Abstract

Lithium niobate (LN) exhibits outstanding material properties with great potential for many applications. Recent advance in LN integrated photonics on chip-scale platforms has shown significant advantages in device engineering and functionality innovation. Precise engineering of group-velocity dispersion (GVD) is crucial for many important nonlinear photonic applications. In this paper, we demonstrate high-Q LN microring resonators, with optical Q above 1 million, whose GVD can be flexibly controlled in both normal and anomalous dispersion regimes, with a value between −0.128 ps2/m and 0.043 ps2/m in the telecom band, by controlling the device cross section and by utilizing the birefringence. We are able to achieve a small anomalous GVD of −0.015 ps2/m that is even smaller than that of a silica optical fiber. The flexible engineering of GVD paves a critical step towards broad nonlinear photonic applications in high-Q LN microring resonators.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Lithium niobate (LN) exhibits outstanding material properties that have been applied for a variety of applications [1–3]. Recent advance in LN integrated photonics on chip-scale platforms has shown significant advantages in device engineering and functionality innovation compared with conventional approaches [4–33]. For integrated photonic devices and circuits, high optical quality and low propagation loss is crucial for most applications, which has been demonstrated in LN whispering-gallery microresonators [10, 11, 13, 19, 27], LN microring resonators [29, 31], LN waveguides [32], LN photonic crystal nanoresonators [28], and hybrid waveguides and resonators [16,21,25].

Among various device geometries, microring is of great interest since it exhibits superior characteristics such as flexibility in dispersion engineering, capability of electrical integration, resilience to mechanical perturbation, and potential for large-scale integration. Precise engineering of group-velocity dispersion (GVD) underlies crucially many nonlinear photonic applications such as optical parametric oscillation [34], soliton formation [34], supercontinuum generation [35], Kerr frequency comb generation [36], etc., and significant efforts have been carried out in the past few years for dispersion engineering on a variety of device platforms [37–42]. For LN nanophotonic devices, however, current attentions primarily focus on nonlinear effects such as frequency conversion [10, 12, 17, 18, 22, 23, 27, 29, 30, 32], optomechanics [19, 28], photorefraction [26,28], and electro-optics [4,5,8,9,13,16,20,25,33]. Engineering of GVD has not yet been reported for LN nanophotonic devices.

On the other hand, microring resonators with only single-mode or few-mode families are crucial for many important applications, since intermodal interactions in these devices are dramatically reduced, which is critical for nonlinear photonic applications [43, 44]. However, such type of microring resonators require small waveguide dimensions and are more susceptible to waveguide sidewall roughness induced by fabrication imperfection. In this paper, we report dispersion-engineered LN microring resonators whose GVD can be precisely controlled in the normal and anomalous dispersion regimes, while simultaneously exhibiting high optical Qs greater than 1 million. The capability of precise GVD engineering in high-Q LN microresonators paves a critical step towards various nonlinear photonic applications on this promising device platform.

2. Devices and characterization

Figure 1(a) shows a typical LN microring resonator, fabricated on a 600-nm-thick x-cut LN-on-insulator wafer. The LN microring has a thickness of 490 nm and waveguide width of 1.2 μm, with a radius of 60 μm, sitting on a 2-μm-thick buried silicon oxide layer. The microring resonator is side coupled to a LN waveguide with a width of 800 nm, separated by a gap of 1 μm, which were optimized for good external coupling. The device structure was patterned by electron-beam lithography and etched by argon-ion milling process, whose detail can be found from our previous publication [19]. The plasma etching process produced a slant angle on the device sidewall, resulting in a trapezoid-like shaped cross section, as shown clearly in Fig. 1(b).

 

Fig. 1 (a) Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of a LN microring resonator with a radius of 60 μm, waveguide thickness of 490 nm, and waveguide width of 1.2 μm. (b) SEM image of the cross section of a waveguide. That of the microring is similar except with a larger waveguide width.

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To characterize the optical properties of the microring resonator, we launched a continuous-wave laser via an optical fiber taper to the on-chip LN waveguide which coupled the light into the microring resonator whose output was collected by the same LN waveguide and delivered to another fiber taper for detection. Figure 2 shows the detailed schematic of the experimental testing setup. The polarization state of the laser was controlled by a polarization controller for optimal coupling to the cavity modes. To characterize the linear optical properties of the device, the optical power of the laser was maintained low enough, around 5 μW, to prevent potential nonlinear optical effects. The laser wavelength was calibrated by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

 

Fig. 2 Schematic of the experimental setup. The inset shows an optical image of a device.

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3. Optical properties

By scanning the laser wavelength and recording the device transmission, we obtained the transmission spectrum of the microring resonator, as shown in Fig. 3. Figure 3(a) shows clearly that the device exhibits four mode families, as indicated as Family I – IV on Fig. 3(a), with free-spectral ranges in the range of ∼ 2.5 nm. Detailed analysis shows that the mode family I, II, and III correspond to the fundamental, second-order, and third-order quasi-transverse electric cavity modes, respectively. Each mode family exhibits nearly uniform coupling depth across a broad spectrum, indicating uniform efficiency of external coupling to the coupling waveguide.

 

Fig. 3 (a) Normalized laser-scanned transmission spectrum of a LN microring resonator with a radius of 60 μm, thickness of 490 nm, and a width of 1.2 μm. The insets show the mode field profiles of mode (b) and (c), respectively. (b)–(d) Detailed transmission spectra of a fundamental, a second-order, and a third-order cavity mode, respectively, with the experimental data shown in black and the theoretical fitting shown in red.

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Figures 3(b) and 3(c) show detailed characterizations of a fundamental mode at 1493.11 nm and a second-order mode at 1492.30 nm, respectively, whose mode field profiles are shown in the insets of Fig. 3(a). These two modes exhibit optical Q of as high as 1.3 × 106 and 1.08 × 106, respectively, which are comparable to those obtained in other on-chip LN microdisk and microring resonators [27,29,31], although our devices exhibit a much smaller waveguide cross section. The similarity of the optical Qs between the fundamental and second-order cavity modes indicates that the optical Q in our devices is still limited by device sidewall roughness. Therefore, further optimization of the fabrication process to improve the sidewall roughness is expected to further improve the optical quality. As shown in Fig. 3(d), even the third-order cavity modes exhibits high optical Q of 1.3 × 105.

The high optical Q enables us to precisely map the dispersion properties of the devices. The dispersion of a cavity mode family can be characterized by the Taylor expression of the cavity resonance frequency ωμ around a reference cavity resonance ω0 [43, 44], ωμ=ω0+μD1+12μ2D2+16μ3D3+, where μ is the relative mode number, D1/(2π) represents the free-spectral range around ω0, and the parameter D2 is related to the GVD β2 as D2=cnD12β2.

To obtain the GVD for the device, we scanned the laser wavelength across a broad spectrum from 1480 nm to 1620 nm for the fundamental mode family and from 1480 nm to 1600 nm for the second-order mode family, and recorded the detailed resonance frequencies. Figures 4(a) and 4(b) show the dispersion of these two mode families, both of which show an overall quadratic dependence. By fitting the experimental data, we obtained that D1/(2π) = 335.15 and 316.04 GHz for the fundamental and second-order mode family respectively, and correspondingly D2/(2π) = 2.66 and 13.82 MHz. As a result, the fundamental cavity mode family exhibits a very small anomalous GVD in this spectral region, with a value of β2 = −0.024 ps2/m which is as small as that of a silica optical fiber [34]. The second-order mode family is also in the anomalous dispersion regime over this spectral region, but with a slightly larger magnitude of β2 = −0.128 ps2/m. On the other hand, Fig. 4(a) shows that, for the fundamental mode family, there exists two mode crossings over this broad spectral region, which originates from the mode hybridization with the second-order and a high-order mode. However, for the second-order mode family, the mode crossing is reduced to only one that is induced by the mode hybridization with the fundamental mode. These observations indicate that there are multiple high-Q mode families with anomalous dispersions that can potentially be employed for nonlinear photonic applications, depending on the specific mode crossing requirement.

 

Fig. 4 Recorded frequency dispersion of the fundamental (a) and second-order (b) mode family as a function of relative mode number μ, respectively, for the 1.2 μm wide ring. The black dots are experimental data, and the solid red lines are theoretical fittings. (a) μ = 0 is designated to be at around 1550 nm, and the scanned wavelength range is from 1480 nm to 1620 nm. (b) μ = 0 is around 1540 nm, and the scanned wavelength range is from 1480 nm to 1600 nm.

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4. Dispersion engineering

Flexible engineering and tuning of GVD is essential for many important applications [34]. In particular, realization of a small magnitude of GVD either in the normal or anomalous dispersion regime is crucial for controlling the nonlinear optical processes. In general, this can be achieved by tailoring the waveguide dimensions such that the waveguide dispersion compensates the material dispersion. To find the right waveguide dimension, we carried out numerical simulations by the finite element method, with the material dispersion taken into account [45], the detailed schematic is shown as Fig. 5(a) inset. The GVD can be tuned by changing h1, H, θ, and W either separately or simultaneously. However, for the fabrication convenience, we only vary the width of the waveguide to approach suitable GVD. Figure 5(a) shows the GVD curves for LN waveguides with different widths. We use the GVD of a straight waveguide as a guidance here since it is generally fairly close to that of a microring resonator with the same cross section and a relatively large radius. Figure 5(a) shows that, in the telecom band, the GVD of the fundamental quasi-TE mode can be flexibly tuned from slightly anomalous regime to slightly normal dispersion regime by changing the waveguide width from 1.4 μm to 2.0 μm.

 

Fig. 5 (a) The simulated dispersion curves obtained by varying the width (W) of the straight waveguide. Blue line: W = 1.2 μm. Red line: W = 1.4 μm. Yellow line: W = 2.0 μm. The inset shows schematic of the straight waveguide, where H = 490 nm, h1 = 210 nm, h2 = 110 nm, and θ = 23°. (b) Recorded frequency dispersion of the ring with the width of (b) 1.4 μm and (c) 2.0 μm. The data was recorded from 1500 nm to 1600 nm. The black dots are experimental data, and the solid red lines are theoretical fittings.

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To confirm our simulations, we fabricated LN microring resonators with waveguide widths of 1.4 μm and 2.0 μm, whose other structure parameters are same to the ring of Fig. 3, and characterized their optical properties. Figure 5(b) shows the recorded dispersion profile of the fundamental quasi-TE cavity mode family inside a LN microring with a waveguide width of 1.4 μm, where the fitted D1/(2π) = 335.67 GHz and D2/(2π) = 1.67 MHz, corresponding to a GVD value of β2 = −0.015 ps2/m in the telecom band, which is even smaller than that shown in Fig. 4(a). When the waveguide width increases to 2.0 μm, the GVD is shifted to slightly normal dispersion (Fig. 5(c)), with a value of β2 = 0.043 ps2/m (the fitted D1/(2π) = 336.55 GHz and D2/(2π) = −4.80 MHz). The experiment results agree well with the theoretical expectation. A slightly discrepancy is likely due to the curvature of a microring which deviates slightly the GVD away from a straight waveguide and the variation of the angle between the optical axis of LN and propagation direction of light along the ring.

One interesting property of lithium niobate is that it exhibits considerable birefringence which provides another way to control the dispersion. To show this, we fabricated microring resonators on a z-cut LN-on-insulator wafer, whose geometry is the same as the microring used in Fig. 3. Figure 6(a) shows the experimentally recorded dispersion profile of the second-order quasi-TE mode inside a microresonator. The experimental result indicates a normal dispersion with a GVD value of β2 = 0.040 ps2/m that is close to our theoretical expectation (Fig. 6(b)). This GVD is distinctive to that of Fig. 4(b) although the device geometries are identical, clearly showing the impact of material birefringence.

 

Fig. 6 (a) Recorded frequency dispersion of the ring on the z-cut LN with the same structure as Fig. 3, scanned from 1490 nm to 1570 nm. The black dots are experimental data, and the solid red line is theoretical fitting, with D1/(2π) = 327.56 GHz, D2/(2π) = −4.08 MHz. (b) The dispersion is simulated for the second-order mode, based on a z-cut LN straight waveguide with the width of 1.2 μm.

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5. Conclusion

In conclusion, we report high-Q LN microring resonators with optical Q above a million. In particular, we were able to precisely engineer the group-velocity dispersion of the microring resonators in both normal and anomalous dispersion regimes between −0.128 ps2/m and 0.043 ps2/m, by controlling the waveguide dimensions and by using the material birefringence. We achieved anomalous dispersion in the telecom band, with a value as small as β2 = −0.015 ps2/m that is even smaller than that of a silica optical fiber. The flexible engineering of group-velocity dispersion now paves a critical step towards broad nonlinear photonic applications in LN microring resonators.

Funding

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency SCOUT program (DARPA) (W31P4Q-15-1-0007) from AMRDEC; National Science Foundation (ECCS-1509749, ECCS-1610674, CCF-1533842).

Acknowledgments

We thank Professor Kerry Vahala and Dr. Xu Yi at Caltech for helpful discussions. This work was partially supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency SCOUT program (W31P4Q-15-1-0007) from the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), and by the National Science Foundation under grants No. ECCS-1610674, ECCS-1509749, and CCF-1533842. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the U.S. Army, or the U.S. Government. This work was performed in part at the Cornell NanoScale Facility, a member of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (National Science Foundation, ECCS-1542081)

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References

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  1. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 201, 253–283 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nature Photon. 1, 407–410 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 488–503 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. T.-J. Wang, J.-Y. He, C.-A. Lee, and H. Niu, “High-quality LiNbO3 microdisk resonators by undercut etching and surface tension reshaping,” Opt. Express 20, 28119–28124 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. Rabiei, J. Ma, S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 25573–25581 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. L. Chen, Q. Xu, M. G. Wood, and R. M. Reano, “Hybrid silicon and lithium niobate electro-optical ring modulator,” Optica 1, 112–118 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1, 350–355 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Wang, M. J. Burek, Z. Lin, H. A. Atikian, V. Venkataraman, I.-C. Huang, P. Stark, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 22, 30924–30933 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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2018 (2)

2017 (12)

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 5, 124–129 (2017)
[Crossref]

L. Chang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, N. Volet, M. Zervas, J. D. Peters, C. L. Manganelli, E. J. Stanton, Y. Li, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous integration of lithium niobate and silicon nitride waveguides for wafer-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 42, 803–806 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111109 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, and M. Lončar, “Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 25, 6963–6973 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, H. Liang, Y. Chen, and Q. Lin, “Self-referenced temperature sensing with a lithium niobate microdisk resonator,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1281–1284 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sun, H. Liang, R. Luo, W. C. Jiang, X.-C. Zhang, and Q. Lin, “Nonlinear optical oscillation dynamics in high-Q lithium niobate microresonators,” Opt. Express 25, 13504–13516 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, S. rogers, H. Liang, Y. He, and Q. Lin, “On-chip second-harmonic generation and braodband parametric down-conversion in a lithim niobate microresonator,” Opt. Express 25, 24531–24539 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liang, R. Luo, Y. He, H. Jiang, and Q. Lin, “High-quality lithium niobate photonic crystal nanocavities,” Optica 4, 1251–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Wolf, I. Breunig, H. Zappe, and K. Buse, “Cascaded second-order optical nonlinearities in on-chip micro rings,” Opt. Express 25, 29927–29933 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, Z. Li, M.-H. Kim, X. Xiong, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, N. Yu, and M. Lončar, “Metasurface-assisted phase-matching-free second harmonic generation in lithium niobate waveguides,” Nature Communications 8, 2098 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Lončar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4, 1536–1537 (2017)
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave circuits in lithium niobate through hybrid waveguides with silicon photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3, 531–535 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in an On-Chip LiNbO3 Microresonator,” Physical Review Applied 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. C. Jiang and Q. Lin, “Chip-scale cavity optomechanics in lithium niobate,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36920 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Yang, K. Beha, D. C. Cole, X. Yi, P. Del’Haye, H. Lee, J. Li, D. Y. Oh, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. J. Vahala, “Broadband dispersion-engineered microresonator on a chip,” Nature Photon. 10, 316–320 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 488–503 (2012).
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T.-J. Wang, J.-Y. He, C.-A. Lee, and H. Niu, “High-quality LiNbO3 microdisk resonators by undercut etching and surface tension reshaping,” Opt. Express 20, 28119–28124 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nature Photon. 1, 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 201, 253–283 (2004).
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2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
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J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46313 (2017).
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Atikian, H. A.

Attanasio, D. V.

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K. Y. Yang, K. Beha, D. C. Cole, X. Yi, P. Del’Haye, H. Lee, J. Li, D. Y. Oh, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. J. Vahala, “Broadband dispersion-engineered microresonator on a chip,” Nature Photon. 10, 316–320 (2016).
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J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23, 23072–23078 (2015).
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F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mat. 27, 8075–8081 (2015).
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Bosenberg, W. R.

Bossi, D. E.

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Bowers, J. E.

Brasch, V.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
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Breunig, I.

Burek, M. J.

Buse, K.

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Cai, L.

Camacho-González, G. F.

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M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 5, 124–129 (2017)
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J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in an On-Chip LiNbO3 Microresonator,” Physical Review Applied 6, 014002 (2016).
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J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
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Chiles, J.

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111109 (2017).
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J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1, 350–355 (2014).
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P. Rabiei, J. Ma, S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 25573–25581 (2013).
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Choi, D.-Y.

Chu, W.

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 5, 124–129 (2017)
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J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
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K. Y. Yang, K. Beha, D. C. Cole, X. Yi, P. Del’Haye, H. Lee, J. Li, D. Y. Oh, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. J. Vahala, “Broadband dispersion-engineered microresonator on a chip,” Nature Photon. 10, 316–320 (2016).
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Cui, J.

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mat. 27, 8075–8081 (2015).
[Crossref]

Degl’Innocenti, R.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nature Photon. 1, 407–410 (2007).
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Del’Haye, P.

K. Y. Yang, K. Beha, D. C. Cole, X. Yi, P. Del’Haye, H. Lee, J. Li, D. Y. Oh, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. J. Vahala, “Broadband dispersion-engineered microresonator on a chip,” Nature Photon. 10, 316–320 (2016).
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DeRose, C. T.

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave circuits in lithium niobate through hybrid waveguides with silicon photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
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Diddams, S. A.

K. Y. Yang, K. Beha, D. C. Cole, X. Yi, P. Del’Haye, H. Lee, J. Li, D. Y. Oh, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. J. Vahala, “Broadband dispersion-engineered microresonator on a chip,” Nature Photon. 10, 316–320 (2016).
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T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
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Diziain, S.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
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Eckardt, R. C.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fang, W.

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 5, 124–129 (2017)
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in an On-Chip LiNbO3 Microresonator,” Physical Review Applied 6, 014002 (2016).
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J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
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Fang, Z.

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 5, 124–129 (2017)
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J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in an On-Chip LiNbO3 Microresonator,” Physical Review Applied 6, 014002 (2016).
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J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
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Fathpour, S.

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111109 (2017).
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J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1, 350–355 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Rabiei, J. Ma, S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 25573–25581 (2013).
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Fejer, M. M.

Fong, K. Y.

Foster, M. A.

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
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C. Wang, Z. Li, M.-H. Kim, X. Xiong, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, N. Yu, and M. Lončar, “Metasurface-assisted phase-matching-free second harmonic generation in lithium niobate waveguides,” Nature Communications 8, 2098 (2017).
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J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23, 23072–23078 (2015).
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Xu, Q.

Xu, Y.

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 5, 124–129 (2017)
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J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in an On-Chip LiNbO3 Microresonator,” Physical Review Applied 6, 014002 (2016).
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J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
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K. Y. Yang, K. Beha, D. C. Cole, X. Yi, P. Del’Haye, H. Lee, J. Li, D. Y. Oh, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. J. Vahala, “Broadband dispersion-engineered microresonator on a chip,” Nature Photon. 10, 316–320 (2016).
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Zelmon, D. E.

Zervas, M.

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J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23, 23072–23078 (2015).
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Zhang, M.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X.-C.

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P. Apiratikul, J. J. Wathen, G. A. Porkolab, B. Wang, L. He, T. E. Murphy, and C. J. K. Richardson, “Enhanced continuous-wave four-wave mixing efficiency in nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides,” Opt. Express 22, 26814–26824 (2014).
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S. Li, L. Cai, Y. Wang, Y. Jiang, and H. Hu, “Waveguides consisting of single-crystal lithium niobate thin film and oxidized titanium stripe,” Opt. Express 23, 24212–24219 (2015).
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M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 5, 124–129 (2017)
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of a LN microring resonator with a radius of 60 μm, waveguide thickness of 490 nm, and waveguide width of 1.2 μm. (b) SEM image of the cross section of a waveguide. That of the microring is similar except with a larger waveguide width.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the experimental setup. The inset shows an optical image of a device.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized laser-scanned transmission spectrum of a LN microring resonator with a radius of 60 μm, thickness of 490 nm, and a width of 1.2 μm. The insets show the mode field profiles of mode (b) and (c), respectively. (b)–(d) Detailed transmission spectra of a fundamental, a second-order, and a third-order cavity mode, respectively, with the experimental data shown in black and the theoretical fitting shown in red.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Recorded frequency dispersion of the fundamental (a) and second-order (b) mode family as a function of relative mode number μ, respectively, for the 1.2 μm wide ring. The black dots are experimental data, and the solid red lines are theoretical fittings. (a) μ = 0 is designated to be at around 1550 nm, and the scanned wavelength range is from 1480 nm to 1620 nm. (b) μ = 0 is around 1540 nm, and the scanned wavelength range is from 1480 nm to 1600 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The simulated dispersion curves obtained by varying the width (W) of the straight waveguide. Blue line: W = 1.2 μm. Red line: W = 1.4 μm. Yellow line: W = 2.0 μm. The inset shows schematic of the straight waveguide, where H = 490 nm, h1 = 210 nm, h2 = 110 nm, and θ = 23°. (b) Recorded frequency dispersion of the ring with the width of (b) 1.4 μm and (c) 2.0 μm. The data was recorded from 1500 nm to 1600 nm. The black dots are experimental data, and the solid red lines are theoretical fittings.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Recorded frequency dispersion of the ring on the z-cut LN with the same structure as Fig. 3, scanned from 1490 nm to 1570 nm. The black dots are experimental data, and the solid red line is theoretical fitting, with D1/(2π) = 327.56 GHz, D2/(2π) = −4.08 MHz. (b) The dispersion is simulated for the second-order mode, based on a z-cut LN straight waveguide with the width of 1.2 μm.

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