Abstract

A tunable channel selector operating over both the C and L bands of wavelength-division-multiplexing optical network is proposed based on a thermo-optic tunable Bragg grating device in a polymer waveguide. A tilted Bragg grating cascaded with an asymmetric Y-branch waveguide effectively implements a small Bragg-reflection wavelength filter that does not require an external circulator. To increase the operating wavelength span of the channel selector, two Bragg gratings with different periods are fabricated on a single substrate for covering C and L bands, respectively. A wide tuning range over 80 nm along with a narrow bandwidth is demonstrated. Moreover, the polarization dependence of the reflection spectrum is observed to be less than 0.1 nm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Wavelength channel selection in fiber-optic communications based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is necessary to retrieve useful information from a multiplexed optical signal [1]. Channel selection is currently being performed using a passive wavelength demultiplexer. Light signals with different wavelengths are separated in space, and the information from each wavelength is retrieved by a separate detector [2]. Arrayed wavelength gratings (AWGs) have been widely used for this purpose [3–5]. However, if an efficient wavelength channel selector is available, one can select the required wavelength channel alone directly, similar to the case of electrical channel selectors made of tunable frequency filters that filter just a single required frequency channel. Simple and inexpensive tunable filters for channel selectors, which can reduce the complexity of WDM receivers, have long been pursued.

Optical wavelength filters based on various materials and operating principles have been widely investigated. The reflection wavelength of a Bragg grating in an optical fiber was tuned by imposing a strain with a piezo-electric transducer; however, it was rather bulky [6–8]. An acousto-optic tunable filter in LiNbO3 was investigated, which could achieve a wide tuning range [9]. In silicon photonic devices, owing to the high integration capacity, a ring resonator device of small dimensions could be fabricated [10–12]. The ring resonator, however, had narrow free spectral range (FSR), and cascaded rings were required to increase the FSR.

Polymer waveguide devices have been investigated, because of their large thermo-optic (TO) coefficient and high thermal insulation, which enables significantly high refractive-index tuning efficiency [13]. Digital optical switches were the first to demonstrate the merit of the large TO effect, because polymers could produce the significantly large refractive-index changes required for the switching by adiabatic mode evolution [14, 15]. Polymeric variable optical attenuators (VOAs) based on perturbed mode filtering are essential in WDM optical communication [16]. It is leading the commercial penetration of a 40-channel arrayed VOA prior to the MEMS, silica, and silicon photonic devices which experienced difficulties in increasing the number of channels because of the low production yield [17–21].

The large TO effect has been applied to develop a tunable laser consisting of a semiconductor gain medium and a polymer-waveguide Bragg reflector in the form of an external cavity, to produce low-cost tunable lasers for WDM passive optical network (PON) applications [22]. The Bragg reflector in the polymer waveguide is tunable by 40 nm at 1550 nm, which corresponds to a refractive index change of 2.5% for a polymer with a TO coefficient of 2.5 × 10−4 [23].

In this work, we demonstrate a widely tunable compact wavelength filter suitable for a WDM channel selector covering the entire C and L bands. By incorporating a tilted Bragg grating and a mode-sorting Y-branch, the device operates without requiring an external circulator [24, 25]. The tunable polymeric Bragg reflector was first adopted in tunable external-cavity lasers where only a single polarization was present and polarization dependence was not an issue. However, in wavelength filters, polarization-independent operation is crucial because the optical signal arriving at the destination has no defined polarization. The polarization dependence of integrated optic devices has been a serious problem in producing useful devices for practical applications [26, 27].

Low-birefringence polymer device was previously investigated using a halogenated acrylate polymer [28]. However, there was some difficulty with this polymer in producing the low birefringence thin film, and it is no longer available. We have been developing a low-birefringence UV-curable fluorinated polymer for reducing the polarization dependence caused by the molecular orientation and volume shrinkage during the curing. This polymer also provides excellent-quality thin films with solvent resistivity for producing a multilayer polymer film. The polymeric tunable wavelength filter in this work exhibits polarization dependence less than 0.1 nm in the reflection spectrum, which is good enough to filter the dense WDM signal with a channel spacing of 0.8 nm. The tuning range of the filter can be extended to cover the C and L bands by using two Bragg gratings, and they can be combined with a C/L-band wavelength division multiplexer to produce a tunable filter covering both bands. Wavelength tuning over 40 nm can be achieved in a simple manner by applying current to a single microheater, and tuning efficiencies as high as 117 nm/W can be achieved by incorporating a trenched bottom heater configuration.

2. Design of the mode conversion efficiency

To realize a wavelength tunable filter covering both the C and L bands of WDM optical communication, two wavelength filters are fabricated, one for each band, and they are connected with external wavelength-division couplers, because the TO tuning of a single-wavelength filter has a limited tuning range. To extract the reflection signal coming back to the input path, without using an external circulator, an asymmetric Y-branch and a tilted Bragg grating are incorporated. The proposed structure including an external WDM coupler is shown in Fig. 1. The input light launched into the narrow waveguide gradually evolves into an odd mode as it propagates through the asymmetric Y-branch waveguide. The tilted Bragg grating reflects the evolved odd mode and converts it into even mode. Then, the reflected even mode returns to the asymmetric Y-branch again, and it evolves into the wide waveguide [29, 30]. This series of mode conversion processes occurs in the order of narrow waveguide mode, odd–even modes of Bragg grating waveguide, and wide waveguide mode, and can be abbreviated as a NOEW conversion. The efficiency of the NOEW mode conversion is affected by the crosstalkof the adiabatic mode evolution in the asymmetric Y-branch and cross-coupling efficiency in the tilted Bragg grating reflector.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic structure of the proposed tunable channel selector consisting of asymmetric Y-branch and tilted Bragg gratings for C and L bands, respectively. External C-, L-band couplers are used to combine the two Bragg reflectors.

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Through the beam propagation method design, the mode evolution crosstalk in the asymmetric Y-branch can be calculated, and the dependence on the branch angle θb and the width of the asymmetric waveguide is obtained as shown in Fig. 2(a). The waveguide consists of a core polymer with a refractive index of 1.399 and a cladding polymer with a refractive index of 1.379. The dimension of the single-mode optical waveguide core is 4 × 2.5 μm2, which is chosen to increase the reflectivity of the tilted Bragg grating. The modal crosstalk increases as the branch angle increases because of higher-order mode scattering. From the results, the minimum crosstalk is obtained when the wide and narrow waveguide widths Wn and Wn are 4 and 3 μm, respectively. The refractive-index distribution of the titled grating is given as follows, with a tilt angle θt and period Λ

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Design results of (a) modal crosstalk in the asymmetric Y-branch, (b) cross-coupling efficiency between even and odd modes in the tilted Bragg grating, (c) resultant reflectivity of the device determined by the modal conversion efficiencies, and (d) reflectivity of the tilted Bragg gratings with and without the high-index polymer.

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Δn(x,z)=Δn(z)exp(iΔ2πΛtanθtΔx).

The mode conversion efficiency between the odd and even modes, ηoe, depends on the tilt angle, and can be calculated using the mode-overlap integral [30].

  ηoe= ψo*(x,y)exp[i2πxtan(θt)/Λ]ψe(x,y)dxdy[ψo*(x,y)ψo(x,y)dxdyψe*(x,y)ψe(x,y)dxdy]1/2.

ψe and ψo are the electric field distributions of the even and odd modes, respectively. The mode conversion efficiency of the tilted Bragg grating is shown as a function of θt in Fig. 2(b). To prevent undesired reflection peaks, the odd–odd mode conversion efficiency ηoo should be minimized. According to the design results, for θt of 2.5°, ηoo becomes the minimum and ηoe becomes −1.9 dB.

Three mode conversions should be multiplied to result in a final device characteristic as shown in Fig. 2(c). For the asymmetric Y-branch with a crosstalk of −25 dB, the conversion efficiencies of NOEW, narrow-odd-odd-wide (NOOW), and narrow-even-odd-wide (NEOW) are drawn as functions of θt, and that of NEEW is negligible to show. Compared to the reflection of −2 dB for the ideal NOEW conversion for θt of 2.5°, the others have efficiencies less than −40 dB.

As the tilt angle increases, as shown in Fig. 2(b), the odd–even mode conversion efficiency reduces, resulting in a reflectivity lower than that of the perpendicular grating for θt = 0. To compensate for the reflectivity decrease, without increasing the length of the device, a high-refractive-index polymer (HIP) is introduced. Figure 2(d) shows the reflectivity of the tilted Bragg grating when 0.5 μm of a HIP with a refractive index of 1.430 is coated over the core layer in a Bragg grating with a depth of 0.5 μm. The reflectance of the tilted Bragg grating becomes higher than that of the perpendicular Bragg grating without the HIP. For a 3.5-mm-long tilted Bragg grating, the reflectance is saturated to unity.

The uniformity of heat distribution affects the tuning range because of the radiation of the guided light. The heat uniformity can be improved by considering the electrode position and employing air trenches [31]. Figure 3 compares the thermal distributions over the waveguides for the top and bottom electrodes. The top electrode produces a significant temperature gradient across the core. As a result, for a large temperature change, it will cause radiation of the guided light toward the lower cladding. On the contrary, the bottom electrode with an air trench exhibits excellent temperature uniformity, and will prevent guided light radiation.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Temperature distribution over the waveguide cross-section of the devices with (a) top electrode, and (b) bottom electrode with air trench.

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3. Experimental results

An LFR polymer, which is a UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer material manufactured by ChemOptics, was used for fabricating the proposed channel selector device. The LFR polymer was developed to reduce optical absorption loss and birefringence by minimizing the volumetric condensation during UV curing. In addition, fluorine-rich polymers have excellent thermal stability, high optical power handling capability, and strong chemical resistance [23].

The fabrication procedure of the polymeric optical waveguide is shown in Fig. 4. After removing the surface oxide on the silicon substrate, an adhesion promoter was coated, and then the lower cladding LFR polymer with a refractive index of 1.379 was spin-coated to a thickness of 12.5 μm. It was UV cured in a nitrogen chamber and hard baked on a 120 °C hot plate for an hour. A microheater with a thickness of 8 nm of Cr and 320 nm of Au was fabricated by sputtering and photolithography. The cladding LFR material was coated once again over the electrode to form a lower cladding with a total thickness of 24 μm, for reducing the metal absorption loss and increasing the thermal efficiency.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Fabrication procedure of the polymeric tunable channel selector device.

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The waveguide pattern was formed by oxygen plasma etching with an etch mask pattern made of a metal-oxide-dispersed photoresist. The etch ratio between the photoresist and the LFR polymer was approximately 1:15, so that a sub-micron-thick photoresist was used for the waveguide etching. The microscopic photograph of the asymmetric Y-branch region is shown in Fig. 5(a). The core LFR polymer with a refractive index of 1.399 was spin-coated on the patterned cladding layer, and the whole surface was etched until the core thickness reduced to 2.5 μm. A high-refractive-index polymer with a refractive index of 1.430 was coated to a thickness of 0.5 μm. For the Bragg gratings, by using contact photolithography, fifth-order grating patterns with periods of 2.83 μm and 2.92 μm were formed for the C- and L-band reflectors, respectively. The etch depth of the grating pattern was 0.5 μm, and an ideal maximum reflectance was expected from a tilted grating with a length of 3.5 mm. Figure 5(b) shows the microphotograph of the tilted Bragg grating formed on the two-mode waveguide. The upper cladding polymer was spin-coated and cured to produce a thickness of 10 μm. Finally, an air trench was formed by oxygen plasma etching with a Cr mask of 50 nm, for thermal insulation and electrode contact.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Microphotographs of the fabricated device exhibiting (a) the vertex of the asymmetric Y-branch, and (b) fifth-order tilted Bragg grating inscribed on the two-mode waveguide.

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To characterize the Bragg reflector, an amplified spontaneous emission light source with a wavelength range of 1520 to 1620 nm was used. The input polarization was adjusted with a fiber-optic polarization controller as the measurement setup of Fig. 6(a). The reflected light returning to the output port was monitored with an optical spectrum analyzer, as shown in Fig. 6(b). TE and TM polarized light had a maximum reflection peak near 1564 nm, through the NOEW conversion, and a side lobe was observed at 1568 nm due to the NEOW mode conversion, resulting in a side-mode suppression ratio of more than 25 dB. As shown in Fig. 6(c), the reflection peak difference between the two polarizations was as small as 0.1 nm. The 3-dB and 10-dB bandwidths were 0.35 nm and 0.5 nm, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 (a) Alignment setup for chip characterization, (b) reflection spectrum measured for the TE and TM polarizations, and (c) magnified spectra exhibiting polarization dependence less than 0.1 nm.

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By operating the thin-film heater, the reflection wavelength was tuned as shown in Fig. 7(a). For an applied heating power of 352 mW, wavelength tuning of 41.39 nm was obtained for the C-band device. Since the TO coefficient of the LFR polymer is −2.5 × 10−4/°C, the corresponding temperature was 146 °C. In the case of an L-band device with an initial reflection wavelength of 1615.12 nm, wavelength tuning of 44.07 nm was achieved by applying 356 mW, as shown in Fig. 7(b). Both devices exhibited output power variations less than 1.5 dB across the entire tuning range. The channel switching speed was less than 20 msec, and the wavelength stability was maintained within 0.16 nm by incorporating a wavelength locking feedback.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Wavelength-tuning capability of the tunable channel selector for (a) C-band grating device, and (b) L-band grating device, and (c) reflection peak drawn as a function of heating power for the C- and L-band devices.

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The fifth-order Bragg gratings for the C and L bands were fabricated on a Si substrate. However, for the wavelength-tuned transmission experiment, the two devices were packaged separately. The process of packaging a single device is shown in Fig. 8. The polymer chip was stacked inside the case along with an avalanche photodiode (APD) module, a thermo-electric cooler (TEC) plate, and a thermistor, and a flexible printed circuit board was used for the feed-through. A lensed single-mode fiber was aligned with the polymer waveguide, and the waveguide output was reflected upward from the submount, by using a 45° mirror, and received by the APD. A metal optical bench was placed under the polymer chip module and a TEC was inserted. The polymer module mounted inside the case is shown in Fig. 8(b), and the final package after the wire bonding and receptacle connection, which is ready for the channel selector transmission experiment, is shown in Fig. 8(c).

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 (a) Packaging parts included in the tunable channel selector, (b) photograph of assembled polymer chip inside the package, and (c) completely packaged device.

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The performance of the tunable channel selector was tested under a 10 Gb/s transmission network configured as shown in Fig. 9(a). A tunable laser based on the polymeric tunable Bragg grating was used as a light source [22], and a 10 Gb/s pseudo-random signal was produced using an external Mach–Zehnder modulator. The bit error rate (BER) of the received signal was measured while the signal intensity was controlled by the attenuator. For a certain input light wavelength defined by the tunable laser, the tunable receiver was scanned to find the signal wavelength, and a typical eye diagram with a jitter of 5.5 ps for an eye-width of 86.6 ps was obtained in an oscilloscope, as shown in Fig. 9(b). By changing the input wavelength of the tunable laser, the BER was measured as a function of the received power, for wavelengths of 1549.29 nm, 1551.26 nm, 1552.90 nm, and 1548.29 nm, as shown in Fig. 9(c), in which no significant dependence was found. For the PON applications where a forward error correction is employed, the BER requirement is reduced to 4.5 × 10−4 [32]. As shown in the BER graph, the receiver sensitivity required to satisfy the BER requirement was approximately −26 dBm.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 (a) Transmission experiment setup consisting of tunable laser and tunable channel selector, (b) eye diagram of the received signal, and (c) bit error rates measured for various wavelengths.

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4. Conclusions

Tunable channel selectors useful for WDM–PON networks covering the C and L bands were proposed and demonstrated using polymeric Bragg gratings. To remove the need for a circulator, an asymmetric Y-branch waveguide was cascaded with a tilted Bragg grating. The mode-sorting efficiency of the asymmetric Y-branch and the even–odd mode conversion efficiency were crucial in deciding the reflection characteristics of the channel selector. During fabrication, a sharp Y-branch structure was implemented to produce a low-crosstalk mode evolution, and a fifth-order tilted grating was produced by direct-contact lithography, which enabled precise adjustment of the tilt angle. The fabricated tunable Bragg reflector had a sharp reflection bandwidth and low polarization dependence of less than 0.1 nm, which is crucial for a polarization-independent tunable filter. Wavelength tunings over 40 nm were achieved for each band by applying a power of 350 mW. The packaged tunable channel selector device was applied in the WDM transmission network experiment. A certain wavelength was defined by the tunable laser and then scanned by the fabricated tunable channel selector, and it exhibited a clear eye diagram and a receiver sensitivity of −26 dBm. The proposed polymeric tunable channel selector device enables polarization-independent tunable filtering at a low cost and will be useful for creating a novel WDM–PON network with a simple configuration.

Funding

National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (2017R1A2A1A17069702).

References and links

1. B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 18(10), 1810–1824 (2000). [CrossRef]  

2. N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002). [CrossRef]  

3. H. Uetsuka, “AWG Technologies for Dense WDM Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 393–402 (2004). [CrossRef]  

4. Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5106–5113 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. J.-F. Viens, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, and L. Eldada, “Compact wide-band polymer wavelength-division multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1010–1012 (2000). [CrossRef]  

6. E. R. Lyon and H. P. Lee, “An efficient electrically tunable etched cladding fiber Bragg grating filter tested under vacuum,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1626–1628 (1999).

7. T. Inui, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “Highly efficient tunable fiber Bragg grating filters using multiplayer piezoelectric transducers,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 1–4 (2001). [CrossRef]  

8. M. Ibsen, J. Hubner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Andersen, and M. Kristensen, “30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32(24), 2233–2235 (1996). [CrossRef]  

9. J. Hubner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, “Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(4), 552–554 (1998). [CrossRef]  

10. Y. Ding, M. Pu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and H. Ou, “Bandwidth and wavelength-tunable optical bandpass filter based on silicon microring-MZI structure,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6462–6470 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, “Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 622 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1543–1546 (2013). [CrossRef]  

13. M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016). [CrossRef]  

14. X. Jiang, W. Qi, H. Zhang, Y. Tang, Y. L. Hao, J. Y. Yang, and M. H. Wang, “Low crosstalk 1x2 thermo optic digital optical switch with integrated S-bend attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(4), 610–612 (2006). [CrossRef]  

15. Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Won, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with −70 dB optical crosstalk,” Opt. Commun. 258(1), 18–22 (2006). [CrossRef]  

16. Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004). [CrossRef]  

17. Y. Nasu, K. Watanabe, M. Itoh, H. Yamazaki, S. Kamei, R. Kasahara, I. Ogawa, A. Kaneko, and Y. Inoue, “Ultrasmall 100 GHz 40-Channel VMUX/DEMUX Based on Single-Chip 2.5%-Δ PLC,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(12), 2087–2094 (2009). [CrossRef]  

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22. Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. H. Oh, and M.-C. Oh, “Continuously tunable compact lasers based on thermo-optic polymer waveguides with Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18194–18201 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. M.-C. Oh, K.-J. Kim, W.-S. Chu, J.-W. Kim, J.-K. Seo, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Integrated photonic devices incorporating low-loss fluorinated polymer materials,” Polymers (Basel) 3(3), 975–997 (2011). [CrossRef]  

24. T.-H. Park, J.-S. Shin, G. Huang, W. S. Chu, and M. C. Oh, “Tunable channel drop filters consisting of a tilted Bragg grating and a mode sorting polymer waveguide,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5709–5714 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. T.-H. Park, G. Huang, E.-T. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Optimization of tilted Bragg grating tunable filters based on polymeric optical waveguides,” Curr. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 214–220 (2017).

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29. J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, “Fabrication and comprehensive modeling of ion-exchanged Bragg optical add-drop multiplexers,” Appl. Opt. 43(33), 6166–6173 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, C. M. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, “Optical add-drop multiplexers based on the antisymmetric waveguide Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 45(6), 1236–1243 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. Z. Zhang and N. Keil, “Thermo-optic devices on polymer platform,” Opt. Commun. 362, 101–114 (2015). [CrossRef]  

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References

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  • |

  1. B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 18(10), 1810–1824 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Uetsuka, “AWG Technologies for Dense WDM Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 393–402 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J.-F. Viens, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, and L. Eldada, “Compact wide-band polymer wavelength-division multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1010–1012 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. R. Lyon and H. P. Lee, “An efficient electrically tunable etched cladding fiber Bragg grating filter tested under vacuum,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1626–1628 (1999).
  7. T. Inui, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “Highly efficient tunable fiber Bragg grating filters using multiplayer piezoelectric transducers,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 1–4 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Ibsen, J. Hubner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Andersen, and M. Kristensen, “30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32(24), 2233–2235 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Hubner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, “Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(4), 552–554 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Ding, M. Pu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and H. Ou, “Bandwidth and wavelength-tunable optical bandpass filter based on silicon microring-MZI structure,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6462–6470 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, “Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 622 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1543–1546 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. X. Jiang, W. Qi, H. Zhang, Y. Tang, Y. L. Hao, J. Y. Yang, and M. H. Wang, “Low crosstalk 1x2 thermo optic digital optical switch with integrated S-bend attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(4), 610–612 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Won, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with −70 dB optical crosstalk,” Opt. Commun. 258(1), 18–22 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Nasu, K. Watanabe, M. Itoh, H. Yamazaki, S. Kamei, R. Kasahara, I. Ogawa, A. Kaneko, and Y. Inoue, “Ultrasmall 100 GHz 40-Channel VMUX/DEMUX Based on Single-Chip 2.5%-Δ PLC,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(12), 2087–2094 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugitia, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2x2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1132–1134 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  19. Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Lee, “Monolithic-integrated 8CH MEMS variable optical attenuators,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 123–124, 596–601 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.
  22. Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. H. Oh, and M.-C. Oh, “Continuously tunable compact lasers based on thermo-optic polymer waveguides with Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18194–18201 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. M.-C. Oh, K.-J. Kim, W.-S. Chu, J.-W. Kim, J.-K. Seo, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Integrated photonic devices incorporating low-loss fluorinated polymer materials,” Polymers (Basel) 3(3), 975–997 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. T.-H. Park, J.-S. Shin, G. Huang, W. S. Chu, and M. C. Oh, “Tunable channel drop filters consisting of a tilted Bragg grating and a mode sorting polymer waveguide,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5709–5714 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. T.-H. Park, G. Huang, E.-T. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Optimization of tilted Bragg grating tunable filters based on polymeric optical waveguides,” Curr. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 214–220 (2017).
  26. Y. Inoue, K. Katoh, and M. Kawachi, “Polarization sensitivity of a silica waveguide thermooptic phase shifter for planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 36–38 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 54–68 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, “Fabrication and comprehensive modeling of ion-exchanged Bragg optical add-drop multiplexers,” Appl. Opt. 43(33), 6166–6173 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, C. M. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, “Optical add-drop multiplexers based on the antisymmetric waveguide Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 45(6), 1236–1243 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. Z. Zhang and N. Keil, “Thermo-optic devices on polymer platform,” Opt. Commun. 362, 101–114 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. T. Mizuochi, “Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 544–554 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

T.-H. Park, G. Huang, E.-T. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Optimization of tilted Bragg grating tunable filters based on polymeric optical waveguides,” Curr. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 214–220 (2017).

2016 (2)

T.-H. Park, J.-S. Shin, G. Huang, W. S. Chu, and M. C. Oh, “Tunable channel drop filters consisting of a tilted Bragg grating and a mode sorting polymer waveguide,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5709–5714 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Z. Zhang and N. Keil, “Thermo-optic devices on polymer platform,” Opt. Commun. 362, 101–114 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1543–1546 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, “Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y. Ding, M. Pu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and H. Ou, “Bandwidth and wavelength-tunable optical bandpass filter based on silicon microring-MZI structure,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6462–6470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Oh, K.-J. Kim, W.-S. Chu, J.-W. Kim, J.-K. Seo, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Integrated photonic devices incorporating low-loss fluorinated polymer materials,” Polymers (Basel) 3(3), 975–997 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

Y. Nasu, K. Watanabe, M. Itoh, H. Yamazaki, S. Kamei, R. Kasahara, I. Ogawa, A. Kaneko, and Y. Inoue, “Ultrasmall 100 GHz 40-Channel VMUX/DEMUX Based on Single-Chip 2.5%-Δ PLC,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(12), 2087–2094 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (4)

T. Mizuochi, “Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 544–554 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, C. M. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, “Optical add-drop multiplexers based on the antisymmetric waveguide Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 45(6), 1236–1243 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jiang, W. Qi, H. Zhang, Y. Tang, Y. L. Hao, J. Y. Yang, and M. H. Wang, “Low crosstalk 1x2 thermo optic digital optical switch with integrated S-bend attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(4), 610–612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Won, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with −70 dB optical crosstalk,” Opt. Commun. 258(1), 18–22 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Lee, “Monolithic-integrated 8CH MEMS variable optical attenuators,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 123–124, 596–601 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, “Fabrication and comprehensive modeling of ion-exchanged Bragg optical add-drop multiplexers,” Appl. Opt. 43(33), 6166–6173 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Uetsuka, “AWG Technologies for Dense WDM Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 393–402 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. Inui, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “Highly efficient tunable fiber Bragg grating filters using multiplayer piezoelectric transducers,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 1–4 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 18(10), 1810–1824 (2000).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Viens, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, and L. Eldada, “Compact wide-band polymer wavelength-division multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1010–1012 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 54–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

E. R. Lyon and H. P. Lee, “An efficient electrically tunable etched cladding fiber Bragg grating filter tested under vacuum,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1626–1628 (1999).

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugitia, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2x2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Hubner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, “Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(4), 552–554 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Ibsen, J. Hubner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Andersen, and M. Kristensen, “30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32(24), 2233–2235 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Y. Inoue, K. Katoh, and M. Kawachi, “Polarization sensitivity of a silica waveguide thermooptic phase shifter for planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref]

Andersen, L.-U. A.

M. Ibsen, J. Hubner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Andersen, and M. Kristensen, “30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32(24), 2233–2235 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ang, K. W.

Callender, C. L.

J.-F. Viens, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, and L. Eldada, “Compact wide-band polymer wavelength-division multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1010–1012 (2000).
[Crossref]

Castro, J. M.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, “Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, W.

M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chu, W. S.

Chu, W.-S.

M.-C. Oh, K.-J. Kim, W.-S. Chu, J.-W. Kim, J.-K. Seo, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Integrated photonic devices incorporating low-loss fluorinated polymer materials,” Polymers (Basel) 3(3), 975–997 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

Eldada, L.

J.-F. Viens, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, and L. Eldada, “Compact wide-band polymer wavelength-division multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1010–1012 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 54–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

Furukawa, M.

T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.

Geraghty, D. F.

Goh, T.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugitia, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2x2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Greiner, C. M.

Han, S.-G.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y. L.

X. Jiang, W. Qi, H. Zhang, Y. Tang, Y. L. Hao, J. Y. Yang, and M. H. Wang, “Low crosstalk 1x2 thermo optic digital optical switch with integrated S-bend attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(4), 610–612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Himeno, A.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugitia, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2x2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Honkanen, S.

Huang, D.

Huang, G.

T.-H. Park, G. Huang, E.-T. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Optimization of tilted Bragg grating tunable filters based on polymeric optical waveguides,” Curr. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 214–220 (2017).

T.-H. Park, J.-S. Shin, G. Huang, W. S. Chu, and M. C. Oh, “Tunable channel drop filters consisting of a tilted Bragg grating and a mode sorting polymer waveguide,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5709–5714 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubner, J.

J. Hubner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, “Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(4), 552–554 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Ibsen, J. Hubner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Andersen, and M. Kristensen, “30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32(24), 2233–2235 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hwang, W.-Y.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[Crossref]

Iazikov, D.

Ibsen, M.

M. Ibsen, J. Hubner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Andersen, and M. Kristensen, “30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32(24), 2233–2235 (1996).
[Crossref]

Inoue, Y.

Y. Nasu, K. Watanabe, M. Itoh, H. Yamazaki, S. Kamei, R. Kasahara, I. Ogawa, A. Kaneko, and Y. Inoue, “Ultrasmall 100 GHz 40-Channel VMUX/DEMUX Based on Single-Chip 2.5%-Δ PLC,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(12), 2087–2094 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Inoue, K. Katoh, and M. Kawachi, “Polarization sensitivity of a silica waveguide thermooptic phase shifter for planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref]

Inui, T.

T. Inui, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “Highly efficient tunable fiber Bragg grating filters using multiplayer piezoelectric transducers,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 1–4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ishii, H.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002).
[Crossref]

Itoh, M.

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, W. Qi, H. Zhang, Y. Tang, Y. L. Hao, J. Y. Yang, and M. H. Wang, “Low crosstalk 1x2 thermo optic digital optical switch with integrated S-bend attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(4), 610–612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ju, J. J.

Kamei, S.

Kaneko, A.

Kanie, T.

T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.

Kasahara, R.

Y. Nasu, K. Watanabe, M. Itoh, H. Yamazaki, S. Kamei, R. Kasahara, I. Ogawa, A. Kaneko, and Y. Inoue, “Ultrasmall 100 GHz 40-Channel VMUX/DEMUX Based on Single-Chip 2.5%-Δ PLC,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(12), 2087–2094 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugitia, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2x2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Katayama, M.

T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.

Katoh, K.

Y. Inoue, K. Katoh, and M. Kawachi, “Polarization sensitivity of a silica waveguide thermooptic phase shifter for planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kawachi, M.

Y. Inoue, K. Katoh, and M. Kawachi, “Polarization sensitivity of a silica waveguide thermooptic phase shifter for planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, Y.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002).
[Crossref]

Keil, N.

Z. Zhang and N. Keil, “Thermo-optic devices on polymer platform,” Opt. Commun. 362, 101–114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, N.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.-T.

T.-H. Park, G. Huang, E.-T. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Optimization of tilted Bragg grating tunable filters based on polymeric optical waveguides,” Curr. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 214–220 (2017).

Kim, J.

M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-M.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-W.

M.-C. Oh, K.-J. Kim, W.-S. Chu, J.-W. Kim, J.-K. Seo, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Integrated photonic devices incorporating low-loss fluorinated polymer materials,” Polymers (Basel) 3(3), 975–997 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-J.

M.-C. Oh, K.-J. Kim, W.-S. Chu, J.-W. Kim, J.-K. Seo, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Integrated photonic devices incorporating low-loss fluorinated polymer materials,” Polymers (Basel) 3(3), 975–997 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.-S.

Kohda, H.

T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.

Komukai, T.

T. Inui, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “Highly efficient tunable fiber Bragg grating filters using multiplayer piezoelectric transducers,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 1–4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, M.

J. Hubner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, “Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(4), 552–554 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Ibsen, J. Hubner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Andersen, and M. Kristensen, “30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32(24), 2233–2235 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kromann, R.

M. Ibsen, J. Hubner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Andersen, and M. Kristensen, “30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32(24), 2233–2235 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kumar, R.

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1543–1546 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D. L.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-L.

Lee, C.

C. Lee, “Monolithic-integrated 8CH MEMS variable optical attenuators,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 123–124, 596–601 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-H.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. P.

E. R. Lyon and H. P. Lee, “An efficient electrically tunable etched cladding fiber Bragg grating filter tested under vacuum,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1626–1628 (1999).

Lee, H.-J.

M.-C. Oh, K.-J. Kim, W.-S. Chu, J.-W. Kim, J.-K. Seo, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Integrated photonic devices incorporating low-loss fluorinated polymer materials,” Polymers (Basel) 3(3), 975–997 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. H. Oh, and M.-C. Oh, “Continuously tunable compact lasers based on thermo-optic polymer waveguides with Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18194–18201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Won, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with −70 dB optical crosstalk,” Opt. Commun. 258(1), 18–22 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, “Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, “Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, L.

Liu, Y. L.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lyon, E. R.

E. R. Lyon and H. P. Lee, “An efficient electrically tunable etched cladding fiber Bragg grating filter tested under vacuum,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1626–1628 (1999).

Matsui, S.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugitia, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2x2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

McNab, S.

Mizuochi, T.

T. Mizuochi, “Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 544–554 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mookherjea, S.

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1543–1546 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mossberg, T. W.

Mukherjee, B.

B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 18(10), 1810–1824 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nakazawa, M.

T. Inui, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “Highly efficient tunable fiber Bragg grating filters using multiplayer piezoelectric transducers,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 1–4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nasu, Y.

Nishimura, M.

T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.

Noad, J. P.

J.-F. Viens, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, and L. Eldada, “Compact wide-band polymer wavelength-division multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1010–1012 (2000).
[Crossref]

Noh, Y.

M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Noh, Y.-O.

M.-C. Oh, K.-J. Kim, W.-S. Chu, J.-W. Kim, J.-K. Seo, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Integrated photonic devices incorporating low-loss fluorinated polymer materials,” Polymers (Basel) 3(3), 975–997 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. H. Oh, and M.-C. Oh, “Continuously tunable compact lasers based on thermo-optic polymer waveguides with Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18194–18201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Won, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with −70 dB optical crosstalk,” Opt. Commun. 258(1), 18–22 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, I.

Oh, M.

M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oh, M. C.

Oh, M.-C.

T.-H. Park, G. Huang, E.-T. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Optimization of tilted Bragg grating tunable filters based on polymeric optical waveguides,” Curr. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 214–220 (2017).

M.-C. Oh, K.-J. Kim, W.-S. Chu, J.-W. Kim, J.-K. Seo, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Integrated photonic devices incorporating low-loss fluorinated polymer materials,” Polymers (Basel) 3(3), 975–997 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. H. Oh, and M.-C. Oh, “Continuously tunable compact lasers based on thermo-optic polymer waveguides with Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18194–18201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Won, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with −70 dB optical crosstalk,” Opt. Commun. 258(1), 18–22 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. H.

Okamoto, H.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002).
[Crossref]

Oku, S.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ong, J. R.

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1543–1546 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ou, H.

Park, T.-H.

T.-H. Park, G. Huang, E.-T. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Optimization of tilted Bragg grating tunable filters based on polymeric optical waveguides,” Curr. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 214–220 (2017).

T.-H. Park, J.-S. Shin, G. Huang, W. S. Chu, and M. C. Oh, “Tunable channel drop filters consisting of a tilted Bragg grating and a mode sorting polymer waveguide,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5709–5714 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pedersen, J. E.

M. Ibsen, J. Hubner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Andersen, and M. Kristensen, “30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32(24), 2233–2235 (1996).
[Crossref]

Peucheret, C.

Pu, M.

Qi, W.

X. Jiang, W. Qi, H. Zhang, Y. Tang, Y. L. Hao, J. Y. Yang, and M. H. Wang, “Low crosstalk 1x2 thermo optic digital optical switch with integrated S-bend attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(4), 610–612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, K.

T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.

Sano, T.

T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.

Seo, J.

M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Seo, J.-K.

M.-C. Oh, K.-J. Kim, W.-S. Chu, J.-W. Kim, J.-K. Seo, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Integrated photonic devices incorporating low-loss fluorinated polymer materials,” Polymers (Basel) 3(3), 975–997 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 54–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shibata, Y.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.

M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.-S.

Shiozaki, M.

T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.

Song, J. F.

Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

Suganuma, H.

T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.

Sugitia, A.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugitia, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2x2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sunaga, T.

T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.

Tang, Y.

X. Jiang, W. Qi, H. Zhang, Y. Tang, Y. L. Hao, J. Y. Yang, and M. H. Wang, “Low crosstalk 1x2 thermo optic digital optical switch with integrated S-bend attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(4), 610–612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tohmori, Y.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002).
[Crossref]

Uetsuka, H.

H. Uetsuka, “AWG Technologies for Dense WDM Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 393–402 (2004).
[Crossref]

Viens, J.-F.

J.-F. Viens, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, and L. Eldada, “Compact wide-band polymer wavelength-division multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1010–1012 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y.

Wang, M. H.

X. Jiang, W. Qi, H. Zhang, Y. Tang, Y. L. Hao, J. Y. Yang, and M. H. Wang, “Low crosstalk 1x2 thermo optic digital optical switch with integrated S-bend attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(4), 610–612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

West, B. R.

Won, Y.-H.

Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Won, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with −70 dB optical crosstalk,” Opt. Commun. 258(1), 18–22 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Yamazaki, H.

Yanagisawa, M.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugitia, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2x2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. Y.

X. Jiang, W. Qi, H. Zhang, Y. Tang, Y. L. Hao, J. Y. Yang, and M. H. Wang, “Low crosstalk 1x2 thermo optic digital optical switch with integrated S-bend attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(4), 610–612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yasu, M.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugitia, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2x2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoshikuni, Y.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yu, M. B.

Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zauner, D.

J. Hubner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, “Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(4), 552–554 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

X. Jiang, W. Qi, H. Zhang, Y. Tang, Y. L. Hao, J. Y. Yang, and M. H. Wang, “Low crosstalk 1x2 thermo optic digital optical switch with integrated S-bend attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(4), 610–612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang and N. Keil, “Thermo-optic devices on polymer platform,” Opt. Commun. 362, 101–114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Curr. Opt. Photonics (1)

T.-H. Park, G. Huang, E.-T. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Optimization of tilted Bragg grating tunable filters based on polymeric optical waveguides,” Curr. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 214–220 (2017).

Electron. Lett. (2)

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, H. Ishii, Y. Yoshikuni, and Y. Tohmori, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel WDM channel selector with novel configuration,” Electron. Lett. 38(7), 331–332 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Ibsen, J. Hubner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Andersen, and M. Kristensen, “30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32(24), 2233–2235 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (1)

B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 18(10), 1810–1824 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 54–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Mizuochi, “Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 544–554 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Uetsuka, “AWG Technologies for Dense WDM Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 393–402 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (8)

J.-F. Viens, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, and L. Eldada, “Compact wide-band polymer wavelength-division multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1010–1012 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. R. Lyon and H. P. Lee, “An efficient electrically tunable etched cladding fiber Bragg grating filter tested under vacuum,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1626–1628 (1999).

J. Hubner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, “Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(4), 552–554 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1543–1546 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, W. Qi, H. Zhang, Y. Tang, Y. L. Hao, J. Y. Yang, and M. H. Wang, “Low crosstalk 1x2 thermo optic digital optical switch with integrated S-bend attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(4), 610–612 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugitia, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2x2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Inoue, K. Katoh, and M. Kawachi, “Polarization sensitivity of a silica waveguide thermooptic phase shifter for planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (5)

Z. Zhang and N. Keil, “Thermo-optic devices on polymer platform,” Opt. Commun. 362, 101–114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Won, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide thermo-optic switches with −70 dB optical crosstalk,” Opt. Commun. 258(1), 18–22 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Oh, W. Chu, J. Shin, J. Kim, K. Kim, J. Seo, H. Lee, Y. Noh, and H. Lee, “Polymeric optical waveguide devices exploiting special properties of polymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 362, 3–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Inui, T. Komukai, and M. Nakazawa, “Highly efficient tunable fiber Bragg grating filters using multiplayer piezoelectric transducers,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 1–4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Polymers (Basel) (1)

M.-C. Oh, K.-J. Kim, W.-S. Chu, J.-W. Kim, J.-K. Seo, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Integrated photonic devices incorporating low-loss fluorinated polymer materials,” Polymers (Basel) 3(3), 975–997 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, “Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

C. Lee, “Monolithic-integrated 8CH MEMS variable optical attenuators,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 123–124, 596–601 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

T. Kanie, M. Katayama, T. Sano, H. Kohda, T. Sunaga, M. Shiozaki, M. Furukawa, H. Suganuma, K. Saitoh, and M. Nishimura, “Ultra-compact multichannel optical components based on PLC and MEMS technologies,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003), pp. 388–390.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic structure of the proposed tunable channel selector consisting of asymmetric Y-branch and tilted Bragg gratings for C and L bands, respectively. External C-, L-band couplers are used to combine the two Bragg reflectors.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Design results of (a) modal crosstalk in the asymmetric Y-branch, (b) cross-coupling efficiency between even and odd modes in the tilted Bragg grating, (c) resultant reflectivity of the device determined by the modal conversion efficiencies, and (d) reflectivity of the tilted Bragg gratings with and without the high-index polymer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Temperature distribution over the waveguide cross-section of the devices with (a) top electrode, and (b) bottom electrode with air trench.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fabrication procedure of the polymeric tunable channel selector device.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Microphotographs of the fabricated device exhibiting (a) the vertex of the asymmetric Y-branch, and (b) fifth-order tilted Bragg grating inscribed on the two-mode waveguide.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Alignment setup for chip characterization, (b) reflection spectrum measured for the TE and TM polarizations, and (c) magnified spectra exhibiting polarization dependence less than 0.1 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Wavelength-tuning capability of the tunable channel selector for (a) C-band grating device, and (b) L-band grating device, and (c) reflection peak drawn as a function of heating power for the C- and L-band devices.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Packaging parts included in the tunable channel selector, (b) photograph of assembled polymer chip inside the package, and (c) completely packaged device.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Transmission experiment setup consisting of tunable laser and tunable channel selector, (b) eye diagram of the received signal, and (c) bit error rates measured for various wavelengths.

Equations (2)

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Δn( x,z )=Δn(z)exp(iΔ 2π Λ tan θ t Δx).
   η oe =  ψ o * (x,y)exp[i2πxtan( θ t )/Λ] ψ e (x,y)dxdy [ ψ o * (x,y) ψ o (x,y)dxdy ψ e * (x,y) ψ e (x,y)dxdy ] 1/2 .

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