Abstract

This work designs a graphene/hBN/Al grating anisotropic hybrid structure. Formed by strong coupling between plasmonic Magnetic polaritons (MPs) in the metal grating and phonon-plasmon polaritons, hybrid hyperbolic phonon-plasmon polaritons in the graphene/hBN film have been excited, resulting in three sharp, high absorption peaks, which are 0.75, 0.97 and 0.97, formed at 5.92 μm, 6.32 μm, and 7.64 μm respectively. The absorption mechanisms have been theoretically analyzed. Local electromagnetic field and power dissipation density are depicted for further elucidating the underlying mechanisms. The different structural parameters and chemical potential, which affect the absorption peak were discussed. These numerical results can provide potential application in the field of optical detection and optoelectronic.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Nanostructures have critical applications in the field of military and medical industry. Two dimensional (2D) [1–8] materials, which electrons can only move freely in two dimensions, have drawn extensive attention because of their excellent properties. Different kinds of materials like graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and phosphorene, have been proven to achieve great application value in aspects of photovoltaic, biosensing, energy harvesting. The enhancement of light-matter interactions through a plethora of dipole-type polaritonic excitations can be observed in 2D materials [9]. With only a single atomic layer thickness, graphene [10–16] is an excellent two-dimensional plasmon material because of its broad-band absorption, high carrier mobility, and high light transmittance, also widely used in solar energy and photoelectric detection. Still, in the field of photodetection, increasing the absorptivity of graphene is an important prerequisite for the better application of graphene. Hexagonal boron nitride(hBN) [17–22], as a two-dimensional layered structure, is similar to graphene, which has a very smooth surface and unique dielectric constant. And it is often used as a substrate material and dielectric material for high-performance devices. Due to its unique phononic characteristics, hBN has great application of devices in the mid-IR band to terahertz band. In the infrared band, the plasmon polariton characteristic of graphene and the phonon polariton characteristic of hBN have been coupled together to form a graphene/hBN heterostructure with plasmon-phonon polarons.

Recently, a promising way to combine graphene and hBN to study the heterostructure optical properties has been generally reported. Kumar et al. [23] theoretically analysed the plasmon-phonon modes coupled by graphene/hBN heterostructures in the mid-infrared optical properties. They found that the graphene plasmon coupled differently with the phonons of the two Reststrahlen bands owing to their different hyperbolicity. Dai et al. [24] fabricated sample which the graphene covered the surface of hBN and placed it on the substrate of SiO2. The experiment results showed that the hyperbolic plasmon-phonon polaritons possessed particular features, which combined virtues of surface plasmon polaritons in graphene and hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN. Wu et al. [25] theoretically demonstrated that the perfect absorption by monolayer graphene and hBN in the infrared region and achieved high absorption in wide frequency and large incidence angles. Zhao et al. [26] proposed a structure: the silver grating covered by hBN, which can improve the anisotropic structure absorption characteristics. Magnetic polaritons (MPs) in metal gratings coupled with hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN can create hybrid hyperbolic phonon-plasmon polaritons to enhance its absorption.

This paper proposed a graphene/hBN/Al grating anisotropic hybrid structure, which can excite MP in the grating trench to enhance the absorption of graphene/hBN. Based on Finite Element Method (FEM) and Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD), the absorption of anisotropic hybrid structure and characteristics of electromagnetic field have been calculated and the influence of the structural parameters and chemical potential on the absorption characteristics is studied. Also, the correctness of the numerical results is mutually verified by the above two methods. Both graphene and hBN can be grown in large areas by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques and the silver grating can be fabricated by electron beam lithography and transfer the film to the grating. Also, experimental preparation is technically feasible [27–33]. These numerical results can provide potential application in the fields of optical detection and optoelectronic devices.

2. Method and analysis

The geometrical schematic of the graphene/hBN/Al grating anisotropic hybrid nano-structure is illustrated in Fig. 1. Hybrid structure is composed of the Al grating periodic structure and the graphene/hBN heterostructure. The hybrid structure is periodic along the x direction and infinitely extended in the y direction, where P is period, θ is incidence angle, b is trench width and h is grating height. The thickness of the covered hBN film is denoted as d. In this study, the geometric parameters are P = 5.5 μm, b = 0.4 μm, h = 1.0 μm and d = 50 nm. The aluminum substrate is assumed to be thick enough so that the photons cannot transmit through the substrate, and the optical constant of aluminum can be gained from the Palik [34].

 

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the graphene/hBN/Al grating anisotropic hybrid structure, where the structure the period, incidence angle, trench width, grating height and hBN thickness are P, θ, b, h, d.

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The optical conductivity of graphene includes both the interband and intraband (Drude-like) contributions [35–37].

ε(ω)=1+σsε0ωΔi
σs=σinter+σintra
σinter=e24[G(ω2)+4ωπiη=0G(η)G(ω2)(ω)24η2dη]
σintra=iω+iτ1e2π22kBTln[2cosh(μ2kBT)],
where G(η)=sinh(η/kBT)/[cosh(η/kBT)+cosh(μ/kBT)]. Here, σs is the monolayer conductivity, ε0 is the vacuum permittivity, ω is the angular frequency, e is the electron charge, ℏ is the reduced Planck constant, and kB is the Boltzmann constant. In this work, chemical potential μ = 0.3 eV, electron relaxation time τ = 10−13 s, temperature T = 300 K, and graphene thickness Δ = 0.34 nm.

The two kinds of infrared Reststrahlen active optical phonon modes: 1) in-plane phonon mode (ωTO, = 1370 cm−1, ωLO, = 1610 cm−1) and 2) out-plane phonon mode (ωTO, = 780 cm−1, ωLO, = 830 cm−1) are connected with hyperbolicity, where the lower frequency Reststrahlen band corresponds to type-I hyperbolicity (ε<0, ε>0), and the higher frequency Reststrahlen band corresponds to type-II hyperbolicity (ε>0, ε<0). The hBN permittivity is calculated by (5) and (6) [23,26].

εξ=ε,ξ(1+ωLO,ξ2ωTO,ξ2ωTO,ξ2iγξωω2)
ε=(ε000ε000ε//)
where ξ=,, The other parameters are ε,=2.95, ε,=4.87, γ=4 cm−1, γ=5 cm−1.

The electromagnetic responses and the absorptivity of the anisotropic hybrid structure are computed by the commercial Finite Element Method software (COMSOL Multiphysics) and Finite Difference Time Domain software (FDTD Solutions, Lumerical) respectively. The advantage of FDTD is its quickness of calculating Maxwell's equations in a wide band, and FEM can accurately solve Maxwell's equations at each frequency point. Two methods verify each other to prove the accuracy of the results. Periodic boundary conditions are used to simulate an infinite area. The perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition was an absorbing tangential wavevector. The x and z directions of the silver grating are meshed 10 nm a node. Graphene and hBN are 5 nodes in the z-direction to ensure the accuracy of the calculation. The absorptance can be calculated by the ratio of the total power dissipation density w(x,y,z) (W/m3) within a volume V (m3) to the incoming power through the exposed surface area A (m2) by (7) [26,38]. Also the power dissipation density of graphene and aluminum can be calculated by (8), meanwhile the hBN is calculated by (9). The results were consistent with previous studies [39–43].

α=w(x,y,z)dV12c0ε0|Einc|2Acosθ
w(x,z)=12ε0ωε(x,z)|E(x,z)|2
w(x,y,z)=12ε0ω(εx|Ex|2+εy|Ey|2+εz|Ez|2),
where E is electric density, Einc is incident electric density, Ex, Ey, Ez is x, y, z electric density, respectively.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2 shows the absorption curve and the incident wave is TM. From 4 to 20 μm, as Fig. 2(a) shows, black curve illustrates the absorptivity of hybrid structure for FEM, red curve is the absorptivity of plain grating and blue curve is the absorptivity of graphene/hBN/Al grating anisotropic hybrid structure for FDTD. Figure 2(b) is a partially enlarged absorption curve at 4-9 μm. Figure 2(c) demonstrates the absorption of aluminum, graphene and hBN, which are calculated by FEM.

 

Fig. 2 Absorptivity spectra as normal incidence for the hybrid structure. The parameters are P = 5.5 μm, b = 0.4 μm, h = 1.0 μm, μ = 0.3 eV and d = 50 nm. (a) Absorptivity of hybrid structure by FEM and FDTD, and plant grating. (b) Partial enlarged detail in Fig. 2 (a) at 5-9μm (c) The absorption of aluminum, graphene, and hBN calculated by FEM.

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In this model, the geometric parameters are as follow: P = 5.5 μm, b = 0.4 μm, h = 1.0 μm, μ = 0.3 eV and d = 50 nm. According to the previous study, the plain Al grating can generate excitations of MP in the infrared region [44,45]. The peak absorption of this structure parameter is 0.71 at 5.90μm. When the grating is covered by the graphene/hBN heterostructure, three absorption peaks are excited. And calculated by FEM, the peak absorption of 5.92 μm, 6.32 μm, and 7.64 μm is 0.75, 0.97 and 0.97, respectively. By comparing with the FDTD method, it shows the peak position and the size of the curve basically coincide with FEM. The conclusion can be drawn that the results obtained by two algorithms are the same. It can be seen from the Fig. 2(c) that the absorption peak of the aluminum grating increases from one to three, and also the hBN exhibits two absorption peaks. The hBN film is particular thin, so it is difficult for it to achieve high absorption independently. However, this designed hybrid structure can excite MP resonances leading to three absorption peaks to achieve high absorption.

In order to thoroughly comprehend the absorption mechanism, Fig. 3 demonstrates the magnetic field, Poynting distributions and power dissipation density calculated by FEM. Figure 3(a), 3(b) and 3(c) show that the direction of electric field vector is opposite on the two sides of the grating groove, and then the electric field forms a loop around the groove. This excitation mode is caused by the MP resonance. Figure 3(d), 3(e) and 3(f) illustrated that the enhancement of local power dissipation density along the surface of the grating. The incident energy is absorbed mostly by the graphene/hBN film. The intense enhancement occurs at the interface of hBN and grating and the interface of hBN and graphene above the trough. In Fig. 2, the position where the enhancement of power dissipation density occurs can be explained by the internal mechanism of high absorption in Al grating, graphene and hBN. Thus, these resonances are excited by hybrid hyperbolic phonon-plasmon polaritons formed by strong coupling between plasmonic MP in the metal grating and phonon-plasmon polaritons in the graphene/hBN film.

 

Fig. 3 Magnetic field (color maps) and Poynting vectors (arrows). (a) 5.92μm. (b) 6.32μm. (c) 7.64μm. Local power dissipation density of the hybrid structure. The first colorbar is overall structure, the second is the interface between graphene and hBN, the third is the interface between the hBN and Al grating. (d) 5.92μm. (e) 6.32μm. (f) 7.64μm.

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Figure 4 illustrates that absorption distribution is determined by changing only one parameter when other variables are fixed. The basic parameters are based on Fig. 2. As the hBN thickness increases, the absorption intensity of the hybrid structure remains essentially unchanged and the absorption position slightly redshifts. When the height of the grating increases, the original polarization mode is destroyed and only one peak could remain highly absorbing. However, that peak no longer remains sharp. When changing the period and the width of the hybrid structure’s groove, the position and size of absorption peak mainly contributed by hBN are almost unchanged. It only affects the MP polarization generated by the Al grating.

 

Fig. 4 Absorptivities for various geometric parameters for normal incidence using the parameters given in Fig. 2 as the base case. (a) hBN thickness. (b) Grating period. (c) Trench width. (d) Period.

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Figure 5 shows that the position of absorption peak blueshifts when the chemical potential of graphene increases from 0.2 eV to 0.8 eV. The result indicates that the graphene/hBN film not only can enhance the hybrid structure absorptivity but also can control the position of absorption peak. The chemical potential of graphene can be affected by the external voltage, so it can be dynamically adjusted by externally connecting the graphene electrodes to control the performance of the entire device.

 

Fig. 5 Absorptivity of a hybrid structure for various chemical potentials.

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4. Summary

In summary, we have theoretically demonstrated that the graphene/hBN/Al grating anisotropic hybrid structure can enhance the graphene/hBN film absorption. Two numerical methods are applied to verify each other's accuracy. It is found that the MP mode and plasmon-phonon polaritons mode can be excited by metal grating in the groove. Three absorption peaks are excited, the peak absorption of 5.92 μm, 6.32 μm, and 7.64 μm is 0.75, 0.97 and 0.97, respectively. The local electromagnetic field and power dissipation density are depicted to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In particular, how different structural parameters affect the absorption peak has been discussed. The graphene/hBN film cannot only enhance the hybrid structure absorptivity but also control the tunable position of The absorption peak. By applying a voltage to both ends of the graphene/hBN/Al grating (conductor/insulator/conductor) structure, the electric potential of the graphene layer can be changed. Further changing its chemical potential makes the dynamic regulation theoretically feasible. These numerical results can facilitate the design of optoelectronic device and provide potential application in the field of optical detection.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51522601); Chang Jiang Young Scholars Program of China (No. Q2016186); Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-13-0173).

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References

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  1. A. Gupta, T. Sakthivel, and S. Seal, “Recent development in 2D materials beyond graphene,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 73, 44–126 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. X. Kong, Q. Liu, C. Zhang, Z. Peng, and Q. Chen, “Elemental two-dimensional nanosheets beyond graphene,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(8), 2127–2157 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Chen and G. Shi, “Two-Dimensional Materials for Halide Perovskite-Based Optoelectronic Devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(24), 1605448 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Pumera and Z. Sofer, “2D Monoelemental Arsenene, Antimonene, and Bismuthene: Beyond Black Phosphorus,” Adv. Mater. 29(21), 1605299 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. X. Wang, Q. Ma, L. Wu, J. Guo, S. Lu, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Tunable terahertz/infrared coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5488–5496 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. N. Kafaei, M. Sabaeian, and A. Ghalambor-Dezfuli, “Blue phosphorene: Calculation of five-band k·p Hamiltonian based on group theory and infinitesimal basis transformations approach,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 118, 1–5 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. Kafaei and M. Sabaeian, “Two-band k.p Hamiltonian of phosphorene based on the infinitesimal basis transformations approach,” Superlattices Microstruct. 109, 330–336 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. N. M. R. Peres, “The electronic properties of graphene and its bilayer,” Vacuum 83(10), 1248–1252 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. P. Kang, M. C. Wang, P. M. Knapp, and S. Nam, “Crumpled Graphene Photodetector with Enhanced, Strain-Tunable, and Wavelength-Selective Photoresponsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4639–4645 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Xiang, X. Dai, J. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Critical coupling with graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5483 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Xiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Engineered surface Bloch waves in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3054–3062 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2018 (3)

2017 (14)

Q. Pan, J. Hong, G. Zhang, Y. Shuai, and H. Tan, “Graphene plasmonics for surface enhancement near-infrared absorptivity,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16400–16408 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, J. Guo, X. Wang, L. Jiang, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Dual-Band Infrared Near-Perfect Absorption by Fabry-Perot Resonances and Surface Phonons,” Plasmonics 13(3), 803–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao and Z. M. Zhang, “Perfect mid-infrared absorption by hybrid phonon-plasmon polaritons in hBN/metal-grating anisotropic structures,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 106, 1025–1034 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Kafaei and M. Sabaeian, “Two-band k.p Hamiltonian of phosphorene based on the infinitesimal basis transformations approach,” Superlattices Microstruct. 109, 330–336 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Kong, Q. Liu, C. Zhang, Z. Peng, and Q. Chen, “Elemental two-dimensional nanosheets beyond graphene,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(8), 2127–2157 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen and G. Shi, “Two-Dimensional Materials for Halide Perovskite-Based Optoelectronic Devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(24), 1605448 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pumera and Z. Sofer, “2D Monoelemental Arsenene, Antimonene, and Bismuthene: Beyond Black Phosphorus,” Adv. Mater. 29(21), 1605299 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Guo, L. Wu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Absorption enhancement and total absorption in a graphene-waveguide hybrid structure,” AIP Adv. 7(2), 025101 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, X. Jiang, Q. You, J. Guo, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Tunable and multichannel terahertz perfect absorber due to Tamm surface plasmons with graphene,” Photon. Res. 5(6), 536 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance perfect absorption by exciting hyperbolic phonon polaritons in 1D hBN gratings,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7791–7796 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Heydari and M. Sabaeian, “Plasmonic nanogratings on MIM and SOI thin-film solar cells: comparison and optimization of optical and electric enhancements,” Appl. Opt. 56(7), 1917–1924 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. H. Pan, X. Chen, S. D. Xu, Y. Shuai, and H. P. Tan, “Infrared Absorption Characteristics Analysis for Annulus Nanostructure of Aluminum Substrate,” J. Heat Transfer 139(5), 054502 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

P. Kang, M. C. Wang, P. M. Knapp, and S. Nam, “Crumpled Graphene Photodetector with Enhanced, Strain-Tunable, and Wavelength-Selective Photoresponsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4639–4645 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Xu, A. Khanaki, H. Tian, R. Zheng, M. Suja, J.-G. Zheng, and J. Liu, “Direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures on cobalt foil substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043110 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (9)

Y. Wen, X. Shang, J. Dong, K. Xu, J. He, and C. Jiang, “Ultraclean and large-area monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on Cu foil using chemical vapor deposition,” Nanotechnology 26(27), 275601 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon–Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene–Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao and Z. M. Zhang, “Strong Plasmonic Coupling between Graphene Ribbon Array and Metal Gratings,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1611–1618 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gupta, T. Sakthivel, and S. Seal, “Recent development in 2D materials beyond graphene,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 73, 44–126 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sabaeian, M. Heydari, and N. Ajamgard, “Plasmonic excitation-assisted optical and electric enhancement in ultra-thin solar cells: the influence of nano-strip cross section,” AIP Adv. 5(8), 087126 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared Perfect Absorbers Fabricated by Colloidal Mask Etching of Al–Al2O3–Al Trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

Y. Xiang, X. Dai, J. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Critical coupling with graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5483 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Engineered surface Bloch waves in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3054–3062 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jacob, “Nanophotonics: Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1081–1083 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhao, J. M. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Yan, D. Wu, H. Peng, L. Jin, Q. Fu, X. Bao, and Z. Liu, “Modulation-doped growth of mosaic graphene with single-crystalline p-n junctions for efficient photocurrent generation,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1280 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

N. M. R. Peres, “The electronic properties of graphene and its bilayer,” Vacuum 83(10), 1248–1252 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129, 012004 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 153410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ajamgard, N.

M. Sabaeian, M. Heydari, and N. Ajamgard, “Plasmonic excitation-assisted optical and electric enhancement in ultra-thin solar cells: the influence of nano-strip cross section,” AIP Adv. 5(8), 087126 (2015).
[Crossref]

An, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, T.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S. K.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, X.

K. Yan, D. Wu, H. Peng, L. Jin, Q. Fu, X. Bao, and Z. Liu, “Modulation-doped growth of mosaic graphene with single-crystalline p-n junctions for efficient photocurrent generation,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1280 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulovic, V.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caldwell, J. D.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, X.

C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaves, A.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared Perfect Absorbers Fabricated by Colloidal Mask Etching of Al–Al2O3–Al Trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
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Y. Wen, X. Shang, J. Dong, K. Xu, J. He, and C. Jiang, “Ultraclean and large-area monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on Cu foil using chemical vapor deposition,” Nanotechnology 26(27), 275601 (2015).
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J. Wu, J. Guo, X. Wang, L. Jiang, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Dual-Band Infrared Near-Perfect Absorption by Fabry-Perot Resonances and Surface Phonons,” Plasmonics 13(3), 803–809 (2017).
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K. Yan, D. Wu, H. Peng, L. Jin, Q. Fu, X. Bao, and Z. Liu, “Modulation-doped growth of mosaic graphene with single-crystalline p-n junctions for efficient photocurrent generation,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1280 (2012).
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S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanaki, A.

Z. Xu, A. Khanaki, H. Tian, R. Zheng, M. Suja, J.-G. Zheng, and J. Liu, “Direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures on cobalt foil substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitajima, M.

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared Perfect Absorbers Fabricated by Colloidal Mask Etching of Al–Al2O3–Al Trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knapp, P. M.

P. Kang, M. C. Wang, P. M. Knapp, and S. Nam, “Crumpled Graphene Photodetector with Enhanced, Strain-Tunable, and Wavelength-Selective Photoresponsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4639–4645 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, J.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, X.

X. Kong, Q. Liu, C. Zhang, Z. Peng, and Q. Chen, “Elemental two-dimensional nanosheets beyond graphene,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(8), 2127–2157 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koppens, F.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kretinin, A. V.

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, A.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
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Lewin, M.

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P.

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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Liao, C.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
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Liao, L.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
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Liao, Z.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Z. Xu, A. Khanaki, H. Tian, R. Zheng, M. Suja, J.-G. Zheng, and J. Liu, “Direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures on cobalt foil substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M. K.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

X. Kong, Q. Liu, C. Zhang, Z. Peng, and Q. Chen, “Elemental two-dimensional nanosheets beyond graphene,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(8), 2127–2157 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

K. Yan, D. Wu, H. Peng, L. Jin, Q. Fu, X. Bao, and Z. Liu, “Modulation-doped growth of mosaic graphene with single-crystalline p-n junctions for efficient photocurrent generation,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1280 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Low, T.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

Ma, Q.

X. Wang, Q. Ma, L. Wu, J. Guo, S. Lu, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Tunable terahertz/infrared coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5488–5496 (2018).
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S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLeod, A. S.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabatame, T.

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared Perfect Absorbers Fabricated by Colloidal Mask Etching of Al–Al2O3–Al Trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nagao, T.

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared Perfect Absorbers Fabricated by Colloidal Mask Etching of Al–Al2O3–Al Trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nah, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, G. H.

C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, S.

P. Kang, M. C. Wang, P. M. Knapp, and S. Nam, “Crumpled Graphene Photodetector with Enhanced, Strain-Tunable, and Wavelength-Selective Photoresponsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4639–4645 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nezich, D.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohi, A.

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared Perfect Absorbers Fabricated by Colloidal Mask Etching of Al–Al2O3–Al Trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, Q.

Pan, Q. H.

Q. H. Pan, X. Chen, S. D. Xu, Y. Shuai, and H. P. Tan, “Infrared Absorption Characteristics Analysis for Annulus Nanostructure of Aluminum Substrate,” J. Heat Transfer 139(5), 054502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peng, H.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yan, D. Wu, H. Peng, L. Jin, Q. Fu, X. Bao, and Z. Liu, “Modulation-doped growth of mosaic graphene with single-crystalline p-n junctions for efficient photocurrent generation,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1280 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, Z.

X. Kong, Q. Liu, C. Zhang, Z. Peng, and Q. Chen, “Elemental two-dimensional nanosheets beyond graphene,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(8), 2127–2157 (2017).
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N. M. R. Peres, “The electronic properties of graphene and its bilayer,” Vacuum 83(10), 1248–1252 (2009).
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L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 153410 (2007).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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Pumera, M.

M. Pumera and Z. Sofer, “2D Monoelemental Arsenene, Antimonene, and Bismuthene: Beyond Black Phosphorus,” Adv. Mater. 29(21), 1605299 (2017).
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Qiao, R.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
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X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
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Regan, W.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
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Reina, A.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
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Rodin, A. S.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
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Ruoff, R. S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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Sabaeian, M.

Y. Hajati, Z. Zanbouri, and M. Sabaeian, “Low-loss and high-performance mid-infrared plasmon-phonon in graphene-hexagonal boron nitride waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(2), 446 (2018).
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N. Kafaei, M. Sabaeian, and A. Ghalambor-Dezfuli, “Blue phosphorene: Calculation of five-band k·p Hamiltonian based on group theory and infinitesimal basis transformations approach,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 118, 1–5 (2018).
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N. Kafaei and M. Sabaeian, “Two-band k.p Hamiltonian of phosphorene based on the infinitesimal basis transformations approach,” Superlattices Microstruct. 109, 330–336 (2017).
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M. Heydari and M. Sabaeian, “Plasmonic nanogratings on MIM and SOI thin-film solar cells: comparison and optimization of optical and electric enhancements,” Appl. Opt. 56(7), 1917–1924 (2017).
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M. Sabaeian, M. Heydari, and N. Ajamgard, “Plasmonic excitation-assisted optical and electric enhancement in ultra-thin solar cells: the influence of nano-strip cross section,” AIP Adv. 5(8), 087126 (2015).
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A. Gupta, T. Sakthivel, and S. Seal, “Recent development in 2D materials beyond graphene,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 73, 44–126 (2015).
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A. Gupta, T. Sakthivel, and S. Seal, “Recent development in 2D materials beyond graphene,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 73, 44–126 (2015).
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Shang, X.

Y. Wen, X. Shang, J. Dong, K. Xu, J. He, and C. Jiang, “Ultraclean and large-area monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on Cu foil using chemical vapor deposition,” Nanotechnology 26(27), 275601 (2015).
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S. Chen and G. Shi, “Two-Dimensional Materials for Halide Perovskite-Based Optoelectronic Devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(24), 1605448 (2017).
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Q. Pan, J. Hong, G. Zhang, Y. Shuai, and H. Tan, “Graphene plasmonics for surface enhancement near-infrared absorptivity,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16400–16408 (2017).
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Q. H. Pan, X. Chen, S. D. Xu, Y. Shuai, and H. P. Tan, “Infrared Absorption Characteristics Analysis for Annulus Nanostructure of Aluminum Substrate,” J. Heat Transfer 139(5), 054502 (2017).
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Sindoro, M.

C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
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Sofer, Z.

M. Pumera and Z. Sofer, “2D Monoelemental Arsenene, Antimonene, and Bismuthene: Beyond Black Phosphorus,” Adv. Mater. 29(21), 1605299 (2017).
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Son, H.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
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Song, H.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
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Suja, M.

Z. Xu, A. Khanaki, H. Tian, R. Zheng, M. Suja, J.-G. Zheng, and J. Liu, “Direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures on cobalt foil substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043110 (2016).
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Tan, C.

C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
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Tan, H.

Tan, H. P.

Q. H. Pan, X. Chen, S. D. Xu, Y. Shuai, and H. P. Tan, “Infrared Absorption Characteristics Analysis for Annulus Nanostructure of Aluminum Substrate,” J. Heat Transfer 139(5), 054502 (2017).
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Tang, D.

Y. Xiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Engineered surface Bloch waves in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3054–3062 (2014).
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P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taubner, T.

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiemens, M.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, H.

Z. Xu, A. Khanaki, H. Tian, R. Zheng, M. Suja, J.-G. Zheng, and J. Liu, “Direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures on cobalt foil substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tischler, J. G.

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tutuc, E.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakil, A.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velamakanni, A.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, M.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, E.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon–Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene–Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, M. C.

P. Kang, M. C. Wang, P. M. Knapp, and S. Nam, “Crumpled Graphene Photodetector with Enhanced, Strain-Tunable, and Wavelength-Selective Photoresponsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4639–4645 (2016).
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X. Wang, Q. Ma, L. Wu, J. Guo, S. Lu, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Tunable terahertz/infrared coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5488–5496 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Jiang, Q. You, J. Guo, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Tunable and multichannel terahertz perfect absorber due to Tamm surface plasmons with graphene,” Photon. Res. 5(6), 536 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, J. Guo, X. Wang, L. Jiang, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Dual-Band Infrared Near-Perfect Absorption by Fabry-Perot Resonances and Surface Phonons,” Plasmonics 13(3), 803–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon–Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene–Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, S.

J. Wu, J. Guo, X. Wang, L. Jiang, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Dual-Band Infrared Near-Perfect Absorption by Fabry-Perot Resonances and Surface Phonons,” Plasmonics 13(3), 803–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiang, X. Dai, J. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Critical coupling with graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5483 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Engineered surface Bloch waves in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3054–3062 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, Y.

Y. Wen, X. Shang, J. Dong, K. Xu, J. He, and C. Jiang, “Ultraclean and large-area monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on Cu foil using chemical vapor deposition,” Nanotechnology 26(27), 275601 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woods, C. R.

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, D.

K. Yan, D. Wu, H. Peng, L. Jin, Q. Fu, X. Bao, and Z. Liu, “Modulation-doped growth of mosaic graphene with single-crystalline p-n junctions for efficient photocurrent generation,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1280 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, J. Guo, X. Wang, L. Jiang, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Dual-Band Infrared Near-Perfect Absorption by Fabry-Perot Resonances and Surface Phonons,” Plasmonics 13(3), 803–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, L.

X. Wang, Q. Ma, L. Wu, J. Guo, S. Lu, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Tunable terahertz/infrared coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5488–5496 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Guo, L. Wu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Absorption enhancement and total absorption in a graphene-waveguide hybrid structure,” AIP Adv. 7(2), 025101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, X. J.

C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon–Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene–Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiang, Y.

X. Wang, Q. Ma, L. Wu, J. Guo, S. Lu, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Tunable terahertz/infrared coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5488–5496 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Guo, L. Wu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Absorption enhancement and total absorption in a graphene-waveguide hybrid structure,” AIP Adv. 7(2), 025101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, J. Guo, X. Wang, L. Jiang, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Dual-Band Infrared Near-Perfect Absorption by Fabry-Perot Resonances and Surface Phonons,” Plasmonics 13(3), 803–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, X. Jiang, Q. You, J. Guo, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Tunable and multichannel terahertz perfect absorber due to Tamm surface plasmons with graphene,” Photon. Res. 5(6), 536 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Engineered surface Bloch waves in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3054–3062 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiang, X. Dai, J. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Critical coupling with graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5483 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, K.

Y. Wen, X. Shang, J. Dong, K. Xu, J. He, and C. Jiang, “Ultraclean and large-area monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on Cu foil using chemical vapor deposition,” Nanotechnology 26(27), 275601 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S. D.

Q. H. Pan, X. Chen, S. D. Xu, Y. Shuai, and H. P. Tan, “Infrared Absorption Characteristics Analysis for Annulus Nanostructure of Aluminum Substrate,” J. Heat Transfer 139(5), 054502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu, A. Khanaki, H. Tian, R. Zheng, M. Suja, J.-G. Zheng, and J. Liu, “Direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures on cobalt foil substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, K.

K. Yan, D. Wu, H. Peng, L. Jin, Q. Fu, X. Bao, and Z. Liu, “Modulation-doped growth of mosaic graphene with single-crystalline p-n junctions for efficient photocurrent generation,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1280 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, D.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, Q.

Yu, D.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zanbouri, Z.

Zettl, A.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

X. Kong, Q. Liu, C. Zhang, Z. Peng, and Q. Chen, “Elemental two-dimensional nanosheets beyond graphene,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(8), 2127–2157 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, H.

C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiang, X. Dai, J. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Critical coupling with graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5483 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. M.

B. Zhao and Z. M. Zhang, “Perfect mid-infrared absorption by hybrid phonon-plasmon polaritons in hBN/metal-grating anisotropic structures,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 106, 1025–1034 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance perfect absorption by exciting hyperbolic phonon polaritons in 1D hBN gratings,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7791–7796 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhao and Z. M. Zhang, “Strong Plasmonic Coupling between Graphene Ribbon Array and Metal Gratings,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1611–1618 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, J. M. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B.

B. Zhao and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance perfect absorption by exciting hyperbolic phonon polaritons in 1D hBN gratings,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7791–7796 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhao and Z. M. Zhang, “Perfect mid-infrared absorption by hybrid phonon-plasmon polaritons in hBN/metal-grating anisotropic structures,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 106, 1025–1034 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao and Z. M. Zhang, “Strong Plasmonic Coupling between Graphene Ribbon Array and Metal Gratings,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1611–1618 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, J. M. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon–Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene–Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J. M.

B. Zhao, J. M. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

C. Tan, X. Cao, X. J. Wu, Q. He, J. Yang, X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. Zhao, S. Han, G. H. Nam, M. Sindoro, and H. Zhang, “Recent Advances in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” Chem. Rev. 117(9), 6225–6331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.-G.

Z. Xu, A. Khanaki, H. Tian, R. Zheng, M. Suja, J.-G. Zheng, and J. Liu, “Direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures on cobalt foil substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, R.

Z. Xu, A. Khanaki, H. Tian, R. Zheng, M. Suja, J.-G. Zheng, and J. Liu, “Direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures on cobalt foil substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 043110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S. E.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, J.

X. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Qiu, J. Zhuang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Liao, H. Song, R. Qiao, P. Gao, Z. Hu, L. Liao, Z. Liao, D. Yu, E. Wang, F. Ding, H. Peng, and K. Liu, “Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(11), 930–935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (3)

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon–Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene–Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

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J. Guo, L. Wu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Absorption enhancement and total absorption in a graphene-waveguide hybrid structure,” AIP Adv. 7(2), 025101 (2017).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the graphene/hBN/Al grating anisotropic hybrid structure, where the structure the period, incidence angle, trench width, grating height and hBN thickness are P, θ, b, h, d.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absorptivity spectra as normal incidence for the hybrid structure. The parameters are P = 5.5 μm, b = 0.4 μm, h = 1.0 μm, μ = 0.3 eV and d = 50 nm. (a) Absorptivity of hybrid structure by FEM and FDTD, and plant grating. (b) Partial enlarged detail in Fig. 2 (a) at 5-9μm (c) The absorption of aluminum, graphene, and hBN calculated by FEM.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Magnetic field (color maps) and Poynting vectors (arrows). (a) 5.92μm. (b) 6.32μm. (c) 7.64μm. Local power dissipation density of the hybrid structure. The first colorbar is overall structure, the second is the interface between graphene and hBN, the third is the interface between the hBN and Al grating. (d) 5.92μm. (e) 6.32μm. (f) 7.64μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorptivities for various geometric parameters for normal incidence using the parameters given in Fig. 2 as the base case. (a) hBN thickness. (b) Grating period. (c) Trench width. (d) Period.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Absorptivity of a hybrid structure for various chemical potentials.

Equations (9)

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ε(ω)=1+ σ s ε 0 ωΔ i
σ s = σ inter + σ intra
σ inter = e 2 4 [ G( ω 2 )+ 4ω π i η=0 G(η)G( ω 2 ) (ω) 2 4 η 2 dη ]
σ intra = i ω+i τ 1 e 2 π 2 2 k B Tln[ 2cosh( μ 2 k B T ) ],
ε ξ = ε ,ξ (1+ ω LO,ξ 2 ω TO,ξ 2 ω TO,ξ 2 i γ ξ ω ω 2 )
ε=( ε 0 0 0 ε 0 0 0 ε // )
α= w(x,y,z)dV 1 2 c 0 ε 0 | E inc | 2 Acosθ
w(x,z)= 1 2 ε 0 ω ε (x,z)|E(x,z) | 2
w(x,y,z)= 1 2 ε 0 ω( ε x | E x | 2 + ε y | E y | 2 + ε z | E z | 2 ),

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