Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, high temperature fiber sensing using the multimode interference effect within a suspended-core microstructured optical fiber (SCF). Interference fringes were found to red-shift as the temperature increased and vice versa. Temperature sensing up to 1100°C was performed by measuring the wavelength shifts of the fringes after fast Fourier transform (FFT) filtering of the spectra. In addition, phase monitoring at the dominant spatial frequency in the Fourier spectrum was used as an interrogation method to monitor various temperature-change scenarios over a period of 80 hours. Our proposed high temperature fiber sensor is simple, cost-effective, and can operate at temperatures beyond 1000°C.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have long been researched and developed for various measurands such as strain, temperature, pressure, bending, refractive index, acoustics, and electrical and magnetic fields [1]. FOSs are in general light-weight, compact, immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI), multiplexing-capable, and highly sensitive, and therefore superior in applications requiring operation within EMI and sensor compactness such as in patient real-time monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [2]. However, for many traditional sensing technologies FOSs must compete with mature electronic sensing technologies [3, 4] that often have advantages in terms of cost and end-user familiarity. This fact can particularly be observed in the case of temperature sensing where there have existed various reliable, low-cost, end-user friendly thermocouples for a wide range of industries. Therefore, research and development in temperature FOSs has focused on aspects in which FOSs can offer competitiveness such as distributed temperature sensing [5], monitoring in harsh environments [6], and high temperature sensing over 1000°C [7]. In particular, high temperature FOSs are very attractive for a range of industrial applications in high power lasers, mining and energy, and aerospace and have been extensively studied within the fiber optic sensing community [7–14].

Temperature FOSs have been developed with conventional optical fibers using various optical effects such as fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) [7, 8], optical cavities [9, 13], or interferometers [10, 14]. Typically, conventional optical fibers with a doped core are used, which poses a problem for long-term operation at high temperature due to the diffusion of the dopants in the core into the cladding. It is known that at temperatures of 1200°C and beyond dopants in the fiber core such as Ge or B will start diffusing into the cladding leading to thermally expanded core fibers [15, 16]. Specialty optical fibers made of material resisting extremely high temperature like sapphire crystal can be used instead [17–19], but such fibers have high loss, cannot be spliced to conventional silica fiber, and have no intrinsic cladding making them vulnerable to the external environment.

A promising alternative is to use single material optical fibers that can be integrated with standard telecommunication fibers, such as silica microstructured optical fibers (MOFs). We have recently demonstrated a new design of high temperature fiber sensor using an FBG inscribed directly on the core of an all-silica SCF using fs laser ablation [12]. However, the FBG spectrum typically exhibits multiple Bragg peaks due to the multimode operation of the relatively large core diameter SCF. In addition, the fabrication process using femtosecond laser ablation is not without challenges as the laser beam has to focus on the SCF core through both the outer solid cladding and the inner air cladding, and maintain focus throughout the sensor fabrication. On the other hand, as the large core SCF is typically multimode fiber, interference between guided modes can be used for sensing with significant advantages in term of sensor design simplicity and ease of fabrication.

The multimode interference effect has been previously used in fiber optic sensing technology, for both conventional doped fibers [20, 21] as well as photonic crystal fiber [22–24], including high temperature sensing [22]. In this paper we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme for high temperature fiber sensing using the multimode interference effect within an SCF. Compared with high temperature fiber sensors based on other types of single-material microstructured optical fiber, such as photonic crystal fiber (PCF), SCF offers advantages such as a simpler fabrication technique [25] (drill and draw method that can be automated for mass production at low cost). SCF is also typically highly multimode with a high NA that leads to low bending loss for higher order modes and is therefore suitable for multimode interference applications. PCFs, on the other hand, are typically single mode fibers that only support a few modes for short length SCF [24, 26]. The large core/cladding index contrast of SCF can allow the propagation of modes of very large effective index difference and potentially lead to higher temperature sensitivities as those modes experience the thermo-optic change in the SCF very differently.

In this work, the sensor head is formed by splicing a single mode fiber (SMF) with an SCF, which is effectively an SMF-2SCF-SMF configuration as the reflected light travels twice the physical length of the SCF. As the SCF is a single-material device extremely high temperature measurement is possible whilst the all-splice simplicity of the sensor head leads to low-cost and stable operation. Temperature sensing up to 1100°C was realized by monitoring the fringe shifts of the interference spectrum upon temperature variation. Phase monitoring at the most dominant frequency in the spatial frequency spectrum that corresponds to the most dominant interference spectrum was used in an experiment lasting over 80 hours with various temperature change scenarios to demonstrate the long-term and reproducible operation of our proposed high temperature fiber sensor.

2. Principle of operation and theory

Suspended-core fibers consist of an air-clad solid core supported by three or more thin struts and surrounded by an outer solid cladding [27]. Light is guided in the suspended core through total internal reflection. Due to the high index contrast between the silica core and the inner air cladding it is difficult to fabricate and handle a single-mode version of this fiber as the core needs to be very small, though this requirement is relaxed if liquids are introduced into the holes. In this work we intentionally use a larger core multi-mode SCF to utilize the fiber’s multi-mode interference effects.

The principle of operation of our proposed high temperature fiber sensor can be explained by referring to the schematic diagram of the SMF-2SCF-SMF configuration in Fig. 1. At the splicing point between the SMF to the SCF, light from the fundamental mode of the SMF will be decomposed into different propagation modes of the SCF. After propagating forward and backward through the SCF (i.e. reflecting at the SCF distal end due to the silica/air interface) those modes will recouple into the fundamental mode of the SMF again after experiencing a phase delay between each other due to different propagation constants associated with different propagation modes. Thus an interference pattern is formed in the reflection spectrum of the structure. Assuming negligible dispersion over a narrow wavelength bandwidth, the power after propagating the SMF-2SCF-SMF structure can be described as:

I={i=1nIie2iβiLSCF}2=i=1nIi+ij=1nIiIjcos[4πλ(nieffnjeff)LSCF].
where Ii, βi and nieff are the power portion carried in the ith of n modes of the SCF, the propagation constant, and the effective index, respectively. LSCF is the SCF physical length and λ is the free-space wavelength. It can be seen from Eq. (1) that in the general case the resultant interference pattern is a complex spectrum in the wavelength domain as it is the superposition of many individual interferences formed by a specific pair of excited modes {i,j} in the SCF. For simplicity, assuming that only two modes of the ECF are dominantly excited, from Eq. (1) we have the simple two-beam (in this case, two-mode) interference equation:
I=I1+I2+2I1I2cos[4πλ(n1effn2eff)LSCF].
Given a fixed length LSCF as well as mode effective indices n1eff and n2eff it can be seen from Eq. (2) that the total transmitted power is an interference pattern in the wavelength domain. This interference will correspond to a frequency in the spatial frequency domain, obtained in practice by applying a fast Fourier transform (FFT) to the wavelength spectrum. The phase at this spatial frequency is given by the term:
ϕ=4πλ(n1effn2eff)LSCF.
The phase term is sensitive to temperature due to the thermo-optic effect on the effective indices of the modes as well as thermal expansion of the SCF. The amount of phase change with respect to a temperature variation can be expressed as:
δϕ=ϕTδT=4πλ[(n1effTn2effT)LSCF+LSCFT(n1effn2eff)]δT.
It can be seen that δϕ will vary with respect to the change in the temperature since each mode of the SCF propagates with a different fraction of power within the glass material and thus have different thermo-optic coefficients and also due to the fact the SCF expands/shrinks slightly upon temperature variation. Equation (4) also implies that the larger the effective index difference and/or their variations with respect to temperature, the larger the phase change or the temperature sensitivity. In the wavelength domain, the phase change will induce a wavelength shift of the interference fringe from the reference wavelength λ0 as derived from Eq. (3):
δλ=λ024π(n1effn2eff)LSCFδϕ=λ024πΔneffLSCFδϕ=FSR2πδϕ.
FSR=λ022ΔneffLSCF.
where FSR is the free spectral range or the wavelength spacing between two adjacent minimas/maximas of the interference spectrum. Whilst the analysis in Eqs. (2)-(6) is for the simplified case of two-mode interference, such individual interference patterns can be obtained by applying an FFT on the complex wavelength spectrum of the multi-beam (multi-mode) interference. Then either the phase can be monitored at a specific spatial frequency or the filtered FFT peak can be converted back to the wavelength domain and the wavelength shift is measured to determine temperature changes.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the multimode interference that occurs in multimode SCFs. The fundamental mode of the lead-in/out SMF excites several modes in the SCF which, after propagating through the SCF and reflected at the distal end, couples again into the fundamental mode of the lead-in/out SMF with a certain phase delay between each other. These phase delays result in an interference pattern in the reflection spectrum.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3. Sensor fabrication and experimental setup

The sensor was fabricated by splicing a section of SCF with a core diameter of approximately 10 µm and an outer diameter of 160 µm [Fig. 2] to a standard Corning SM28 SMF. The SCF lengths were 2.4cm, 20cm, 22cm, 24cm, 28cm, 31cm, and 35cm, respectively. Instead of splicing the SCF to SMF and cutting back from the distal end (non-splicing end) of the SCF to obtain different SCF lengths, independent splicing with SMF was performed for each SCF length while the distal end of the SCF remained the same for all the SCF lengths, except for the short one of 2.4 cm. This ensured the same reflection from the SCF distal-end for each fiber piece. The mode excitation of the SCF was controlled by means of manual alignment of the SCF and the SMF for maximum transmitted power through the SCF core using the in-built translation stages of a Fujikura fusion splicer (FSM-100P). Similar to the case of splicing SMF to an exposed-core microstructured optical fiber [28], we also optimized the splicing conditions in terms of arc power, arc time, and fiber overlap for our particular case of standard SMF to SCF to achieve consistent coupling conditions. That is, standard SMF-SMF splicing settings, but with reduced arc current (12.5 mA compared to 16.5 mA) and increased arc duration (3.5 s compared to 2.0 s).

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Experimental setup for temperature sensing using the proposed sensor. Inset shows the cross section of the SCF used in this work

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

A schematic diagram of the measurement setup for measuring the sensor reflection spectrum as temperature varies is shown in Fig. 2. A standard FBG interrogator (National Instruments PXle-4844, spectral sampling resolution of 4 pm) was computer-interfaced using a Labview program that captured the raw spectrum in the wavelength domain, applied an FFT, and monitored the phase change at a chosen spatial frequency for the entire duration of the experiment. Typically the spatial frequency of highest intensity in the spatial frequency spectrum was chosen for monitoring purposes as it corresponds to the interference between the two most dominantly excited modes in the SCF. It should be noted that any spatial frequency of interest (i.e. corresponding to an interference formed by a different pair of modes) can be used for temperature sensing. The sensor head was placed in the hot zone of a tube furnace that can operate to a temperature of up to 1100°C.

4. Results and discussion

Figure 3 shows the raw reflection spectra, their associated FFT spectra, and the filtered spectra of the SMF-2SCF-SMF for different SCF lengths. As mentioned above, for each piece of SCF a new splice with the SMF was carried out while leaving the SCF distal end intact. The raw spectra in Fig. 3 were typically complex, indicating that there are more than two modes dominantly excited within the SCF. This should be expected as the SCF is highly multimode due to the very large index contrast between the silica suspended core and the air cladding. Consequently the FFT spectra show several peaks, which shift towards higher spatial frequencies with respect to increases in SCF length. After performing FFT filtering on the raw spectra, clean and uniform spectra can be obtained. The linear increase in spatial frequency as the fiber length increases, as shown in Fig. 3, behaves as expected [29]. Taking this length scaling into account, the relatively consistent FFT spectrum for each fiber length (i.e. different splices) indicates relatively repeatable mode coupling/excitation of the SCF can be achieved, at least for the two most dominantly excited modes that formed the main interference. Nevertheless, even in the event of fluctuations in mode coupling/excitation due to slight misalignment between fibers, imperfections in fiber cleaving or both, it is always possible to choose the desirable interference pattern for sensing and/or comparing sensors using FFT filtering.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Reflected spectra, associated FFTs and FFT-filtered spectra of spliced SMF-SCF with different lengths (a) 35 cm, (b) 28 cm, (c) 20 cm, and (d) 2.4 cm. All spectra were measured at room temperature

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

For a simple two-mode interference pattern, the FSR is inversely proportional to the fiber length as described in Eq. (6). Using the method shown in Fig. 3 (i.e. performing a FFT filter at the strongest FFT frequency on the raw spectra) the FSRs for different SCF lengths were calculated. Figure 4 shows the FSRs versus SCF lengths and the fitting with a function of the form f(x) = a/x. Using the experimentally obtained fitting coefficient a = 5.79x10−10 [m2], and assuming λ = 1550 nm, the effective index difference between the two modes forming the strongest interference pattern Δneff can be estimated to be 4.15x10−3.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 FSRs of the dominant interference (corresponding to the strongest peak in the spatial frequency spectrum) vs SCF lengths and its a/x fitting.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The sensor with SCF length of 2.4 cm was chosen for temperature sensing so that the entire SCF could fit within the hot zone of our tube furnace. The temperature was increased from 20°C to 1100°C and decreased back to 20°C. During that time the raw spectra were recorded, FFT filtered at the highest spatial frequency, and the wavelength shifts were measured and linear fitted, as shown in Fig. 5. The interference fringes were found to shift to longer wavelengths as the temperature increased and vice versa. The sensor was left at 1100°C for at least 5 hours before the temperature was decreased. The temperature sensitivity is about 0.011 nm/°C, typical temperature sensitivity for interference involving core modes of a multimode fiber [21]. The experimental deviation between the sensitivity during the temperature ramp-up and cool-down was better than 5% (0.0111 nm/°C for temperature ramp-up and 0.0116 nm/°C for temperature cool-down). Improvement in either the temperature accuracy of the furnace or the peak/dip determination of the interference fringe could further reduce the temperature sensitivity difference.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) Raw reflection spectra at different temperatures. (b) FFT filtered spectra as temperature increased/decreased over a range of 1080°C (from 20°C to 1100°C). (c) Linear fit of the wavelength shifts.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

5. Long term high temperature sensing

As shown in Eq. (5), temperature change directly modifies the phase of the interference spectrum and thus monitoring directly the phase change can be used for sensing the temperature [30]. The Labview program provided a function to monitor the phase change at a chosen frequency in the FFT spectrum that is particularly suitable for this type of interferometric sensor. Figure 6 shows the phase change monitored at the dominant spatial frequency of 0.088 nm−1 for the sensor made with the SCF length of 2.4 cm and over a period of approximately 80 hours. During this time various temperature scenarios were created. Insets in Fig. 6 show all the zoomed-in boxes embedded within the main figure that correspond to different temperature scenarios. The temperature sensitivity is about 6.28x10−3 rad/°C, as seen in Fig. 6(b). Since the phase noise at a constant temperature of 400°C is 3.5x10−2 rad as shown in Fig. 6(c), the temperature resolution is estimated to be approximately ± 2.8°C in our experiment. Figures 6(d)-6(g) demonstrate that the phase responses followed precisely the change in the temperature, when it is raised stepwise (with 100°C steps) from 400°C to 1100°C and left at 1100°C for 5 hours [Fig. 6(d)], cooled down freely from 1100°C to 132°C overnight by turning off the furnace [Fig. 6(e)], continuously increased from 132°C to 1100°C [Fig. 6(f)], and finally stepwise decreased from 1100°C to 400°C [Fig. 6(g)]. This is evidence that our proposed sensor has potential use for long-term high temperature monitoring without significant degradation.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 (a) Complete time series of the phase change at the spatial frequency of 0.088 nm−1 during which temperature was varied in several ways. The zoomed-in of boxes within (a) are: (b) temperature increased from room temperature to 400°C (green); (c) temperature dwelling overnight at 400°C (red) and the phase noise during that time; (d) temperature increased stepwise (100°C step) from 400°C to 1100°C then left at 1100°C for 5 hours (blue); (e) turned off the furnace and let temperature fall off freely to 132°C overnight (wine); (f) temperature continuously increased from 132°C to 1100°C (magenta); and (g) temperature decreased stepwise (100°C step) from 1100°C to 400°C.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

6. Discussion and conclusions

We have proposed and demonstrated high temperature fiber sensing based on the multimode interference effect within a suspended-core fiber. The fabrication of the sensor is shown to be reproducible due to the consistent mode coupling achieved by simply spicing SCF to SMF with manual alignment. The proposed sensor was shown to measure temperature stably up to 1100°C and over an extended time with various changes in temperature. The sensor design is simple with the potential to be mass-produced at relatively low cost.

While the SCF is single-material and could operate at high temperature for extended time without concern about dopant diffusion, the use of standard SMF as the lead-in/out fiber in sensor fabrication could lead to potential degradation of the sensor as the dopants in SMFs can diffuse into the cladding forming an expanded core and disturb the mode coupling to the SCF at high temperature. We envisage that this issue can be addressed by replacing the doped SMF with single-mode all-silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF) [31] as the lead-in/out fiber, at the expense of significantly higher sensor cost. Such a configuration should lead to sensors capable of operating up to 1300°C.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC), LP150100657. The authors acknowledge Alastair Dowler, Peter Henry, Roman Kostecki, Erik Schartner, and Anthony Leggatt from the University of Adelaide for their contribution to the silica fiber fabrication, and William Rogers and Catherine Lang for assisting with experiments. This work was performed in part at the OptoFab node of the Australian National Fabrication Facility utilizing Commonwealth, and South Australian and New South Wales State Government funding. Linh Viet Nguyen is partly supported by the Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre (PBCRC) program, CRC2112. Stephen Warren-Smith is currently supported by the European Commission through the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), PIIF-GA-2013-623248. Tanya Monro acknowledges the support of an ARC Georgina Sweet Laureate Fellowship. Tanya Monro and Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem acknowledge the support of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale Biophotonics.

References and Links

1. F. T. S. Yu and S. Yin, Fiber Optic Sensors (Dekker, 2002).

2. F. Taffoni, D. Formica, P. Saccomandi, G. Di Pino, and E. Schena, “Optical fiber-based MR-compatible sensors for medical applications: an overview,” Sensors (Basel) 13(10), 14105–14120 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003). [CrossRef]  

4. B. Culshaw, “Optical fiber sensor technologies: opportunities and-perhaps-pitfalls,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 39–50 (2004). [CrossRef]  

5. A. Ukil, H. Braendle, and P. Krippner, “Distributed temperature sensing: review of technology and applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 885–892 (2012). [CrossRef]  

6. S. J. Mihailov, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for harsh environments,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1898–1918 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. D. Barrera, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, S. Sales, and V. Pruneri, “Packaged optical sensors based on regenerated fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 107–112 (2012). [CrossRef]  

8. J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, “Extreme silica optical fibre gratings,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(10), 6448–6452 (2008). [CrossRef]  

9. H. Y. Choi, K. S. Park, S. J. Park, U.-C. Paek, B. H. Lee, and E. S. Choi, “Miniature fiber-optic high temperature sensor based on a hybrid structured Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2455–2457 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, S. Moon, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “High temperature fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on core diameter mismatch,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11369–11375 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. V. M. Churikov, V. I. Kopp, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral diffraction gratings in twisted microstructured fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 342–344 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, C. Lang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Temperature sensing up to 1300°C using suspended-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3714–3719 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. J. Mathew, O. Schneller, D. Polyzos, D. Havermann, R. M. Carter, W. N. MacPherson, D. P. Hand, and R. R. J. Maier, “In-fiber Fabry–Perot cavity sensor for high-temperature application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(12), 2419–2425 (2015). [CrossRef]  

14. Y. Zhu, Z. Huang, F. Shen, and A. Wang, “Sapphire-fiber-based white-light interferometric sensor for high-temperature measurements,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 711–713 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(8), 1151–1161 (1990). [CrossRef]  

16. M. Kihara, M. Matsumoto, T. Haibara, and S. Tomita, “Characteristics of thermally expanded core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2209–2214 (1996). [CrossRef]  

17. A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, “Advances in sapphire-fiber-based intrinsic interferometric sensors,” Opt. Lett. 17(21), 1544–1546 (1992). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. J. Wang, B. Dong, E. Lally, J. Gong, M. Han, and A. Wang, “Multiplexed high temperature sensing with sapphire fiber air gap-based extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 619–621 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. T. Habisreuther, T. Elsmann, Z. Pan, A. Graf, R. Willsch, and M. A. Schmidt, “Sapphire fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature and dynamic temperature diagnostics,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 91, 860–865 (2015). [CrossRef]  

20. Y. Liu and L. Wei, “Low-cost high-sensitivity strain and temperature sensing using graded-index multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46(13), 2516–2519 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091119 (2006). [CrossRef]  

22. G. Coviello, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, “Thermally stabilized PCF-based sensor for temperature measurements up to 1000 ° C,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21551–21559 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Jha, V. P. Minkovich, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for chemical vapor detection with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1447–1453 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, “Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1491–1496 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 010503 (2007). [CrossRef]  

26. D. Kácik, I. Turek, I. Martinček, J. Canning, N. Issa, and K. Lyytikäinen, “Intermodal interference in a photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3465–3470 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010). [CrossRef]  

28. S. C. Warren-Smith, R. Kostecki, L. V. Nguyen, and T. M. Monro, “Fabrication, splicing, Bragg grating writing, and polyelectrolyte functionalization of exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29493–29504 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5711–5720 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. L. V. Nguyen, K. Hill, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Interferometric-type optical biosensor based on exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 221, 320–327 (2015). [CrossRef]  

31. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. T. S. Yu and S. Yin, Fiber Optic Sensors (Dekker, 2002).
  2. F. Taffoni, D. Formica, P. Saccomandi, G. Di Pino, and E. Schena, “Optical fiber-based MR-compatible sensors for medical applications: an overview,” Sensors (Basel) 13(10), 14105–14120 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Culshaw, “Optical fiber sensor technologies: opportunities and-perhaps-pitfalls,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 39–50 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Ukil, H. Braendle, and P. Krippner, “Distributed temperature sensing: review of technology and applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 885–892 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. J. Mihailov, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for harsh environments,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1898–1918 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Barrera, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, S. Sales, and V. Pruneri, “Packaged optical sensors based on regenerated fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 107–112 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, “Extreme silica optical fibre gratings,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(10), 6448–6452 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Y. Choi, K. S. Park, S. J. Park, U.-C. Paek, B. H. Lee, and E. S. Choi, “Miniature fiber-optic high temperature sensor based on a hybrid structured Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2455–2457 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, S. Moon, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “High temperature fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on core diameter mismatch,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11369–11375 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. V. M. Churikov, V. I. Kopp, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral diffraction gratings in twisted microstructured fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 342–344 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, C. Lang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Temperature sensing up to 1300°C using suspended-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3714–3719 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Mathew, O. Schneller, D. Polyzos, D. Havermann, R. M. Carter, W. N. MacPherson, D. P. Hand, and R. R. J. Maier, “In-fiber Fabry–Perot cavity sensor for high-temperature application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(12), 2419–2425 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Zhu, Z. Huang, F. Shen, and A. Wang, “Sapphire-fiber-based white-light interferometric sensor for high-temperature measurements,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 711–713 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(8), 1151–1161 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Kihara, M. Matsumoto, T. Haibara, and S. Tomita, “Characteristics of thermally expanded core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2209–2214 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, “Advances in sapphire-fiber-based intrinsic interferometric sensors,” Opt. Lett. 17(21), 1544–1546 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Wang, B. Dong, E. Lally, J. Gong, M. Han, and A. Wang, “Multiplexed high temperature sensing with sapphire fiber air gap-based extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 619–621 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. T. Habisreuther, T. Elsmann, Z. Pan, A. Graf, R. Willsch, and M. A. Schmidt, “Sapphire fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature and dynamic temperature diagnostics,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 91, 860–865 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Liu and L. Wei, “Low-cost high-sensitivity strain and temperature sensing using graded-index multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46(13), 2516–2519 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091119 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. Coviello, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, “Thermally stabilized PCF-based sensor for temperature measurements up to 1000 ° C,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21551–21559 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Jha, V. P. Minkovich, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for chemical vapor detection with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1447–1453 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, “Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1491–1496 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 010503 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. Kácik, I. Turek, I. Martinček, J. Canning, N. Issa, and K. Lyytikäinen, “Intermodal interference in a photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3465–3470 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. C. Warren-Smith, R. Kostecki, L. V. Nguyen, and T. M. Monro, “Fabrication, splicing, Bragg grating writing, and polyelectrolyte functionalization of exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29493–29504 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5711–5720 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. L. V. Nguyen, K. Hill, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Interferometric-type optical biosensor based on exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 221, 320–327 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

J. Mathew, O. Schneller, D. Polyzos, D. Havermann, R. M. Carter, W. N. MacPherson, D. P. Hand, and R. R. J. Maier, “In-fiber Fabry–Perot cavity sensor for high-temperature application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(12), 2419–2425 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Habisreuther, T. Elsmann, Z. Pan, A. Graf, R. Willsch, and M. A. Schmidt, “Sapphire fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature and dynamic temperature diagnostics,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 91, 860–865 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. V. Nguyen, K. Hill, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Interferometric-type optical biosensor based on exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 221, 320–327 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

F. Taffoni, D. Formica, P. Saccomandi, G. Di Pino, and E. Schena, “Optical fiber-based MR-compatible sensors for medical applications: an overview,” Sensors (Basel) 13(10), 14105–14120 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. Ukil, H. Braendle, and P. Krippner, “Distributed temperature sensing: review of technology and applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 885–892 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. J. Mihailov, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for harsh environments,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1898–1918 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Barrera, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, S. Sales, and V. Pruneri, “Packaged optical sensors based on regenerated fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 107–112 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091119 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

M. Kihara, M. Matsumoto, T. Haibara, and S. Tomita, “Characteristics of thermally expanded core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2209–2214 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(8), 1151–1161 (1990).
[Crossref]

Afshar, S.

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aizawa, Y.

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(8), 1151–1161 (1990).
[Crossref]

Badenes, G.

Bandyopadhyay, S.

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, “Extreme silica optical fibre gratings,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(10), 6448–6452 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barrera, D.

D. Barrera, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, S. Sales, and V. Pruneri, “Packaged optical sensors based on regenerated fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 107–112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Braendle, H.

A. Ukil, H. Braendle, and P. Krippner, “Distributed temperature sensing: review of technology and applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 885–892 (2012).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, “Extreme silica optical fibre gratings,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(10), 6448–6452 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Kácik, I. Turek, I. Martinček, J. Canning, N. Issa, and K. Lyytikäinen, “Intermodal interference in a photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3465–3470 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carter, R. M.

Choi, E. S.

Choi, H. Y.

Chung, Y.

Churikov, V. M.

Claus, R. O.

Cook, K.

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, “Extreme silica optical fibre gratings,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(10), 6448–6452 (2008).
[Crossref]

Coviello, G.

Culshaw, B.

Di Pino, G.

F. Taffoni, D. Formica, P. Saccomandi, G. Di Pino, and E. Schena, “Optical fiber-based MR-compatible sensors for medical applications: an overview,” Sensors (Basel) 13(10), 14105–14120 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, B.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, C. Lang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Temperature sensing up to 1300°C using suspended-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3714–3719 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Elsmann, T.

T. Habisreuther, T. Elsmann, Z. Pan, A. Graf, R. Willsch, and M. A. Schmidt, “Sapphire fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature and dynamic temperature diagnostics,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 91, 860–865 (2015).
[Crossref]

Finazzi, V.

Formica, D.

F. Taffoni, D. Formica, P. Saccomandi, G. Di Pino, and E. Schena, “Optical fiber-based MR-compatible sensors for medical applications: an overview,” Sensors (Basel) 13(10), 14105–14120 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

François, A.

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Genack, A. Z.

Gollapudi, S.

Gong, J.

Graf, A.

T. Habisreuther, T. Elsmann, Z. Pan, A. Graf, R. Willsch, and M. A. Schmidt, “Sapphire fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature and dynamic temperature diagnostics,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 91, 860–865 (2015).
[Crossref]

Habisreuther, T.

T. Habisreuther, T. Elsmann, Z. Pan, A. Graf, R. Willsch, and M. A. Schmidt, “Sapphire fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature and dynamic temperature diagnostics,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 91, 860–865 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haibara, T.

M. Kihara, M. Matsumoto, T. Haibara, and S. Tomita, “Characteristics of thermally expanded core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2209–2214 (1996).
[Crossref]

Han, M.

Hand, D. P.

Havermann, D.

Heng, S.

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hill, K.

L. V. Nguyen, K. Hill, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Interferometric-type optical biosensor based on exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 221, 320–327 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

Hwang, D.

Issa, N.

Jha, R.

Kácik, D.

Kawakami, S.

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(8), 1151–1161 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kihara, M.

M. Kihara, M. Matsumoto, T. Haibara, and S. Tomita, “Characteristics of thermally expanded core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2209–2214 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. J.

Knight, J. C.

Kopp, V. I.

Kostecki, R.

Kreuzer, M. P.

Krippner, P.

A. Ukil, H. Braendle, and P. Krippner, “Distributed temperature sensing: review of technology and applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 885–892 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lally, E.

Lang, C.

Lee, B.

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. H.

Li, E.

E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091119 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lyytikäinen, K.

MacPherson, W. N.

Maier, R. R. J.

Martincek, I.

Mathew, J.

Matsumoto, M.

M. Kihara, M. Matsumoto, T. Haibara, and S. Tomita, “Characteristics of thermally expanded core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2209–2214 (1996).
[Crossref]

May, R. G.

Mihailov, S. J.

S. J. Mihailov, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for harsh environments,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1898–1918 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minkovich, V. P.

Monro, T. M.

S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, C. Lang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Temperature sensing up to 1300°C using suspended-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3714–3719 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Nguyen, K. Hill, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Interferometric-type optical biosensor based on exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 221, 320–327 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith, R. Kostecki, L. V. Nguyen, and T. M. Monro, “Fabrication, splicing, Bragg grating writing, and polyelectrolyte functionalization of exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29493–29504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moon, D. S.

Moon, S.

Murphy, K. A.

Nguyen, L. V.

Paek, U.-C.

Pan, Z.

T. Habisreuther, T. Elsmann, Z. Pan, A. Graf, R. Willsch, and M. A. Schmidt, “Sapphire fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature and dynamic temperature diagnostics,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 91, 860–865 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, K. S.

Park, S. J.

Poletti, F.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 010503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Polyzos, D.

Pruneri, V.

Richardson, D. J.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 010503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

Saccomandi, P.

F. Taffoni, D. Formica, P. Saccomandi, G. Di Pino, and E. Schena, “Optical fiber-based MR-compatible sensors for medical applications: an overview,” Sensors (Basel) 13(10), 14105–14120 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahu, J. K.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 010503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sales, S.

D. Barrera, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, S. Sales, and V. Pruneri, “Packaged optical sensors based on regenerated fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 107–112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schartner, E. P.

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schena, E.

F. Taffoni, D. Formica, P. Saccomandi, G. Di Pino, and E. Schena, “Optical fiber-based MR-compatible sensors for medical applications: an overview,” Sensors (Basel) 13(10), 14105–14120 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, M. A.

T. Habisreuther, T. Elsmann, Z. Pan, A. Graf, R. Willsch, and M. A. Schmidt, “Sapphire fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature and dynamic temperature diagnostics,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 91, 860–865 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schneller, O.

Shen, F.

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(8), 1151–1161 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stevenson, M.

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, “Extreme silica optical fibre gratings,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(10), 6448–6452 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taffoni, F.

F. Taffoni, D. Formica, P. Saccomandi, G. Di Pino, and E. Schena, “Optical fiber-based MR-compatible sensors for medical applications: an overview,” Sensors (Basel) 13(10), 14105–14120 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomita, S.

M. Kihara, M. Matsumoto, T. Haibara, and S. Tomita, “Characteristics of thermally expanded core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2209–2214 (1996).
[Crossref]

Turek, I.

Ukil, A.

A. Ukil, H. Braendle, and P. Krippner, “Distributed temperature sensing: review of technology and applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 885–892 (2012).
[Crossref]

Villatoro, J.

Wang, A.

Wang, J.

Wang, X.

E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091119 (2006).
[Crossref]

Warren-Smith, S.

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Warren-Smith, S. C.

Webb, A. S.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 010503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wei, L.

Willsch, R.

T. Habisreuther, T. Elsmann, Z. Pan, A. Graf, R. Willsch, and M. A. Schmidt, “Sapphire fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature and dynamic temperature diagnostics,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 91, 860–865 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091119 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091119 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Therm. Eng. (1)

T. Habisreuther, T. Elsmann, Z. Pan, A. Graf, R. Willsch, and M. A. Schmidt, “Sapphire fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature and dynamic temperature diagnostics,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 91, 860–865 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

A. Ukil, H. Braendle, and P. Krippner, “Distributed temperature sensing: review of technology and applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 885–892 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Barrera, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, S. Sales, and V. Pruneri, “Packaged optical sensors based on regenerated fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 107–112 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

B. Culshaw, “Optical fiber sensor technologies: opportunities and-perhaps-pitfalls,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 39–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(8), 1151–1161 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Kihara, M. Matsumoto, T. Haibara, and S. Tomita, “Characteristics of thermally expanded core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2209–2214 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Mathew, O. Schneller, D. Polyzos, D. Havermann, R. M. Carter, W. N. MacPherson, D. P. Hand, and R. R. J. Maier, “In-fiber Fabry–Perot cavity sensor for high-temperature application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(12), 2419–2425 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 010503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

D. Kácik, I. Turek, I. Martinček, J. Canning, N. Issa, and K. Lyytikäinen, “Intermodal interference in a photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3465–3470 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Coviello, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, “Thermally stabilized PCF-based sensor for temperature measurements up to 1000 ° C,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21551–21559 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Jha, V. P. Minkovich, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for chemical vapor detection with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1447–1453 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, “Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1491–1496 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, R. Kostecki, L. V. Nguyen, and T. M. Monro, “Fabrication, splicing, Bragg grating writing, and polyelectrolyte functionalization of exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29493–29504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5711–5720 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, S. Moon, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “High temperature fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on core diameter mismatch,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11369–11375 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, C. Lang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Temperature sensing up to 1300°C using suspended-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3714–3719 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

L. V. Nguyen, K. Hill, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Interferometric-type optical biosensor based on exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 221, 320–327 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel Switzerland) (1)

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, “Extreme silica optical fibre gratings,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 8(10), 6448–6452 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (2)

S. J. Mihailov, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for harsh environments,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1898–1918 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Taffoni, D. Formica, P. Saccomandi, G. Di Pino, and E. Schena, “Optical fiber-based MR-compatible sensors for medical applications: an overview,” Sensors (Basel) 13(10), 14105–14120 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

F. T. S. Yu and S. Yin, Fiber Optic Sensors (Dekker, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the multimode interference that occurs in multimode SCFs. The fundamental mode of the lead-in/out SMF excites several modes in the SCF which, after propagating through the SCF and reflected at the distal end, couples again into the fundamental mode of the lead-in/out SMF with a certain phase delay between each other. These phase delays result in an interference pattern in the reflection spectrum.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for temperature sensing using the proposed sensor. Inset shows the cross section of the SCF used in this work
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reflected spectra, associated FFTs and FFT-filtered spectra of spliced SMF-SCF with different lengths (a) 35 cm, (b) 28 cm, (c) 20 cm, and (d) 2.4 cm. All spectra were measured at room temperature
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 FSRs of the dominant interference (corresponding to the strongest peak in the spatial frequency spectrum) vs SCF lengths and its a/x fitting.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Raw reflection spectra at different temperatures. (b) FFT filtered spectra as temperature increased/decreased over a range of 1080°C (from 20°C to 1100°C). (c) Linear fit of the wavelength shifts.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Complete time series of the phase change at the spatial frequency of 0.088 nm−1 during which temperature was varied in several ways. The zoomed-in of boxes within (a) are: (b) temperature increased from room temperature to 400°C (green); (c) temperature dwelling overnight at 400°C (red) and the phase noise during that time; (d) temperature increased stepwise (100°C step) from 400°C to 1100°C then left at 1100°C for 5 hours (blue); (e) turned off the furnace and let temperature fall off freely to 132°C overnight (wine); (f) temperature continuously increased from 132°C to 1100°C (magenta); and (g) temperature decreased stepwise (100°C step) from 1100°C to 400°C.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= { i=1 n I i e 2i β i L SCF } 2 = i=1 n I i + ij=1 n I i I j cos[ 4π λ ( n i eff n j eff ) L SCF ].
I= I 1 + I 2 +2 I 1 I 2 cos[ 4π λ ( n 1 eff n 2 eff ) L SCF ].
ϕ= 4π λ ( n 1 eff n 2 eff ) L SCF .
δϕ= ϕ T δT= 4π λ [ ( n 1 eff T n 2 eff T ) L SCF + L SCF T ( n 1 eff n 2 eff ) ]δT.
δλ= λ 0 2 4π( n 1 eff n 2 eff ) L SCF δϕ= λ 0 2 4πΔ n eff L SCF δϕ= FSR 2π δϕ.
FSR= λ 0 2 2Δ n eff L SCF .

Metrics