Abstract

Metallic nano-apertures associated with stair-gratings are proposed for surface enhanced fluorescence with high excitation enhancement and narrow emission beaming effect. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy method was utilized to analyze the fluorescence trace and fluorescence enhancement, and the angular patterns of fluorescent emission were measured with the back focal plane imaging method. The stair-grating presents a strong optical response which covering well both the excitation and the emission bands of the photoluminescence process. Such high enhancement and narrow directionality by the stair-gratings would enable the detection of single molecules with low numerical aperture objective effectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Molecular fluorescence detection has various applications in many fields such as biosensors, early diagnosis, bioimaging, single photon source and so on [1,2]. However, the low signal to noise ratio (SNR) limits the detection efficiency of single molecule fluorescence. Thus, how to control the photoluminescence process, which can be divided into excitation and emission processes, becomes a main topic in this field. As we know, metallic nanostructures have novel characteristics, i.e. surface plasmon (SP) and localized surface plasmon (LSP) [3,4], which can be exploited to modify the photoluminescence process strongly [5–7]. For instance, metallic nano-apertures are able to confine electromagnetic field within the aperture due to LSP effect, and the resulted high intensity field can enhance the excitation efficiency. Also, the nano-apertures have an extra advantage of suppressing background [8–10]. In addition, plasmonic gratings have attracted many attentions due to their unique SP characteristic. The plasmonic gratings cannot only enhance specific SP mode but also modify its propagation direction. For example, plasmonic gratings are able to modify the light transmission from single nano-aperture [11]. Moreover, the hybrid nanostructure of plasmonic gratings and nano-aperture have been extensively investigated for single molecule fluorescence enhancement [12–16]. When the gratings coupling with the nano-aperture, it cannot only enhance the near-field excitation rate but also it can modify the emission rate and the far-field radiation pattern of the molecular fluorescence. It is also found that the resonance wavelength is dependent on their geometry parameters, such as the groove depth and grating period, which provide a way to optimize the optical response corresponding to specific fluorescence molecule [17,18]. While conventional plasmonic gratings response effectively only in a narrow spectral band. Therefore, there is a tradeoff between the excitation and emission processes when the Stokes shift of the photoluminescence process is relatively large. Although asymmetric dual-face grating antenna was proposed in theory to control the local excitation enhancement, the collection efficiency, and the quantum efficiency separately, the goals to optimize the fluorescence enhancement still remain an open challenge in experiment.

In this study, we demonstrated that the nano-apertures associated with stair-gratings have high surface enhancement factor and better beaming effect in comparison to the conventional ones. In contrast to the conventional gratings, we propose to excavate a rectangle part of corrugations and make the cross profile likes a stair-grating. The schematic of stair-gratings is shown in Fig. 1 as a hybrid of two gratings with different period or depth. Thus, a new periodic parameter is introduced into the plasmonic grating, which could increase the optical response both at the excitation and emission bands simultaneously. In experiment, we used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to analyze the fluorescence trace and the fluorescence count rate per molecule. The nano-apertures with stair-gratings truly presented higher enhancement effect. In addition, the emission angular patterns were measured with the back focal plane (BFP) imaging method, presenting a narrower directionality for the stair-gratings. By employing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD), the directional emission patterns and near-field enhancement were calculated. The numerical simulations are in good agreement with the experiments. The proposed stair gratings provide a flexible way to control the enhancement and beaming effect of the molecule fluorescence.

 

Fig. 1 Schematic of proposed stair-gratings. We excavate a rectangle part of the corrugations and make it like a stair. There are two new geometry parameters which can use to tune the optical response. (b) and (c) SEM cross profile of the common grating and stair-grating separately.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

2. Experimental methods

In the experiment, optical measurement methods are set up on an integrated microscopy system (NTEGRA Spectra, NT-MDT). The schematic of optical setup is shown in Fig. 2(a). We can measure white light dark-field scattering [19,20], photoluminescence(PL), FCS [12,21], and fluorescence radiation patterns [22,23] of the same single nano-aperture in situ. In all measurements, we used an oil-immersion objective lens (N.A. 1.49, 60 × , TIRF, Olympus). And the angular patterns of the fluorescence emission were obtained with the back focal plane (BFP) imaging method. A CW laser at wavelength of 632.8 nm was used as the excitation light with excitation power of ~60 μW. On the other hand, we used Alexa 647 in the solution with concentration of ~1μM. To prevent from molecular adsorption due to the local charges, we used phosphate aqueous buffered solution. To prepare the metallic nanostructures, there are four steps as shown in Fig. 2(c): (1) Deposit Au thin film on the cover glass by using magnetic sputtering; (2) Use focus ion beam (FIB) to penetrate through the Au film and etch into the glass to fabricate the corrugations of the gratings; (3) Deposit Au film again onto the samples in order to fill the corrugations; (4) Fabricate the central nano-aperture with FIB milling. By using the Pt deposition which is integrated in the FIB system, we can easily identify the fabricated nanostructure under the SEM. The SEM images of the common and stair gratings are shown in Figs. 1(b) and 1(c) separately. We find that the corrugations of the stair-gratings and the common gratings can be fabricated well as expected. In our experiments: the corrugation groove depth d = 200 nm, width a = 220 nm, the height of the excavated part d2 = 100 nm, the width of the excavated part a2 = 110, the central aperture diameter (same with bare aperture) D = 250 nm, there are 5 grooves for both the stair and common gratings, and Au film thickness H = 300 nm.

 

Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of optical experiment setup. (b) Optical confocal scanning image of a sample containing bare apertures, nano-apertures surrounded with common and stair grating. (c) Fabrication procedure of the nano-apertures with stair-gratings.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3. Results and discussion

First of all, we use the white light dark-field scattering method to characterize the response of the nanostructures. The results are shown in Fig. 3(a). As we can see, in the range from 625 nm to 675 nm, both the stair-gratings (red line) and the common gratings (blue line) present a broad resonance. Obviously, the stair-gratings have higher scattering intensity which implies it has stronger optical response when comparing to the common gratings. Correspondingly, the Alexa 647 dye molecules used in the present experiment also emits in this range. Thus, spectral response of the nanostructures covers not only the excitation wavelength of 632.8 nm but also the emission spectral range of 640 ~700 nm. Figure 3(b) shows the fluorescence spectra of the molecules being confined within the nano-apertures. The results from three kinds of nanostructures are compared: bare nano-apertures, nano-apertures with common gratings, and nano-apertures with stair-gratings. As shown in Fig. 3(b), the nano-apertures with gratings modify the fluorescent spectral shape slightly when comparing to the fluorescence spectrum obtained from the dye molecules in free solution (data not shown). At wavelength ~700 nm, there is a “shoulder” for both the common and stair gratings. This spectral variation can be due to the strong interaction between the dye molecules and the nanostructures [10]. The PL spectrum of the dye molecules in free solution is also plotted for comparison.

 

Fig. 3 (a) Scattering spectra of nano-aperture with stair and common gratings. (b) Fluorescence spectra of the molecules within different nanostructures: stair-gratings, common gratings and bare aperture. PL spectrum in free solution is also plotted for comparison.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

In order to obtain normalized fluorescence count rate per molecule, it is necessary to obtain the average number of the dye molecules in the nano-apertures. In the following, we measured the fluorescence intensity from single nano-apertures with two avalanche photodiodes (SPCM-AQRH-16-FC, PerkinElmer) and obtained the FCS curves through cross-correlation to suppress after-pulsing (correlator.com, US). The results are shown in Fig. 4(a). The FCS curves of three kinds of nanostructures have little difference, which means that the average number of the molecules is almost the same because the different nanostructures actually have the same nano-aperture size. Nevertheless, we notice that the result of the bare aperture has a slightly higher G(0) which probably due to less background noise than the others. According to three dimensional Brownian diffusion model, we have the formula: G(τ)=1+1N(1BF)2[1+nTexp(ττbT)](1+ττd)1(1+s2τ/τd)1/2 [8,10,21], where N is the total number of molecules, F the total signal, B the background noise, nT the amplitude of the dark state population, bT the dark state blinking time, τd the mean diffusion time, and s the ratio of transversal to axial dimensions of the analysis volume. We used this formula to fit the FCS curves and calculate the average number of molecules. After fitting the curves, we obtained the fluorescence count rate per molecule. As shown Fig. 4(c), we provide the averaged count rate and standard deviation in different structures, summarized from three stair-gratings, four common gratings and four bare apertures. In average, in comparing to the bare aperture, the stair-gratings can reach 2-fold fluorescence enhancement factor. And the stair-gratings perform better than common gratings. The stair-gratings have the highest count rate, i.e. the stair-gratings can still promote 20% of the count rate than the common ones. Both the count rate of the common gratings and the stair-gratings are much higher than that of the bare nano-apertures. It implies that the stair-gratings are able to significantly enhance the fluorescence.

 

Fig. 4 (a) Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy curves of three different nanostructures. (b) Normalized representative fluorescence intensity trace, and (c) Normalized fluorescence count rate per molecule for different structures.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Additionally, it is necessary to discuss the molecular far-field radiation pattern modified by the different nanostructures, since it is another important factor to determine the collection efficiency during the surface enhanced fluorescence. Figure 5 shows the fluorescence far-field radiation patterns with the BFP imaging method, and all images with the same color bar. Figure 5(a) shows the results of the bare apertures and the distribution of the pattern is homogeneous. It implies that the molecular radiation within the bare aperture spread in a broad solid angle. The patterns of the common gratings are shown in Fig. 5(b). As we can see, the fluorescence signals concentrate more in the center, which means that the common gratings are able to boost the collection efficiency. Furthermore, as shown in Fig. 5(c), we find that the fluorescence signals are highly confined in the center when comparing to the former two nanostructures. These results imply that the stair-gratings can confine the molecular radiation in a narrower solid angles. We notice that the experimental results above are based on the use of the high N.A. objective (N.A. = 1.49) which can collect the fluorescence signal very efficiently. Hence, we can obtain a higher enhancement factor if we use an air objective to replace the oil immersion objective.

 

Fig. 5 Molecular radiation patterns from different structures (a) Bare nano-aperture (b) Nano-aperture with common gratings (c) Nano-aperture with stair-gratings.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Furthermore, we employed the FDTD method to simulate the phenomena qualitatively [24]. In our simulations: the corrugations height d = 200 nm, width a = 220 nm, the height of the excavated part d2 = 100 nm, the width of the excavated part a2 = 110, the central aperture diameter (same with bare aperture) D = 250 nm, Au film thickness H = 300 nm. For the wavelength from 633 nm to 672 nm, we calculated the near-field enhancement factor within the nano-apertures and the far-field radiation patterns. It should be note that we only present the results for the dipole is parallel to the Au film, because such orientation is dominated over the perpendicular ones. For instance, the power radiative of parallel dipole is about two order of magnitudes higher than the perpendicular one. As shown in Fig. 6(b), the common gratings perform well at the wavelength of 633 nm, but the efficiency of the common gratings decrease for longer wavelength significantly. It is due to the width of the spectral response is narrower. In contrast, as shown in Fig. 6(c), the stair-gratings perform well at the wavelength of 633 nm. And the performance of the stair-gratings at wavelength of 650 ~670 nm are still good enough for good beaming effect although the excitation enhancement factor is lower slightly. These simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments, i.e. the stairs-gratings can confine the radiation better than the common gratings. It should be noted that the groove depth in the present study is pretty deep according previous studies [12,25]. It is still necessary to optimize the parameters of the stair grating, e.g. groove depth and geometry of excavated part so on, for better performance. Nevertheless, based on current experimental and numerical simulations, it is reliable to conclude that the stair grating can work better rather than the common grating.

 

Fig. 6 Simulated far-field radiation patterns at different wavelengths for (a) Bare nano-aperture (b) Nano-aperture with common gratings (c) Nano-aperture with stair-gratings, and near-field intensity enhancement indicated in each top-right corner correspondingly.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we design a new type of gratings called as stair-gratings and combine them with nano-aperture for surface enhanced fluorescence detection. In comparison with the conventional ones, we find that the detected fluorescent intensity by the stair-gratings is higher than the common grating. And narrower directionality by the stair-gratings would enable the detection of molecular fluorescence with low N.A. objective. All these factors allow a higher SNR and higher detection efficiency of single molecule fluorescence. We also employed the FDTD method to simulate the near-field enhancement and far-field radiation patterns. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. Our research contributes to understanding to the plasmonic gratings for optimizing the surface enhancement process of photoluminescence process.

Funding

This work was supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (grant no. 2013CB328703) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (grant nos. 61422502, 11374026, 61521004, 11527901)

References and links

1. V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(1-2), 221–232 (2009). [CrossRef]  

6. P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]  

8. J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008). [CrossRef]  

11. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. M. Toma, K. Toma, P. Adam, J. Homola, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission on plasmonic Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14042–14053 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013). [CrossRef]  

16. L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013). [CrossRef]  

18. H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013). [CrossRef]  

19. C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000). [CrossRef]  

20. D. A. Woods and C. D. Bain, “Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter,” Soft Matter 10(8), 1071–1096 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. M. A. Lieb, J. M. Zavislan, and L. Novotny, “Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1210 (2004). [CrossRef]  

23. A. L. Mattheyses and D. Axelrod, “Fluorescence emission patterns near glass and metal-coated surfaces investigated with back focal plane imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054007 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014). [CrossRef]  

25. N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Toma, K. Toma, P. Adam, J. Homola, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission on plasmonic Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14042–14053 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. A. Woods and C. D. Bain, “Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter,” Soft Matter 10(8), 1071–1096 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. A. Lieb, J. M. Zavislan, and L. Novotny, “Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1210 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. L. Mattheyses and D. Axelrod, “Fluorescence emission patterns near glass and metal-coated surfaces investigated with back focal plane imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054007 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

D. A. Woods and C. D. Bain, “Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter,” Soft Matter 10(8), 1071–1096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Toma, K. Toma, P. Adam, J. Homola, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission on plasmonic Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14042–14053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Mattheyses and D. Axelrod, “Fluorescence emission patterns near glass and metal-coated surfaces investigated with back focal plane imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054007 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Adam, P.

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Axelrod, D.

A. L. Mattheyses and D. Axelrod, “Fluorescence emission patterns near glass and metal-coated surfaces investigated with back focal plane imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054007 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagalkot, V.

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bain, C. D.

D. A. Woods and C. D. Bain, “Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter,” Soft Matter 10(8), 1071–1096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blair, S.

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bonod, N.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulu, I.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, V. Z. H.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, E. H.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chou, R. Y.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choy, J. T.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dolde, F.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dostálek, J.

Ebbesen, T.

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Farokhzad, O.C

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geier, S.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gérard, D.

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Q.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hausmann, B. J. M.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hecker, N. E.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Homola, J.

Hou, L.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, I. C.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. C.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janitz, E.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jon, S

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, Y. C.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kantoff, P. W

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karaveli, S.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kino, G. S.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knoll, W.

Krenn, J. R.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lamprecht, B.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Langer, R

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenne, P. F.

Levy-Nissenbaum, E

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lieb, M. A.

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, G.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahboub, O.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahdavi, F.

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Markham, M. L.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martini, M.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mattheyses, A. L.

A. L. Mattheyses and D. Axelrod, “Fluorescence emission patterns near glass and metal-coated surfaces investigated with back focal plane imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054007 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNally, B.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meller, A.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Möller, M.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mouradian, S. L.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müllen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Novotny, L.

Perriat, P.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Popov, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rigneault, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schröder, T.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, H.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

Singer, A.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Spatz, J. P.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tillement, O.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Toma, K.

Toma, M.

Twitchen, D. J.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Weng, Z.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenger, J.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willets, K. A.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woods, D. A.

D. A. Woods and C. D. Bain, “Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter,” Soft Matter 10(8), 1071–1096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yue, S.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zavislan, J. M.

ZHang, L

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. L. Mattheyses and D. Axelrod, “Fluorescence emission patterns near glass and metal-coated surfaces investigated with back focal plane imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054007 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soft Matter (1)

D. A. Woods and C. D. Bain, “Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter,” Soft Matter 10(8), 1071–1096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of proposed stair-gratings. We excavate a rectangle part of the corrugations and make it like a stair. There are two new geometry parameters which can use to tune the optical response. (b) and (c) SEM cross profile of the common grating and stair-grating separately.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of optical experiment setup. (b) Optical confocal scanning image of a sample containing bare apertures, nano-apertures surrounded with common and stair grating. (c) Fabrication procedure of the nano-apertures with stair-gratings.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Scattering spectra of nano-aperture with stair and common gratings. (b) Fluorescence spectra of the molecules within different nanostructures: stair-gratings, common gratings and bare aperture. PL spectrum in free solution is also plotted for comparison.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy curves of three different nanostructures. (b) Normalized representative fluorescence intensity trace, and (c) Normalized fluorescence count rate per molecule for different structures.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Molecular radiation patterns from different structures (a) Bare nano-aperture (b) Nano-aperture with common gratings (c) Nano-aperture with stair-gratings.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated far-field radiation patterns at different wavelengths for (a) Bare nano-aperture (b) Nano-aperture with common gratings (c) Nano-aperture with stair-gratings, and near-field intensity enhancement indicated in each top-right corner correspondingly.

Metrics