. Q. Li, J.-H. Han, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Ultra-power-efficient 2× 2 Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch based on III-V/Si hybrid MOS phase shifter,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35003–35012 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), Th4A.7.
  37. M. Pantouvaki, S. Srinivasan, Y. Ban, P. D. Heyn, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, H. Chen, J. D. Coster, N. Golshani, and S. Balakrishnan, “Active components for 50 Gb/s NRZ-OOK optical interconnects in a silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 631–638 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  38. R. Dubé-Demers, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Ultrafast pulse-amplitude modulation with a femtojoule silicon photonic modulator,” Optica 3(6), 622–627 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  39. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, and X. Zheng, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  40. P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

2019 (6)

J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. N. R. Ahmed, S. Shi, A. J. Mercante, and D. W. Prather, “High-performance racetrack resonator in silicon nitride-thin film lithium niobate hybrid platform,” Opt. Express 27(21), 30741–30751 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. A. Swillam, A. O. Zaki, K. Kirah, and L. A. Shahada, “On chip optical Modulator using epsilon-Near-Zero Hybrid plasmonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 6669 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Li and A. X. Wang, “Theoretical Analysis of Energy Efficiency and Bandwidth Limit of Silicon Photonic Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(23), 5801–5813 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Jain, S. Rajput, V. Kaushik, and M. Kumar, “High speed optical modulator based on silicon slotted-rib waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 434, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

J. Witzens, “High-speed silicon photonics modulators,” Proc. IEEE 106(12), 2158–2182 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Wang and J. Liu, “Emerging technologies in Si active photonics,” J. Semicond. 39(6), 061001 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Li, L. D. Xu, and S. Zhao, “5G Internet of Things: A survey,” J. Ind. Inf. Integration 10, 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Ultra-power-efficient 2× 2 Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch based on III-V/Si hybrid MOS phase shifter,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35003–35012 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (3)

J. Fujikata, M. Takahashi, S. Takahashi, T. Horikawa, and T. Nakamura, “High-speed and high-efficiency Si optical modulator with MOS junction, using solid-phase crystallization of polycrystalline silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4), 042202 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dubé-Demers, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Ultrafast pulse-amplitude modulation with a femtojoule silicon photonic modulator,” Optica 3(6), 622–627 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

D. Nikolova, S. Rumley, D. Calhoun, Q. Li, R. Hendry, P. Samadi, and K. Bergman, “Scaling silicon photonic switch fabrics for data center interconnection networks,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1159–1175 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Pile and G. Taylor, “Small-signal analysis of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14913–14928 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, Y. Zhang, and Y. Huang, “Any bias point control technique for Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2412–2415 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, and A. E.-J. Lim, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Abel, S.

J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adams, D.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

Ahmed, A. N. R.

Anderson, F. A.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Anderson, S.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

Appel, C.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

Ayala, J.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bahadori, M.

Balakrishnan, S.

Ban, Y.

Barwicz, T.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Bian, Y.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, F.

J.-H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bouville, D.

Bowers, J. E.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Caimi, D.

J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019).
[Crossref]

Calhoun, D.

Campenhout, J. V.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, K. K.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), Th4A.7.

Christie, P.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Coster, J. D.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J. E.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Czornomaz, L.

J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dahal, A.

H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Demkov, A. A.

J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dezfulian, K. K.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ding, R.

Dong, P.

Doylend, J.

H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

Driscoll, J.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), Th4A.7.

Duan, N.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dubé-Demers, R.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eltes, F.

J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J.-M.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Fompeyrine, J.

J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fujikata, J.

J.-H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Fujikata, M. Takahashi, S. Takahashi, T. Horikawa, and T. Nakamura, “High-speed and high-efficiency Si optical modulator with MOS junction, using solid-phase crystallization of polycrystalline silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4), 042202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, S. Takahashi, K. Toprasertpong, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Low parasitic capacitance III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator toward high-speed modulation,” in 2020 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper Th2A.16.

Ghiurcan, G. A.

H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

Ghosh, S.

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giewont, K.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gill, D. M.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Goddard, L. L.

Gold, D.

H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

Golshani, N.

Gong, S.

Gothoskar, P.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

Green, W. M.

Han, J.-H.

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Ultra-power-efficient 2× 2 Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch based on III-V/Si hybrid MOS phase shifter,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35003–35012 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Han, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Extremely high modulation efficiency III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator fabricated by direct wafer bonding,” in 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2016), paper 25-5.

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, T.-E. Lee, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Equivalent oxide thickness scaling for efficient III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 2019 Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), (IEEE, 2019), paper TuA3-4.

Harris, N. C.

Hendry, R.

Herrick, R.

H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

Heyn, P. D.

Ho, C. P.

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Ultra-power-efficient 2× 2 Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch based on III-V/Si hybrid MOS phase shifter,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35003–35012 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, S. Takahashi, K. Toprasertpong, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Low parasitic capacitance III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator toward high-speed modulation,” in 2020 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper Th2A.16.

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Si racetrack modulator with III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 45th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (IET, 2019), paper 1-3.

Hoovels, N. V.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Horikawa, T.

J. Fujikata, M. Takahashi, S. Takahashi, T. Horikawa, and T. Nakamura, “High-speed and high-efficiency Si optical modulator with MOS junction, using solid-phase crystallization of polycrystalline silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4), 042202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Houghton, T.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hu, S.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Zhang, and Y. Huang, “Any bias point control technique for Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2412–2415 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jain, S.

S. Jain, S. Rajput, V. Kaushik, and M. Kumar, “High speed optical modulator based on silicon slotted-rib waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 434, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jan, C.

H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

Jayatilleka, H.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), Th4A.7.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kaushik, V.

S. Jain, S. Rajput, V. Kaushik, and M. Kumar, “High speed optical modulator based on silicon slotted-rib waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 434, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kirah, K.

M. A. Swillam, A. O. Zaki, K. Kirah, and L. A. Shahada, “On chip optical Modulator using epsilon-Near-Zero Hybrid plasmonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 6669 (2019).
[Crossref]

Komljenovic, T.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Si photonics technology for future optical interconnection,” in 2011 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP), (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–11.

Kumar, M.

S. Jain, S. Rajput, V. Kaushik, and M. Kumar, “High speed optical modulator based on silicon slotted-rib waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 434, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kumar, R.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), Th4A.7.

Kumar Selvaraja, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kung, C.-C.

LaRochelle, S.

Lee, P.

Lee, T.-E.

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, T.-E. Lee, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Equivalent oxide thickness scaling for efficient III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 2019 Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), (IEEE, 2019), paper TuA3-4.

Lepage, G.

M. Pantouvaki, S. Srinivasan, Y. Ban, P. D. Heyn, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, H. Chen, J. D. Coster, N. Golshani, and S. Balakrishnan, “Active components for 50 Gb/s NRZ-OOK optical interconnects in a silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 631–638 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, E.

Li, G.

Li, Q.

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Ultra-power-efficient 2× 2 Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch based on III-V/Si hybrid MOS phase shifter,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35003–35012 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Nikolova, S. Rumley, D. Calhoun, Q. Li, R. Hendry, P. Samadi, and K. Bergman, “Scaling silicon photonic switch fabrics for data center interconnection networks,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1159–1175 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, T.-E. Lee, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Equivalent oxide thickness scaling for efficient III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 2019 Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), (IEEE, 2019), paper TuA3-4.

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, S. Takahashi, K. Toprasertpong, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Low parasitic capacitance III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator toward high-speed modulation,” in 2020 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper Th2A.16.

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Si racetrack modulator with III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 45th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (IET, 2019), paper 1-3.

Li, S.

S. Li, L. D. Xu, and S. Zhao, “5G Internet of Things: A survey,” J. Ind. Inf. Integration 10, 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Zhang, and Y. Huang, “Any bias point control technique for Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2412–2415 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.-J.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, and A. E.-J. Lim, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, W.

H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

Liow, T.-Y.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

X. Wang and J. Liu, “Emerging technologies in Si active photonics,” J. Semicond. 39(6), 061001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

Liu, Y.

Luo, Y.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meier, N.

J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019).
[Crossref]

Mercante, A. J.

Metz, P.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

Nakamura, T.

J. Fujikata, M. Takahashi, S. Takahashi, T. Horikawa, and T. Nakamura, “High-speed and high-efficiency Si optical modulator with MOS junction, using solid-phase crystallization of polycrystalline silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4), 042202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, K.

H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nikolova, D.

Noguchi, M.

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, S. Takahashi, K. Toprasertpong, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Low parasitic capacitance III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator toward high-speed modulation,” in 2020 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper Th2A.16.

Nummy, K.

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ortmann, J. E.

J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pantouvaki, M.

M. Pantouvaki, S. Srinivasan, Y. Ban, P. D. Heyn, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, H. Chen, J. D. Coster, N. Golshani, and S. Balakrishnan, “Active components for 50 Gb/s NRZ-OOK optical interconnects in a silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 631–638 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Patel, D.

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Patel, V.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

Piede, D.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

Pile, B.

Pinguet, T.

Plant, D. V.

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Prather, D. W.

Qian, W.

Raj, K.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rajput, S.

S. Jain, S. Rajput, V. Kaushik, and M. Kumar, “High speed optical modulator based on silicon slotted-rib waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 434, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rakowski, M.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G. T.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rong, H.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), Th4A.7.

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rumley, S.

Sakib, M.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), Th4A.7.

Samadi, P.

Samani, A.

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sekaric, L.

Shafiiha, R.

Shahada, L. A.

M. A. Swillam, A. O. Zaki, K. Kirah, and L. A. Shahada, “On chip optical Modulator using epsilon-Near-Zero Hybrid plasmonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 6669 (2019).
[Crossref]

Shi, S.

Shi, W.

Shubin, I.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, S.

Streshinsky, M.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), Th4A.7.

Sunder, S.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

Swillam, M. A.

M. A. Swillam, A. O. Zaki, K. Kirah, and L. A. Shahada, “On chip optical Modulator using epsilon-Near-Zero Hybrid plasmonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 6669 (2019).
[Crossref]

Takagi, S.

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Ultra-power-efficient 2× 2 Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch based on III-V/Si hybrid MOS phase shifter,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35003–35012 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, T.-E. Lee, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Equivalent oxide thickness scaling for efficient III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 2019 Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), (IEEE, 2019), paper TuA3-4.

J.-H. Han, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Extremely high modulation efficiency III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator fabricated by direct wafer bonding,” in 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2016), paper 25-5.

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, S. Takahashi, K. Toprasertpong, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Low parasitic capacitance III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator toward high-speed modulation,” in 2020 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper Th2A.16.

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Si racetrack modulator with III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 45th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (IET, 2019), paper 1-3.

Takahashi, M.

J. Fujikata, M. Takahashi, S. Takahashi, T. Horikawa, and T. Nakamura, “High-speed and high-efficiency Si optical modulator with MOS junction, using solid-phase crystallization of polycrystalline silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4), 042202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, S.

J.-H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Fujikata, M. Takahashi, S. Takahashi, T. Horikawa, and T. Nakamura, “High-speed and high-efficiency Si optical modulator with MOS junction, using solid-phase crystallization of polycrystalline silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4), 042202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, S. Takahashi, K. Toprasertpong, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Low parasitic capacitance III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator toward high-speed modulation,” in 2020 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper Th2A.16.

Takenaka, M.

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Ultra-power-efficient 2× 2 Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch based on III-V/Si hybrid MOS phase shifter,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35003–35012 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Han, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Extremely high modulation efficiency III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator fabricated by direct wafer bonding,” in 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2016), paper 25-5.

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, T.-E. Lee, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Equivalent oxide thickness scaling for efficient III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 2019 Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), (IEEE, 2019), paper TuA3-4.

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, S. Takahashi, K. Toprasertpong, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Low parasitic capacitance III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator toward high-speed modulation,” in 2020 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper Th2A.16.

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Si racetrack modulator with III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 45th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (IET, 2019), paper 1-3.

Taylor, G.

Tern, R. P.-C.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thacker, H.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thourhout, D. V.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Toprasertpong, K.

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, S. Takahashi, K. Toprasertpong, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Low parasitic capacitance III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator toward high-speed modulation,” in 2020 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper Th2A.16.

Tu, X.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tummidi, R.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

Van Vaerenbergh, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Veerasubramanian, V.

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Verheyen, P.

M. Pantouvaki, S. Srinivasan, Y. Ban, P. D. Heyn, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, H. Chen, J. D. Coster, N. Golshani, and S. Balakrishnan, “Active components for 50 Gb/s NRZ-OOK optical interconnects in a silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 631–638 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Virot, L.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, A. X.

Wang, X.

Webster, M.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

Witzens, J.

J. Witzens, “High-speed silicon photonics modulators,” Proc. IEEE 106(12), 2158–2182 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, L. D.

S. Li, L. D. Xu, and S. Zhao, “5G Internet of Things: A survey,” J. Ind. Inf. Integration 10, 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

Zaki, A. O.

M. A. Swillam, A. O. Zaki, K. Kirah, and L. A. Shahada, “On chip optical Modulator using epsilon-Near-Zero Hybrid plasmonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 6669 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, S.

S. Li, L. D. Xu, and S. Zhao, “5G Internet of Things: A survey,” J. Ind. Inf. Integration 10, 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, and X. Zheng, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Si photonics technology for future optical interconnection,” in 2011 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP), (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–11.

Ziebell, M.

Zilkie, A.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

J. E. Ortmann, F. Eltes, D. Caimi, N. Meier, A. A. Demkov, L. Czornomaz, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Ultra-Low-Power Tuning in Hybrid Barium Titanate–Silicon Nitride Electro-optic Devices on Silicon,” ACS Photonics 6(11), 2677–2684 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

K. Giewont, K. Nummy, F. A. Anderson, J. Ayala, T. Barwicz, Y. Bian, K. K. Dezfulian, D. M. Gill, T. Houghton, and S. Hu, “300-mm monolithic silicon photonics foundry technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(5), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95–113 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral PN junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Li, Y. Zhang, and Y. Huang, “Any bias point control technique for Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2412–2415 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ind. Inf. Integration (1)

S. Li, L. D. Xu, and S. Zhao, “5G Internet of Things: A survey,” J. Ind. Inf. Integration 10, 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. (1)

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Semicond. (1)

X. Wang and J. Liu, “Emerging technologies in Si active photonics,” J. Semicond. 39(6), 061001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Fujikata, M. Takahashi, S. Takahashi, T. Horikawa, and T. Nakamura, “High-speed and high-efficiency Si optical modulator with MOS junction, using solid-phase crystallization of polycrystalline silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4), 042202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laser & Photon. Rev. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J.-H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Jain, S. Rajput, V. Kaushik, and M. Kumar, “High speed optical modulator based on silicon slotted-rib waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 434, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, and A. E.-J. Lim, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Nikolova, S. Rumley, D. Calhoun, Q. Li, R. Hendry, P. Samadi, and K. Bergman, “Scaling silicon photonic switch fabrics for data center interconnection networks,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1159–1175 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Ultra-power-efficient 2× 2 Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch based on III-V/Si hybrid MOS phase shifter,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35003–35012 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. N. R. Ahmed, S. Shi, A. J. Mercante, and D. W. Prather, “High-performance racetrack resonator in silicon nitride-thin film lithium niobate hybrid platform,” Opt. Express 27(21), 30741–30751 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Pile and G. Taylor, “Small-signal analysis of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14913–14928 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, and X. Zheng, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, L. L. Goddard, and S. Gong, “Fundamental electro-optic limitations of thin-film lithium niobate microring modulators,” Opt. Express 28(9), 13731–13749 (2020).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Witzens, “High-speed silicon photonics modulators,” Proc. IEEE 106(12), 2158–2182 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. A. Swillam, A. O. Zaki, K. Kirah, and L. A. Shahada, “On chip optical Modulator using epsilon-Near-Zero Hybrid plasmonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 6669 (2019).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, S. Takahashi, K. Toprasertpong, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Low parasitic capacitance III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator toward high-speed modulation,” in 2020 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper Th2A.16.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), Th4A.7.

J.-H. Han, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Extremely high modulation efficiency III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator fabricated by direct wafer bonding,” in 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2016), paper 25-5.

Q. Li, J.-H. Han, T.-E. Lee, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Equivalent oxide thickness scaling for efficient III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 2019 Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), (IEEE, 2019), paper TuA3-4.

Q. Li, C. P. Ho, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Si racetrack modulator with III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter,” in 45th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (IET, 2019), paper 1-3.

https://support.lumerical.com/hc/en-us/articles/360042304694-Evanescent-waveguide-couplers

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, and S. Sunder, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), paper WB1.

H. Yu, J. Doylend, W. Lin, K. Nguyen, W. Liu, D. Gold, A. Dahal, C. Jan, R. Herrick, and G. A. Ghiurcan, “100Gbps CWDM4 silicon photonics transmitter for 5G applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W3E. 4.

X. Zheng and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Si photonics technology for future optical interconnection,” in 2011 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP), (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–11.

Cited By

Optica participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from Optica Publishing Group journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Relationship between energy per bit and bandwidth. The black and blue lines indicate MZI optical modulators based on a Si-oxide-Si MOS optical phase shifter and a III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter, respectively. The red line indicates a microring resonator with a III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of Si racetrack resonator with III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. (b) Cross-sectional schematic of III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. (c) Simulated optical mode profile of III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. (d) Numerically calculated transmission of a MZI modulator and a racetrack resonator.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Transmission spectra of Si racetrack resonators with III-V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifters and different coupling gaps. (b) κ2 as a function of coupling length.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a)–(f) Fabrication process flow of Si racetrack resonator with III–V/Si hybrid MOS optical phase shifter. (g) Plan-view images of fabricated Si racetrack resonator.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a). Transmission spectra of fabricated Si racetrack resonator at different Vg and (b) optical phase shift as a function of Vg.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Characteristics of optical intensity modulation by fabricated Si racetrack resonator and Si MZI optical modulator with the same phase shifter.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Energy consumption ratio (red) of racetrack resonator to MZI optical modulator and photon-lifetime-limited bandwidth (blue) as a function of Q.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Benchmarking with Si microring/racetrack resonator based on free-carrier plasma dispersion effect [3640].

Metrics