Abstract

We report on the development of a highly sensitive photoacoustic (PA) spectrometer based on a miniaturized all-optical detecting sensor. The sensor has a cell volume of less than 6 μL and relies on a cantilever-based acoustic transducer, which is equipped with an optical fiber interferometric readout. The spectrometer reaches a noise equivalent concentration of 15 ppb (300 ms time constant) for acetylene detection using a 23 mW excitation laser source, which corresponds to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 7.7 × 10−10 W cm−1 Hz−1/2. The performance offered by this PA spectrometer is thus comparable to those reported for bulkier PA analyzers. Furthermore, because both the excitation and detection signals are brought to the PA cell via optical fibers, our spectrometer can be used in harsh environments, where electronic devices are prone to failure, and it is specially suitable for multiplexed remote detection applications. We believe that our study paves the way for the development of PA spectrometers that allow in-situ gas detection in space-limited circumstances.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a widely used technique for trace gas measurements, as it offers fast and sensitive detection via a background free absorption phenomenon [1]. A modulated excitation laser beam, tuned to one of the rotational-vibrational transitions of the targeted molecules, brings the targeted molecules to an excited state. The excited molecules then go back to the ground state via a non-radiative transition that causes a periodic heating of the immediate surroundings. This local heating triggers a periodic thermal expansion, which, in turn, gives rise to a pressure wave. Measuring the amplitude of the pressure wave via an acoustic transducer, one can quantitatively assess the concentration of the targeted gas in a sample [2].

Traditional photoacoustic (PA) gas analyzers mostly rely on rather bulky setups that require a large sample gas volume and are not suitable for space-limited gas detection applications [3]. It is thus not surprising that a significant part of literature has been focusing on the design of miniaturized PA sensors that could offer better portability and local detection capability without compromising the detection sensitivity [4–6]. It was for instance showed that, using quartz tuning forks as acoustic transducers [7–11], one can achieve gas detection sensitivity at the ppt level while reducing the measurement volume to a few cubic centimeters [12]. Several miniaturized PA sensors with various cell structures, using commercial microphones as the acoustic transducer, were also proposed [5, 13–19]. Despite the small sensor dimensions achieved, most of those sensors cannot work independently in small space. Rather, bulky gas sampling systems and complex optical alignment are generally necessary for their proper operation. To solve this problem, in 2013, Cao et a. introduced a novel millimeter scale PA sensor that is equipped with a fiber-based optomechanical microphone. Using this sensor, the authors were able to develop a PA spectrometer reaching a noise equivalent concentration (NEC) of 4.3 ppm and with great in-situ gas detection potential [20]. On the basis of a similar design, Gruca et al. lowered the sensitivity to a NEC of 330 ppb [21], which is the lowest sensitivity reported to date at this sensor scale. However, this limit is still far from that offered by traditional PA gas analyzers [22,23].

In this paper, we present another PA spectrometer based on a new all-optical detecting sensor. We show that the spectrometer, which has a total sensor dimension of around 4 mm × 5 mm × 30 mm, offers a NEC as low as 15 ppb, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA) of 7.7 × 10−10 W cm−1 Hz−1/2. To our best knowledge, such a high sensitivity has not been reported before with PA sensors at this scale.

2. Experimental details

2.1. Photoacoustic sensor design

Figure. 1 shows a 3D-sketch of the PA sensor. An optical fiber brings a modulated excitation laser beam into a miniaturized PA cell, which contains the gas that has to be analyzed. The acoustic wave generated by the PA excitation reaches the end of the cell, where it impinges on a micromirror that is attached to the free hanging end of a cantilever beam. Another optical fiber, aligned with the micromirror, finally allows one to detect the deflection of the cantilever, induced by the acoustic wave, via optical fiber interferometry. Such cantilever design aims at reducing viscous drag losses [24] that traditional cantilevers (like those used in cantilever enhanced PAS [25,26]), which have larger drag area, would suffer from.

 

Fig. 1 Sketch of the PA sensor. Insets: Enlarged sketch and microscopic views of the micro mirror alignment against the PA cell outlet and the readout fiber. All drawings are to scale.

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For the device presented in this paper, the PA cell was made from a capillary tube (inner diameter = 0.6 mm; outer diameter = 1 mm). Both ends were first stretched by a pipette puller (Narishige PC-100) and then cut and polished to proper size. The excitation fiber was inserted into one end of the PA cell and then sealed around. The distance between the cleaved end of the excitation fiber and the other end of the PA cell was around 20 mm, leading to a cell volume of less than 6 μL. The inner diameter of the gas outlet was 266 μm, while the gap between the micromirror (300 μm × 300 μm × 30 μm) and the gas outlet was around 30 μm. The cell outlet inner diameter was chosen to be fully covered by the micro-mirror. Other cell dimensions were chosen as the best compromise between ease of fabrication and miniaturization requirements. The cantilever beam was obtained by first tapering and then laser cutting a single mode optical fiber, resulting in final diameter of the beam at the anchoring point and at the free hanging end of 27 μm and 14 μm, respectively, over a length of 2 mm (including the length of the micromirror). The micro mirror was cut from a borosilicate glass ribbon, which was coated with a Cr and Au layer to increase reflectivity. The resonance frequency (RF) of the cantilever at atmosphere pressure is around 1196 Hz. The two stages used to assemble the probe (Stage 1 and Stage 2 in the figure) were made from 3 mm × 3 mm × 7 mm borosilicate glass ferrules and were machined by means of a diamond wire cutter. All the different parts were further aligned and glued to a glass slide (Stage 3).

2.2. Experimental setup

Figure. 2 shows the experimental setup used to evaluate the performance of the PA sensor (see also [21]). Gas mixtures with various C2H2 concentration were obtained by mixing a standard source gas (2% C2H2) with N2 (5N) at different flow rates controlled by two mass flow controllers (Bronkhorst EL-FLOW, respectively 2–100 ml/min and 40–2000 ml/min). A 23 mW c-band semiconductor laser (Oclaro, TL5000VCJ) was used as the excitation laser. Wavelength modulation of the excitation laser was realized by modulating the laser phase current with an external current source (Thorlabs, LDC 202 C). The current source was driven by the internal signal generator of a lock-in amplifier (SRS, SR865). Throughout all experiments reported in this paper, the modulation frequency was fixed to half RF of the cantilever measured under atmosphere pressure. The peak-to-peak modulation amplitude was set to 0.27 cm−1. The vibration of the cantilever induced by the PA signal was detected by an interferometer coupled through the readout fiber aligned with the micromirror. To detect the vibration amplitude of the cantilever, the output of the interferometer was then fed into the lock-in amplifier, which was locked to the second harmonic of the current source modulation frequency (corresponding to the RF of the cantilever). Two type of laser interferometers were used in our experiments. A low noise level interferometer (OP1550 V1, Optics11, [27]), whose working principle has been described in detail in our previous work [28–30], was used to measure the sensitivity of the PA spectrometer. Because for high gas concentrations, the PA signal goes beyond the linear range of the OP1550 V1, to investigate the linearity of the instrument we used another interferometer (OP1550 V3, Optics11), which is equipped with a fast detuning technique that guarantees a linear output up to μm scale cantilever deflection [31].

 

Fig. 2 A schematic view of the experimental setup.

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3. Results

To evaluate the sensitivity of the PA spectrometer, we filled the chamber with a 100 ppm C2H2 gas mixture. The gas pressure was set to 430 mbar, which we found to be the pressure at which our sensor provides the highest PA signal. The wavelength of the excitation laser was sinusoidally modulated and simultaneously scanned across the P(9) absorption line of C2H2. Fig. 3 shows the lock-in output signal as a function of central wavelength of the excitation laser. Data points were taken with a phase current step size of 0.02 mA, which is close to the accuracy limit of the current source we used. Waiting time between two adjacent points are 1 s. The lock-in time constant was set to 300 ms. The peak-to-peak signal amplitude in Fig. 3 is around 124.7 mV.

 

Fig. 3 Lock-in output signal as a function of central wavelength of excitation laser. Inset: Noise sample collected when the excitation laser wavelength was tuned away from the P(9) absorption line.

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To estimate the noise, the excitation laser central wavelength was tuned to 1530.53 nm, where PA signal is relatively small within the tunable range of the excitation laser used. The lock-in output signal was then sampled at a rate of 1 sample per second for 200 seconds, as shown in the inset of Fig. 3. The waiting time between two adjacent data points is 1 s. Each scan is made out of 36 points and is preceded by a 6 s long pause that is needed to allow the system to stabilize. The laser tuning time is in the sub-second regime, and is thus negligible in the calculation of the scan duration, which is therefore approximately equal to 42 s. From this set of data, we can conclude that the standard deviation of the noise sample (1σ) is equal to 1.823 × 10−5 V, which, combined with the the peak-to-peak signal data collected, leads to a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 6840 and a NEC of 15 ppb. For higher gas pressure, one expects a deterioration of the performance of the sensor. Indeed, for pressure equal to 970 mbar, we observed a NEC of 23 ppb.

For the sake of completeness, it is also worth calculating the NNEA, which normalizes the sensitivity performance of an instrument over the excitation laser power and the absorption line strength. Following [32], one finds:

NNEA=αPSNRΔf
where, α is the absorption coefficient which can be calculated according to the HITRAN database [33, 34], P is the excitation laser power, and Δf is the detection bandwidth (which, for Gaussian noise, is the equivalent noise bandwidth (ENBW) of the lock-in amplifier [35,36]). Using the parameters listed in table 1, one can conclude that our PA sensor reached a NNEA of 7.7 × 10−10W cm−1Hz−1/2.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters used for NNEA calculation

As a reference, the same set of measurements was performed by means of a commercial PA gas analyzer (PA201, Gasera, [37, 38]) under the same conditions of C2H2 concentration, pressure, temperature, and excitation laser source. The commercial instrument was able to reach a NNEA of 2.5 × 10−10W cm−1Hz−1/2. We can conclude that bulkier traditional PA analyzer can offer a NNEA that is only a factor of 3 better than what we can achieve with our miniaturized PA sensor for in-situ applications.

To evaluate the linearity of the PA sensor, gas mixtures of various C2H2 concentrations were filled into the gas chamber. Fig. 4 shows the peak-to-peak signal amplitude obtained with wavelength scan experiments similar to those described above, under C2H2 concentrations ranging from 50 ppm to 5000 ppm. All measurements were performed at around 970 mbar. The product-momentum coefficient squared of the linear fit showed in the figure (R2 = 0.9997) proves that the data are strongly linearly correlated throughout the entire concentration range explored.

 

Fig. 4 Peak-to-peak signal amplitude as a function of gas concentration for concentrations that go from 50 ppm to 5000 ppm. Inset: peak-to-peal signal amplitude, in log-log scale, over much larger concentration range.

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The inset of Fig. 4 further shows the results obtained under C2H2 concentrations ranging from 50 ppm up to 1.988 × 104 ppm (in log-log scale). It is evident that our PAS can provide a large dynamic range [36].

4. Conclusion and discussions

We have reported on the development of a highly sensitive PA spectrometer based on a miniaturized all-optical detecting sensor. Using a 23 mW c-band semiconductor laser as the excitation light source, we were able to achieve a NEC of 15 ppb (300 ms time constant) for Acetylene detection at 430 mbar gas pressure and room temperature, which corresponds to a NNEA of 7.7 × 10−10 W cm−1 Hz−1/2. To our best knowledge, such a high sensitivity has not been reported before with PA sensors at this scale, and it is getting close to that reached by one of the most sensitive PA gas analyzers in the market, despite much smaller PA sensor size.

The experimental results proved that highly sensitive gas detection with ultra-small cell volume is possible by utilizing the proposed tapered fiber cantilever as the acoustic transducer for PA signal detection. Furthermore, because of its all-optical design, our sensor is electromagnetic noise resistant and is specially suitable for multiplexed remote detection applications. Potential applications may range from leak detection in industrial settings [39] to real-time volatile emission detection on plants [40].

The sensitivity performance of the PA sensor could be further enhanced by adapting other excitation sources that cover stronger absorption lines of the target gases into the system, by optimizing the PA cell dimensions, and by applying reflective layer coating on the cell inner wall. Portability of the miniaturized PA sensor could be greatly improved by mounting the readout fiber and the cell at the same side relative to the micromirror. Further studies on the stability of the performance and on the influence of external vibrations on the detection mechanisms are needed to offer a more comprehensive evaluation of the PA sensor developed.

Funding

European Research Council (ERC) (615170); LASERLAB-EUROPE (654148).

Acknowledgments

The authors are indebted to Grzegorz Gruca for his support. The authors would like to thank Jaakko Lehtinen, Vincenzo Spagnolo, and Fan Yang for helpful discussions.

References and links

1. M. W. Sigrist, “Trace gas monitoring by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and related techniques (plenary),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 486–490 (2003). [CrossRef]  

2. J. P. Waclawek, H. Moser, and B. Lendl, “Compact quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor system for detection of carbon disulfide,” Opt. Express 24, 6559–6571 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. D. Dumitras, D. Dutu, C. Matei, A. Magureanu, M. Petrus, and C. Popa, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation, and characterization,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3655 (2007).

4. J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015). [CrossRef]  

5. A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, F. Nikonovich, M. Zakharich, V. Firago, N. Kazak, and V. Starovoitov, “Miniaturized resonant photoacoustic cell of inclined geometry for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 283–289 (2010). [CrossRef]  

6. A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, A. Kuz’muk, and V. Starovoitov, “A miniature prototype of a resonance photoacoustic cell for gas sensing,” Opt. Spectrosc. 115, 567–573 (2013). [CrossRef]  

7. M. Köhring, S. Böttger, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Temperature effects in tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 21, 20911–20922 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 673–680 (2009). [CrossRef]  

9. L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Qepas spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 627–635 (2010). [CrossRef]  

10. P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors 14, 6165–6206 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable qepas multi-gas sensor,” in “SPIE OPTO,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 79450R.

12. V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Part-per-trillion level sf 6 detection using a quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor with single-mode fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4461–4463 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. A. Gorelik and V. Starovoitov, “Small-size resonant photoacoustic cell with reduced window background for laser detection of gases,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107, 830–835 (2009). [CrossRef]  

14. A. Gorelik and V. Starovoitov, “Application of a miniaturized photoacoustic cell for high-sensitivity laser detection of ammonia in gas media,” https://arXiv:0810.0410 (2008).

15. J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016). [CrossRef]  

16. J. Huber, J. Wöllenstein, S. Kolb, A. Dehé, and F. Jost, “Miniaturized photoacoustic co 2 sensors for consumer applications,” Proc. Sens pp. 688–692 (2015).

17. J. Huber, A. Ambs, S. Rademacher, and J. Wöllenstein, “A selective, miniaturized, low-cost detection element for a photoacoustic co2 sensor for room climate monitoring,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1168–1171 (2014). [CrossRef]  

18. E. Holthoff, J. Bender, P. Pellegrino, and A. Fisher, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace vapor detection and molecular discrimination,” Sensors 10, 1986–2002 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. R. Bauer, G. Stewart, W. Johnstone, E. Boyd, and M. Lengden, “3d-printed miniature gas cell for photoacoustic spectroscopy of trace gases,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4796–4799 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Ma, “Miniature fiber-tip photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 38, 434–436 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. G. Gruca, K. Heeck, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Demonstration of a miniature all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer based on ferrule-top technology,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1672–1674 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, “An all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 153, 214–218 (2011). [CrossRef]  

23. Z. Wu, L. Zhai, X. He, and Q. Yu, “High-limit detection and accurate analysis of acetylene in transformer oil gases with a tunable laser-based photoacoustic spectrometer,” Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing 50, 210–216 (2014). [CrossRef]  

24. J. Lu, T. Ikehara, Y. Zhang, T. Mihara, and R. Maeda, “Mechanical quality factor of microcantilevers for mass sensing applications,” in “Microelectronics, MEMS, and Nanotechnology,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2007), pp. 68001Y.

25. V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16–21 (2008). [CrossRef]  

26. W. Wei, Y. Zhu, C. Lin, L. Tian, Z. Xu, and J. Nong, “All-optical cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the open environment,” Int. J. Thermophys. 36, 1116–1122 (2015). [CrossRef]  

27. Declaration of interest: MS and DI are share holders of Optics11.

28. D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, and M. Elwenspoek et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007). [CrossRef]  

29. G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Ferrule-top micromachined devices: design, fabrication, performance,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010). [CrossRef]  

30. S. Beekmans and D. Iannuzzi, “A metrological approach for the calibration of force transducers with interferometric readout,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3, 025004 (2015). [CrossRef]  

31. H. van Hoorn, N. A. Kurniawan, G. H. Koenderink, and D. Iannuzzi, “Local dynamic mechanical analysis for heterogeneous soft matter using ferrule-top indentation,” Soft Matter 12, 3066–3073 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. M. Baudelet, Laser Spectroscopy for Sensing: Fundamentals, Techniques and Applications (Elsevier, 2014).

33. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. R. Brown et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013). [CrossRef]  

34. L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, and D. A. Chu, “Linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994). [CrossRef]  

35. J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2012). [CrossRef]  

36. W. Jin, Y. Cao, F. Yang, and H. L. Ho, “Ultra-sensitive all-fibre photothermal spectroscopy with large dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6767 (2015). [CrossRef]  

37. V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 451–454 (2007). [CrossRef]  

38. C. Hirschmann, J. Lehtinen, J. Uotila, S. Ojala, and R. Keiski, “Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 4, 603–610 (2013). [CrossRef]  

39. M. Gondal, M. Baig, and M. Shwehdi, “Laser sensor for detection of sf/sub 6/leaks in high power insulated switchgear systems,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 9, 421–427 (2002). [CrossRef]  

40. L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. M. W. Sigrist, “Trace gas monitoring by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and related techniques (plenary),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 486–490 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. P. Waclawek, H. Moser, and B. Lendl, “Compact quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor system for detection of carbon disulfide,” Opt. Express 24, 6559–6571 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Dumitras, D. Dutu, C. Matei, A. Magureanu, M. Petrus, and C. Popa, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation, and characterization,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3655 (2007).
  4. J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, F. Nikonovich, M. Zakharich, V. Firago, N. Kazak, and V. Starovoitov, “Miniaturized resonant photoacoustic cell of inclined geometry for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 283–289 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, A. Kuz’muk, and V. Starovoitov, “A miniature prototype of a resonance photoacoustic cell for gas sensing,” Opt. Spectrosc. 115, 567–573 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Köhring, S. Böttger, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Temperature effects in tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 21, 20911–20922 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 673–680 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Qepas spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 627–635 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors 14, 6165–6206 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable qepas multi-gas sensor,” in “SPIE OPTO,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 79450R.
  12. V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Part-per-trillion level sf 6 detection using a quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor with single-mode fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4461–4463 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Gorelik and V. Starovoitov, “Small-size resonant photoacoustic cell with reduced window background for laser detection of gases,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107, 830–835 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Gorelik and V. Starovoitov, “Application of a miniaturized photoacoustic cell for high-sensitivity laser detection of ammonia in gas media,” https://arXiv:0810.0410 (2008).
  15. J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Huber, J. Wöllenstein, S. Kolb, A. Dehé, and F. Jost, “Miniaturized photoacoustic co 2 sensors for consumer applications,” Proc. Sens pp. 688–692 (2015).
  17. J. Huber, A. Ambs, S. Rademacher, and J. Wöllenstein, “A selective, miniaturized, low-cost detection element for a photoacoustic co2 sensor for room climate monitoring,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1168–1171 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. Holthoff, J. Bender, P. Pellegrino, and A. Fisher, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace vapor detection and molecular discrimination,” Sensors 10, 1986–2002 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. R. Bauer, G. Stewart, W. Johnstone, E. Boyd, and M. Lengden, “3d-printed miniature gas cell for photoacoustic spectroscopy of trace gases,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4796–4799 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Ma, “Miniature fiber-tip photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 38, 434–436 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. G. Gruca, K. Heeck, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Demonstration of a miniature all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer based on ferrule-top technology,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1672–1674 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, “An all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 153, 214–218 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. Z. Wu, L. Zhai, X. He, and Q. Yu, “High-limit detection and accurate analysis of acetylene in transformer oil gases with a tunable laser-based photoacoustic spectrometer,” Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing 50, 210–216 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Lu, T. Ikehara, Y. Zhang, T. Mihara, and R. Maeda, “Mechanical quality factor of microcantilevers for mass sensing applications,” in “Microelectronics, MEMS, and Nanotechnology,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2007), pp. 68001Y.
  25. V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16–21 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. Wei, Y. Zhu, C. Lin, L. Tian, Z. Xu, and J. Nong, “All-optical cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the open environment,” Int. J. Thermophys. 36, 1116–1122 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. Declaration of interest: MS and DI are share holders of Optics11.
  28. D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Ferrule-top micromachined devices: design, fabrication, performance,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. Beekmans and D. Iannuzzi, “A metrological approach for the calibration of force transducers with interferometric readout,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3, 025004 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. van Hoorn, N. A. Kurniawan, G. H. Koenderink, and D. Iannuzzi, “Local dynamic mechanical analysis for heterogeneous soft matter using ferrule-top indentation,” Soft Matter 12, 3066–3073 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. M. Baudelet, Laser Spectroscopy for Sensing: Fundamentals, Techniques and Applications (Elsevier, 2014).
  33. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  34. L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, and D. A. Chu, “Linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  35. J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  36. W. Jin, Y. Cao, F. Yang, and H. L. Ho, “Ultra-sensitive all-fibre photothermal spectroscopy with large dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6767 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  37. V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 451–454 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  38. C. Hirschmann, J. Lehtinen, J. Uotila, S. Ojala, and R. Keiski, “Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 4, 603–610 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  39. M. Gondal, M. Baig, and M. Shwehdi, “Laser sensor for detection of sf/sub 6/leaks in high power insulated switchgear systems,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 9, 421–427 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  40. L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
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2016 (3)

J. P. Waclawek, H. Moser, and B. Lendl, “Compact quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor system for detection of carbon disulfide,” Opt. Express 24, 6559–6571 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. van Hoorn, N. A. Kurniawan, G. H. Koenderink, and D. Iannuzzi, “Local dynamic mechanical analysis for heterogeneous soft matter using ferrule-top indentation,” Soft Matter 12, 3066–3073 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

S. Beekmans and D. Iannuzzi, “A metrological approach for the calibration of force transducers with interferometric readout,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3, 025004 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Wei, Y. Zhu, C. Lin, L. Tian, Z. Xu, and J. Nong, “All-optical cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the open environment,” Int. J. Thermophys. 36, 1116–1122 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, Y. Cao, F. Yang, and H. L. Ho, “Ultra-sensitive all-fibre photothermal spectroscopy with large dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6767 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. Huber, A. Ambs, S. Rademacher, and J. Wöllenstein, “A selective, miniaturized, low-cost detection element for a photoacoustic co2 sensor for room climate monitoring,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1168–1171 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors 14, 6165–6206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bauer, G. Stewart, W. Johnstone, E. Boyd, and M. Lengden, “3d-printed miniature gas cell for photoacoustic spectroscopy of trace gases,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4796–4799 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, L. Zhai, X. He, and Q. Yu, “High-limit detection and accurate analysis of acetylene in transformer oil gases with a tunable laser-based photoacoustic spectrometer,” Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing 50, 210–216 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Hirschmann, J. Lehtinen, J. Uotila, S. Ojala, and R. Keiski, “Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 4, 603–610 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Ma, “Miniature fiber-tip photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 38, 434–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gruca, K. Heeck, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Demonstration of a miniature all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer based on ferrule-top technology,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1672–1674 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, A. Kuz’muk, and V. Starovoitov, “A miniature prototype of a resonance photoacoustic cell for gas sensing,” Opt. Spectrosc. 115, 567–573 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Köhring, S. Böttger, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Temperature effects in tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 21, 20911–20922 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, “An all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 153, 214–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

E. Holthoff, J. Bender, P. Pellegrino, and A. Fisher, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace vapor detection and molecular discrimination,” Sensors 10, 1986–2002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Qepas spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 627–635 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, F. Nikonovich, M. Zakharich, V. Firago, N. Kazak, and V. Starovoitov, “Miniaturized resonant photoacoustic cell of inclined geometry for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 283–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Ferrule-top micromachined devices: design, fabrication, performance,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 673–680 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Gorelik and V. Starovoitov, “Small-size resonant photoacoustic cell with reduced window background for laser detection of gases,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107, 830–835 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 451–454 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Dumitras, D. Dutu, C. Matei, A. Magureanu, M. Petrus, and C. Popa, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation, and characterization,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3655 (2007).

2003 (1)

M. W. Sigrist, “Trace gas monitoring by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and related techniques (plenary),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 486–490 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Gondal, M. Baig, and M. Shwehdi, “Laser sensor for detection of sf/sub 6/leaks in high power insulated switchgear systems,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 9, 421–427 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, and D. A. Chu, “Linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ambs, A.

J. Huber, A. Ambs, S. Rademacher, and J. Wöllenstein, “A selective, miniaturized, low-cost detection element for a photoacoustic co2 sensor for room climate monitoring,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1168–1171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baig, M.

M. Gondal, M. Baig, and M. Shwehdi, “Laser sensor for detection of sf/sub 6/leaks in high power insulated switchgear systems,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 9, 421–427 (2002).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baudelet, M.

M. Baudelet, Laser Spectroscopy for Sensing: Fundamentals, Techniques and Applications (Elsevier, 2014).

Bauer, R.

Beekmans, S.

S. Beekmans and D. Iannuzzi, “A metrological approach for the calibration of force transducers with interferometric readout,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3, 025004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bender, J.

E. Holthoff, J. Bender, P. Pellegrino, and A. Fisher, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace vapor detection and molecular discrimination,” Sensors 10, 1986–2002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berenschot, J.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bernacki, B. E.

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

Böttger, S.

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boyd, E.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

W. Jin, Y. Cao, F. Yang, and H. L. Ho, “Ultra-sensitive all-fibre photothermal spectroscopy with large dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6767 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Ma, “Miniature fiber-tip photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 38, 434–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, D. A.

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, and D. A. Chu, “Linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[Crossref]

Coutard, J.-G.

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cristescu, S. M.

L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Man, S.

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Ferrule-top micromachined devices: design, fabrication, performance,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dehé, A.

J. Huber, J. Wöllenstein, S. Kolb, A. Dehé, and F. Jost, “Miniaturized photoacoustic co 2 sensors for consumer applications,” Proc. Sens pp. 688–692 (2015).

Dong, L.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Qepas spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 627–635 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable qepas multi-gas sensor,” in “SPIE OPTO,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 79450R.

Dumitras, D.

D. Dumitras, D. Dutu, C. Matei, A. Magureanu, M. Petrus, and C. Popa, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation, and characterization,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3655 (2007).

Dutu, D.

D. Dumitras, D. Dutu, C. Matei, A. Magureanu, M. Petrus, and C. Popa, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation, and characterization,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3655 (2007).

Elwenspoek, M.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Firago, V.

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, F. Nikonovich, M. Zakharich, V. Firago, N. Kazak, and V. Starovoitov, “Miniaturized resonant photoacoustic cell of inclined geometry for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 283–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fisher, A.

E. Holthoff, J. Bender, P. Pellegrino, and A. Fisher, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace vapor detection and molecular discrimination,” Sensors 10, 1986–2002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fonsen, J.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 451–454 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gadgil, V.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gidon, S.

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gliére, A.

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Glière, A.

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gondal, M.

M. Gondal, M. Baig, and M. Shwehdi, “Laser sensor for detection of sf/sub 6/leaks in high power insulated switchgear systems,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 9, 421–427 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gordley, L. L.

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, and D. A. Chu, “Linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gorelik, A.

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, A. Kuz’muk, and V. Starovoitov, “A miniature prototype of a resonance photoacoustic cell for gas sensing,” Opt. Spectrosc. 115, 567–573 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, F. Nikonovich, M. Zakharich, V. Firago, N. Kazak, and V. Starovoitov, “Miniaturized resonant photoacoustic cell of inclined geometry for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 283–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Gorelik and V. Starovoitov, “Small-size resonant photoacoustic cell with reduced window background for laser detection of gases,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107, 830–835 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Gorelik and V. Starovoitov, “Application of a miniaturized photoacoustic cell for high-sensitivity laser detection of ammonia in gas media,” https://arXiv:0810.0410 (2008).

Gruca, G.

G. Gruca, K. Heeck, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Demonstration of a miniature all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer based on ferrule-top technology,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1672–1674 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Ferrule-top micromachined devices: design, fabrication, performance,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gupta, K. J.

L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, M. A.

L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harren, F. J.

L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, X.

Z. Wu, L. Zhai, X. He, and Q. Yu, “High-limit detection and accurate analysis of acetylene in transformer oil gases with a tunable laser-based photoacoustic spectrometer,” Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing 50, 210–216 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hebelstrup, K. H.

L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heeck, K.

G. Gruca, K. Heeck, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Demonstration of a miniature all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer based on ferrule-top technology,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1672–1674 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hirschmann, C.

C. Hirschmann, J. Lehtinen, J. Uotila, S. Ojala, and R. Keiski, “Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 4, 603–610 (2013).
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Ho, H. L.

W. Jin, Y. Cao, F. Yang, and H. L. Ho, “Ultra-sensitive all-fibre photothermal spectroscopy with large dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6767 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Ma, “Miniature fiber-tip photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 38, 434–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hodgkinson, J.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Holthoff, E.

E. Holthoff, J. Bender, P. Pellegrino, and A. Fisher, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace vapor detection and molecular discrimination,” Sensors 10, 1986–2002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, J.

J. Huber, A. Ambs, S. Rademacher, and J. Wöllenstein, “A selective, miniaturized, low-cost detection element for a photoacoustic co2 sensor for room climate monitoring,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1168–1171 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Huber, J. Wöllenstein, S. Kolb, A. Dehé, and F. Jost, “Miniaturized photoacoustic co 2 sensors for consumer applications,” Proc. Sens pp. 688–692 (2015).

Iannuzzi, D.

H. van Hoorn, N. A. Kurniawan, G. H. Koenderink, and D. Iannuzzi, “Local dynamic mechanical analysis for heterogeneous soft matter using ferrule-top indentation,” Soft Matter 12, 3066–3073 (2016).
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S. Beekmans and D. Iannuzzi, “A metrological approach for the calibration of force transducers with interferometric readout,” Surf. Topogr. Metrol. Prop. 3, 025004 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Gruca, K. Heeck, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Demonstration of a miniature all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer based on ferrule-top technology,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1672–1674 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Ferrule-top micromachined devices: design, fabrication, performance,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ikehara, T.

J. Lu, T. Ikehara, Y. Zhang, T. Mihara, and R. Maeda, “Mechanical quality factor of microcantilevers for mass sensing applications,” in “Microelectronics, MEMS, and Nanotechnology,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2007), pp. 68001Y.

Jin, W.

W. Jin, Y. Cao, F. Yang, and H. L. Ho, “Ultra-sensitive all-fibre photothermal spectroscopy with large dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6767 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Ma, “Miniature fiber-tip photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 38, 434–436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnstone, W.

Jost, F.

J. Huber, J. Wöllenstein, S. Kolb, A. Dehé, and F. Jost, “Miniaturized photoacoustic co 2 sensors for consumer applications,” Proc. Sens pp. 688–692 (2015).

Kauppinen, J.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 451–454 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kazak, N.

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, F. Nikonovich, M. Zakharich, V. Firago, N. Kazak, and V. Starovoitov, “Miniaturized resonant photoacoustic cell of inclined geometry for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 283–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

Keiski, R.

C. Hirschmann, J. Lehtinen, J. Uotila, S. Ojala, and R. Keiski, “Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 4, 603–610 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koenderink, G. H.

H. van Hoorn, N. A. Kurniawan, G. H. Koenderink, and D. Iannuzzi, “Local dynamic mechanical analysis for heterogeneous soft matter using ferrule-top indentation,” Soft Matter 12, 3066–3073 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köhring, M.

Kolb, S.

J. Huber, J. Wöllenstein, S. Kolb, A. Dehé, and F. Jost, “Miniaturized photoacoustic co 2 sensors for consumer applications,” Proc. Sens pp. 688–692 (2015).

Koskinen, V.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 451–454 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kosterev, A. A.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Qepas spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 627–635 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 673–680 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable qepas multi-gas sensor,” in “SPIE OPTO,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 79450R.

Kriesel, J.

Kurniawan, N. A.

H. van Hoorn, N. A. Kurniawan, G. H. Koenderink, and D. Iannuzzi, “Local dynamic mechanical analysis for heterogeneous soft matter using ferrule-top indentation,” Soft Matter 12, 3066–3073 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuz’muk, A.

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, A. Kuz’muk, and V. Starovoitov, “A miniature prototype of a resonance photoacoustic cell for gas sensing,” Opt. Spectrosc. 115, 567–573 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lartigue, O.

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lehtinen, J.

C. Hirschmann, J. Lehtinen, J. Uotila, S. Ojala, and R. Keiski, “Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 4, 603–610 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lendl, B.

Lengden, M.

Li, L.

Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, “An all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 153, 214–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

W. Wei, Y. Zhu, C. Lin, L. Tian, Z. Xu, and J. Nong, “All-optical cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the open environment,” Int. J. Thermophys. 36, 1116–1122 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

J. Lu, T. Ikehara, Y. Zhang, T. Mihara, and R. Maeda, “Mechanical quality factor of microcantilevers for mass sensing applications,” in “Microelectronics, MEMS, and Nanotechnology,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2007), pp. 68001Y.

Ma, J.

Maeda, R.

J. Lu, T. Ikehara, Y. Zhang, T. Mihara, and R. Maeda, “Mechanical quality factor of microcantilevers for mass sensing applications,” in “Microelectronics, MEMS, and Nanotechnology,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2007), pp. 68001Y.

Magureanu, A.

D. Dumitras, D. Dutu, C. Matei, A. Magureanu, M. Petrus, and C. Popa, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation, and characterization,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3655 (2007).

Mandon, J.

L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
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Marshall, B. T.

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, and D. A. Chu, “Linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
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Matei, C.

D. Dumitras, D. Dutu, C. Matei, A. Magureanu, M. Petrus, and C. Popa, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation, and characterization,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3655 (2007).

Mihara, T.

J. Lu, T. Ikehara, Y. Zhang, T. Mihara, and R. Maeda, “Mechanical quality factor of microcantilevers for mass sensing applications,” in “Microelectronics, MEMS, and Nanotechnology,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2007), pp. 68001Y.

Minkoff, S. E.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 673–680 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moser, H.

Moshkov, I. E.

L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
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Mur, L. A.

L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicoletti, S.

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nikonovich, F.

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, F. Nikonovich, M. Zakharich, V. Firago, N. Kazak, and V. Starovoitov, “Miniaturized resonant photoacoustic cell of inclined geometry for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 283–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nong, J.

W. Wei, Y. Zhu, C. Lin, L. Tian, Z. Xu, and J. Nong, “All-optical cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the open environment,” Int. J. Thermophys. 36, 1116–1122 (2015).
[Crossref]

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L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ojala, S.

C. Hirschmann, J. Lehtinen, J. Uotila, S. Ojala, and R. Keiski, “Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 4, 603–610 (2013).
[Crossref]

Parvitte, B.

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Patimisco, P.

Pellegrino, P.

E. Holthoff, J. Bender, P. Pellegrino, and A. Fisher, “Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace vapor detection and molecular discrimination,” Sensors 10, 1986–2002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Persijn, S.

L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petra, N.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 673–680 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petrus, M.

D. Dumitras, D. Dutu, C. Matei, A. Magureanu, M. Petrus, and C. Popa, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation, and characterization,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3655 (2007).

Popa, C.

D. Dumitras, D. Dutu, C. Matei, A. Magureanu, M. Petrus, and C. Popa, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation, and characterization,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3655 (2007).

Rademacher, S.

J. Huber, A. Ambs, S. Rademacher, and J. Wöllenstein, “A selective, miniaturized, low-cost detection element for a photoacoustic co2 sensor for room climate monitoring,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1168–1171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rector, J.

G. Gruca, K. Heeck, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Demonstration of a miniature all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer based on ferrule-top technology,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1672–1674 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Ferrule-top micromachined devices: design, fabrication, performance,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Roth, K.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 451–454 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, and et al., “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Rouxel, J.

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sanders, R.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scamarcio, G.

Schade, W.

Schreuders, H.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
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Shwehdi, M.

M. Gondal, M. Baig, and M. Shwehdi, “Laser sensor for detection of sf/sub 6/leaks in high power insulated switchgear systems,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 9, 421–427 (2002).
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Sigrist, M. W.

M. W. Sigrist, “Trace gas monitoring by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and related techniques (plenary),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 486–490 (2003).
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Slaman, M.

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, “Ferrule-top micromachined devices: design, fabrication, performance,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. De Man, J. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. Berenschot, V. Gadgil, R. Sanders, M. Elwenspoek, and et al., “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Spagnolo, V.

Starovoitov, V.

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, A. Kuz’muk, and V. Starovoitov, “A miniature prototype of a resonance photoacoustic cell for gas sensing,” Opt. Spectrosc. 115, 567–573 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, F. Nikonovich, M. Zakharich, V. Firago, N. Kazak, and V. Starovoitov, “Miniaturized resonant photoacoustic cell of inclined geometry for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 283–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Gorelik and V. Starovoitov, “Small-size resonant photoacoustic cell with reduced window background for laser detection of gases,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107, 830–835 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Gorelik and V. Starovoitov, “Application of a miniaturized photoacoustic cell for high-sensitivity laser detection of ammonia in gas media,” https://arXiv:0810.0410 (2008).

Stewart, G.

Tatam, R. P.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thomazy, D.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Qepas spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 627–635 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 673–680 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable qepas multi-gas sensor,” in “SPIE OPTO,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 79450R.

Tian, L.

W. Wei, Y. Zhu, C. Lin, L. Tian, Z. Xu, and J. Nong, “All-optical cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the open environment,” Int. J. Thermophys. 36, 1116–1122 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors 14, 6165–6206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Qepas spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 627–635 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable qepas multi-gas sensor,” in “SPIE OPTO,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 79450R.

Ulasevich, A.

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, A. Kuz’muk, and V. Starovoitov, “A miniature prototype of a resonance photoacoustic cell for gas sensing,” Opt. Spectrosc. 115, 567–573 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, F. Nikonovich, M. Zakharich, V. Firago, N. Kazak, and V. Starovoitov, “Miniaturized resonant photoacoustic cell of inclined geometry for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 283–289 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uotila, J.

C. Hirschmann, J. Lehtinen, J. Uotila, S. Ojala, and R. Keiski, “Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 4, 603–610 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vallon, R.

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015).
[Crossref]

van Hoorn, H.

H. van Hoorn, N. A. Kurniawan, G. H. Koenderink, and D. Iannuzzi, “Local dynamic mechanical analysis for heterogeneous soft matter using ferrule-top indentation,” Soft Matter 12, 3066–3073 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waclawek, J. P.

Wang, J.

Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, “An all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 153, 214–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, “An all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 153, 214–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, W.

W. Wei, Y. Zhu, C. Lin, L. Tian, Z. Xu, and J. Nong, “All-optical cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the open environment,” Int. J. Thermophys. 36, 1116–1122 (2015).
[Crossref]

Willer, U.

Wöllenstein, J.

J. Huber, A. Ambs, S. Rademacher, and J. Wöllenstein, “A selective, miniaturized, low-cost detection element for a photoacoustic co2 sensor for room climate monitoring,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1168–1171 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Huber, J. Wöllenstein, S. Kolb, A. Dehé, and F. Jost, “Miniaturized photoacoustic co 2 sensors for consumer applications,” Proc. Sens pp. 688–692 (2015).

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, L. Zhai, X. He, and Q. Yu, “High-limit detection and accurate analysis of acetylene in transformer oil gases with a tunable laser-based photoacoustic spectrometer,” Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing 50, 210–216 (2014).
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Xu, Z.

W. Wei, Y. Zhu, C. Lin, L. Tian, Z. Xu, and J. Nong, “All-optical cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the open environment,” Int. J. Thermophys. 36, 1116–1122 (2015).
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W. Jin, Y. Cao, F. Yang, and H. L. Ho, “Ultra-sensitive all-fibre photothermal spectroscopy with large dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6767 (2015).
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Yu, Q.

Z. Wu, L. Zhai, X. He, and Q. Yu, “High-limit detection and accurate analysis of acetylene in transformer oil gases with a tunable laser-based photoacoustic spectrometer,” Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing 50, 210–216 (2014).
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Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, “An all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 153, 214–218 (2011).
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Zakharich, M.

A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, F. Nikonovich, M. Zakharich, V. Firago, N. Kazak, and V. Starovoitov, “Miniaturized resonant photoacoustic cell of inclined geometry for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 283–289 (2010).
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Zéninari, V.

J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Glière, “Miniaturized differential helmholtz resonators for photoacoustic trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 1104–1110 (2016).
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J. Rouxel, J.-G. Coutard, S. Gidon, O. Lartigue, S. Nicoletti, B. Parvitte, R. Vallon, V. Zéninari, and A. Gliére, “Development of a miniaturized differential photoacoustic gas sensor,” Procedia Eng. 120, 396–399 (2015).
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Zhai, L.

Z. Wu, L. Zhai, X. He, and Q. Yu, “High-limit detection and accurate analysis of acetylene in transformer oil gases with a tunable laser-based photoacoustic spectrometer,” Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing 50, 210–216 (2014).
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Zhang, Y.

J. Lu, T. Ikehara, Y. Zhang, T. Mihara, and R. Maeda, “Mechanical quality factor of microcantilevers for mass sensing applications,” in “Microelectronics, MEMS, and Nanotechnology,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2007), pp. 68001Y.

Zhu, Y.

W. Wei, Y. Zhu, C. Lin, L. Tian, Z. Xu, and J. Nong, “All-optical cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the open environment,” Int. J. Thermophys. 36, 1116–1122 (2015).
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N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 673–680 (2009).
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L. A. Mur, J. Mandon, S. Persijn, S. M. Cristescu, I. E. Moshkov, G. V. Novikova, M. A. Hall, F. J. Harren, K. H. Hebelstrup, and K. J. Gupta, “Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge,” AoB plants 5, pls052 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Hirschmann, J. Lehtinen, J. Uotila, S. Ojala, and R. Keiski, “Sub-ppb detection of formaldehyde with cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 4, 603–610 (2013).
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V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, “Cantilever enhanced photoacoustic detection of carbon dioxide using a tunable diode laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 451–454 (2007).
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N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 673–680 (2009).
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L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Qepas spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 627–635 (2010).
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A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, F. Nikonovich, M. Zakharich, V. Firago, N. Kazak, and V. Starovoitov, “Miniaturized resonant photoacoustic cell of inclined geometry for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 100, 283–289 (2010).
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Int. J. Thermophys. (1)

W. Wei, Y. Zhu, C. Lin, L. Tian, Z. Xu, and J. Nong, “All-optical cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the open environment,” Int. J. Thermophys. 36, 1116–1122 (2015).
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D. Dumitras, D. Dutu, C. Matei, A. Magureanu, M. Petrus, and C. Popa, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation, and characterization,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3655 (2007).

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Nat. Commun. (1)

W. Jin, Y. Cao, F. Yang, and H. L. Ho, “Ultra-sensitive all-fibre photothermal spectroscopy with large dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6767 (2015).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

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A. Gorelik and V. Starovoitov, “Small-size resonant photoacoustic cell with reduced window background for laser detection of gases,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107, 830–835 (2009).
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A. Gorelik, A. Ulasevich, A. Kuz’muk, and V. Starovoitov, “A miniature prototype of a resonance photoacoustic cell for gas sensing,” Opt. Spectrosc. 115, 567–573 (2013).
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Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing (1)

Z. Wu, L. Zhai, X. He, and Q. Yu, “High-limit detection and accurate analysis of acetylene in transformer oil gases with a tunable laser-based photoacoustic spectrometer,” Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing 50, 210–216 (2014).
[Crossref]

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J. Huber, A. Ambs, S. Rademacher, and J. Wöllenstein, “A selective, miniaturized, low-cost detection element for a photoacoustic co2 sensor for room climate monitoring,” Procedia Eng. 87, 1168–1171 (2014).
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[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, “An all-optical photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Sens. Actuators, B 153, 214–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Other (6)

J. Lu, T. Ikehara, Y. Zhang, T. Mihara, and R. Maeda, “Mechanical quality factor of microcantilevers for mass sensing applications,” in “Microelectronics, MEMS, and Nanotechnology,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2007), pp. 68001Y.

Declaration of interest: MS and DI are share holders of Optics11.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable qepas multi-gas sensor,” in “SPIE OPTO,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 79450R.

J. Huber, J. Wöllenstein, S. Kolb, A. Dehé, and F. Jost, “Miniaturized photoacoustic co 2 sensors for consumer applications,” Proc. Sens pp. 688–692 (2015).

A. Gorelik and V. Starovoitov, “Application of a miniaturized photoacoustic cell for high-sensitivity laser detection of ammonia in gas media,” https://arXiv:0810.0410 (2008).

M. Baudelet, Laser Spectroscopy for Sensing: Fundamentals, Techniques and Applications (Elsevier, 2014).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketch of the PA sensor. Insets: Enlarged sketch and microscopic views of the micro mirror alignment against the PA cell outlet and the readout fiber. All drawings are to scale.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A schematic view of the experimental setup.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Lock-in output signal as a function of central wavelength of excitation laser. Inset: Noise sample collected when the excitation laser wavelength was tuned away from the P(9) absorption line.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Peak-to-peak signal amplitude as a function of gas concentration for concentrations that go from 50 ppm to 5000 ppm. Inset: peak-to-peal signal amplitude, in log-log scale, over much larger concentration range.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters used for NNEA calculation

Equations (1)

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NNEA = α P SNR Δ f

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