Abstract

A stable high-power single-frequency laser at 1645 nm from a monolithic Er:YAG ceramic nonplanar ring oscillator (NPRO) was demonstrated. 10.7 W single-frequency laser output was obtained with a slope efficiency of 61.2% and an optical efficiency of 52.1% with respect to incident pump power. The laser always stably operated in single-frequency mode with the pump power increasing from threshold to maximum pump power. When the crystal’s set temperature changed from 17.2°C to 26.6°C, the Er:YAG ceramic NPRO had stable single-frequency laser output, and the widest continuous tuning range without mode-hoping was 4.5 GHz. The linewidth of the single-frequency laser was 5.75 kHz. The beam quality M2 factors were 1.23 and 1.24 in x and y directions, respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Due to numerous significant advantages, rare-earth doped transparent ceramic has attracted more and more attention as a substitute for single crystal [1–3]. The fabrication time of ceramic material is much shorter than that of single crystal. Moreover, large-size ceramic material can be fabricated with more uniform optical properties. Uniform dopant can be realized in ceramic materials, which are much tougher and stronger than single crystals. Besides, complex geometry formability and near net shape capability lead to low cost of ceramic materials. All the advantages of ceramic materials mentioned above contribute to scalability to high power laser.

Nd- and Yb- doped YAG ceramic lasers have been successfully demonstrated for lasing 1 μm wavelength with high efficiency and high power [4–6]. Recently, Tm- and Ho- doped YAG ceramic materials have been developed for eye-safe solid-state lasers [7,8]. Er:YAG material is a promising laser material for obtaining 1.6 μm eye-safe laser output, which are widely applied in the fields of remote sensing [9–11] and laser communication. With the improvement of fabrication technology, Er:YAG transparent ceramic materials are available as 1.6 μm gain media [12–14]. In 2010, composite Er:YAG ceramic laser resonantly pumped by a 1532 nm fiber laser was demonstrated for lasing at 1645 nm wavelength [12]. The maximum output power was 7 W with a slope efficiency of 56.9%. In 2011, C. Zhang et al. reported a high-power Er:YAG ceramic laser resonantly pumped by a 1532 nm Er, Yb fiber laser [13]. 14 W of output power at 1617 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 51.7% when the incident pump power was 28.8 W. In 2014, Y. Wang et al. reported a resonantly pumped Q-switch Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1645 nm [14]. Maximum continuous wave output power of 2.4 W was achieved with incident pump power of 10.5 W. In Q-switched mode, output energy of 3.7 mJ was obtained with a pulse-width of 82 ns at 200 Hz under 8.6 W of incident pump power.

However, single-frequency lasers are essential to certain applications, such as differential absorption lidar (DIAL), Doppler wind lidar and coherent detection. Some great research results about single-frequency lasers have been achieved with Er:YAG crystals [15–21]. In 2011, D. W. Chen et al. reported a 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator resonantly pumped by a 1532 nm Er fiber laser [15]. The maximum single-frequency output power was 450 mW with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 11%. The M2 factor was less than 1.2 and the measured linewidth was 21 kHz. In 2012, L. N. Zhu reported a single-frequency Er:YAG laser by using intracavity etalons to generate single-frequency operation. The maximum single-frequency output power at 1645 nm was 749 mW by using two intracavity etalons with a slope efficiency of 34.2% [16]. The M2 factors were 1.041 and 1.068 in x and y directions, respectively. 640 mW single-frequency output at 1617 nm was obtained by using two intracavity etalons with a slope efficiency of 36.02% [17]. The M2 factors were 1.36 and 1.34 in x and y directions, respectively. In 2012, C. Q. Gao et al. reported a Er:YAG NPRO single-frequency laser resonantly pumped by a 1532 nm Er, Yb fiber laser [18]. 6.1 W of output power at 1645 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 55.2%. The M2 factors were 1.58 and 1.62 in x and y directions, respectively. The linewidth at 6 W output power was 14.4 kHz. In 2013, B. Q. Yao et al. reported an Er:YAG NPRO was resonantly pumped by 1532 nm laser diode with 550 mW single-frequency output power at 1645 nm [19]. The slope efficiency and optical efficiency were 19.1% and 6.0%, respectively. The beam quality M2 was 2.1 at the highest output power. In 2013, Y. Zheng et al. reported a 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator was resonantly pumped by a 1470 nm laser diode [20]. 284 mW single-frequency laser output at 1645 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 42.1%. The M2 factors at the maximum single-frequency output power were 1.064 and 1.039 along the x and y directions. In 2013, R. Wang et al. reported a 1645 nm Er:YAG NPRO resonantly pumped by a 1532 nm fiber laser and obtained 10.5 W single-frequency laser output with the pump power of 20 W [21]. The slope efficiency and optical efficiency were 60.03% and 53.63%, respectively. And the M2 factors were 1.09 and 1.24 in x and y directions, respectively. The linewidth of the Er:YAG NPRO was about 18.6 kHz.

Therefore, there is no report of single-frequency laser by using Er:YAG ceramic. Among the techniques of obtaining single-frequency laser output, NPRO can achieve high-power single-frequency output, and the advantages of NPRO structure are high stability, narrow linewidth, low power and frequency noise, and good beam quality [22–25]. However, the NPRO structure has strict requirements on the uniformity of large-size gain medium, which are exactly the advantages of ceramic materials. On the other hand, NPRO structure requires enough Verdet constant of gain medium to get unidirectional travel. The Verdet constant of 0.5 at.% Er:YAG crystal was 44.8 °/(T*m) [26]. But there is no report on the Verdet constant of Er:YAG ceramic. The differential loss between the two directions of traversal mode of NPRO design should be more than 0.01% to realize single-frequency operation [27]. The minimal Verdet constant of the Er:YAG ceramic in our NPRO design was 11.7 °/(T*m).

In this letter, we first demonstrated a monolithic ceramic NPRO laser with stable high-power single-frequency laser output. Up to 10.7 W single-frequency laser output was obtained at 1645 nm, with a slope efficiency of 61.2% and an optical efficiency of 52.1%. The linewidth of the single-frequency laser was 5.75 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to obtain 1645 nm single-frequency laser output by utilizing Er:YAG ceramic. Besides, this is the first time for ceramic material to achieve single-frequency output power as high as that of single crystal [21], which indicates the considerable potential of ceramic material in single-frequency laser field. The slope efficiency and M2 factors of Er:YAG ceramic NPRO are comparable with that of Ref (21). Furthermore, the experimental results illustrate that ceramic material has high enough Verdet constant for NPRO structure to achieve stable single-frequency laser output.

2. Experimental setup

The experimental setup of the monolithic Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser is shown in Fig. 1. The Er:YAG ceramic blank was brought from Konoshima Chemical Co., Ltd. The dimension of Er:YAG ceramic NPRO was 12 mm (width) × 14 mm (length) × 4 mm (height). The Er-doping concentration was 0.5 at.% to ensure the well absorption of pump laser and reduce the energy-transfer up-conversion effect which scales linearly with the doping concentration [28]. In NPRO structure, the input surface is also the output surface and named to be input coupler/ output coupler (IC/OC) surface. The IC/OC surface of the Er:YAG ceramic NPRO was designed to have a high transmission coating of 97% at 1532 nm with both s-polarized and p-polarized and 18% output coupling coating of the s-polarized beam at 1645 nm. The IC/OC acts as a polarizer in NPRO structure, so the output coupling coating of the p-polarized beam needs to be as high as possible. The transmission of p-polarized beam was 51% in our experiment. With the magnetic field, the Er:YAG ceramic itself acts as a Faraday rotator in NPRO structure. To achieve unidirectional oscillation, a permanent magnetic field of 0.4 T was applied along the Er:YAG ceramic NPRO, and the direction of magnetic field is shown in Fig. 1. The Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser was resonantly pumped by a 1532 nm fiber laser (IPG Photonics, ELR-20). The spectral width of the fiber laser was 0.2 nm (FWHM). The temperature of Er:YAG ceramic NPRO was precisely controlled and quickly tuned by using a thermal electric cooler (TEC). The laser beam waist radius close to the IC/OC was about 140 μm calculated by using ABCD matrix. So the pump beam was focused into the Er:YAG ceramic NPRO by using the spherical lens F1 and F2 to match the intro-cavity beam waist. The focus length of F1 and F2 were 500 mm and 75 mm, respectively. The pump laser radius close to the IC/OC was about 130 μm. Two dichroic mirrors (DM) were used to eliminate the influence of unabsorbed pump power. And a power meter (Molectron LabMax-TOP, PM30 detector) was used to measure the output power properties. The single-longitudinal-mode spectrum was monitored by using a scanning confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with a free spectral range of 2.44 GHz. The wavelength of the Er:YAG ceramic single-frequency laser were investigated by using the wavemeter (High-Finesse WS7-IR II) with a resolution of 40 MHz. The single-longitudinal-mode spectrum and the wavelength properties were investigated at the same time by using an uncoated wedge-shaped mirror.

 

Fig. 1 Experimental setup of Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser.

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3. Experimental results

Figure 2 shows the single-longitudinal-mode laser output power as functions of the incident pump power. The stable single-frequency laser output was obtained when the pump power increased. When the incident pump power was 20.5 W, the maximum single-frequency output power was 10.7 W. The absorption efficiency of pump light during laser operation was 78.3% at the maximum single-frequency output power. The slope efficiency and optical efficiency were 61.2% and 52.1% with respect to the incident pump power, respectively. The Er:YAG ceramic laser oscillated in stable single-frequency operation in 40 minutes and the relative power stability was 0.36%. The inset is the single-longitudinal-mode spectrum measured by a scanning confocal FPI, which indicates the Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser operated on single longitudinal mode at the maximum output power.

 

Fig. 2 The output power and power stability of single-frequency Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser. The solid squares denote output powers and the dash line is the linear fit of the output power as a function of the incident pump power. The solid line is the maximum single-frequency output power measured in 40 min. The inset is the FPI spectrum of Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser.

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Figure 3 shows the wavelength and the wavelength stability at the maximum output power when the Er:YAG ceramic temperature was controlled at 18°C. And the accuracy of the temperature control was 0.01°C. The wavelength of the single-frequency Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser was 1645.31618 nm. The standard deviation of the wavelength of the Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser was 0.50 pm in 40 min and the relative wavelength stability was 3 × 10−7. Moreover, the Er:YAG ceramic NPRO had stable single-frequency laser output, when the set temperature was changed from 17.2°C to 26.6°C. The wavelengths of the single-frequency laser at different set temperatures are shown in Fig. 4. The wavelength-tuning coefficient of Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser was calculated to be 0.02315 nm/°C. The widest continuous tuning range without mode-hoping was 4.5 GHz.

 

Fig. 3 The wavelength and the wavelength stability of the single-frequency Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser.

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Fig. 4 The wavelengths at different set temperatures of Er:YAG ceramic NPRO .

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The linewidth is an importance factor of the single-frequency laser. The linewidth of the Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser was measured by using the delayed self-heterodyne method at the maximum single-frequency output power. The setup is shown in Fig. 5. The single-frequency laser was split to two beams by an uncoated wedge-shaped mirror. The transmission part was used to monitor the single-frequency property. The reflection part was also split to two different polarized beams by a quarter-wave-plate and a thin film polarizing (TFP) beam splitter. The perpendicular polarized laser beam was coupled into a 35 km long fiber for a delay time of 181 μs. The parallel polarized laser beam was frequency shifted by 50 MHz using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and changed the polarization to perpendicular polarized using a half-wave-plate. The first-order diffraction beam of the AOM was used for the heterodyne measurement. The two beams were recombined by an uncoated mirror. The beat signal was detected by an InGaAs photodiode and displayed on a spectrum analyzer (Agilent N9020A MXA).

 

Fig. 5 Experimental setup for Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser delayed self-heterodyne linewidth measurement.

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An optical field RF spectrum of the heterodyne signal is shown in Fig. 6. The RF spectrum became a simple self-convolution of the laser output spectrum by using long enough delay fiber, from which the laser linewidth can be retrieved. The −3 dB bandwidth of optical field RF spectrum was observed to be 11.50 kHz from 7.27 ms sweep measurement, so the FWHM linewidth of the Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser was about 5.75 kHz. The relative spectrum purity was 3.16 × 10−11.

 

Fig. 6 Delayed self-heterodyne signal recorded by an RF spectral analyzer at maximum power.

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The beam quality of the output beam at the highest single-frequency output power was measured. Figure 7 shows the measured beam radii at different positions along the beam propagation with 4σ method by using the pyroelectric camera (Ophire-spirican PyrocamIII). The picture inserted is the two-dimensional beam profiles of the laser beam. By fitting the measured data with a hyperbolic curve, the M2 factors were calculated to be 1.23 and 1.24 in x and y directions, respectively.

 

Fig. 7 Beam propagation factor of the single-frequency Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser. The inserted picture is the two-dimensional beam profiles of the laser beam.

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4. Conclusion

In summary, we reported a stable high-power single-frequency Er:YAG ceramic laser by using NPRO structure. 10.7 W single-frequency laser output power was obtained at the wavelength of 1645 nm. The slope efficiency and the optical efficiency were 61.2% and 52.1%, respectively. The relative power stability of Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser was 0.36% in 40 min. The standard deviation of the wavelength was 0.50 pm and the relative wavelength stability was 3 × 10−7 in 40 min. The Er:YAG ceramic NPRO had stable single-frequency laser output all the time, when the set temperature was changed from 17.2°C to 26.6°C. The linewidth of the Er:YAG ceramic NPRO was 5.75 kHz (FWHM). The measured M2 factors were 1.23 and 1.24, respectively. The experimental results show ceramic material is a promising gain medium for achieving stable high-power single-frequency laser output. This compact high-power single-frequency Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser operating at 1645 nm is a potential candidate as a seed laser for an injection seeding laser system, which is an ideal source for DIAL and Doppler wind lidar.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China with contract number of 61505250 and 61178027, and Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation with contract number of 4164108 and 4132036.

References and links

1. H. N. Zhang, X. H. Chen, Q. P. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, J. Chang, L. Gao, H. B. Shen, Z. H. Cong, Z. J. Liu, X. T. Tao, and P. Li, “High efficiency Nd:YAG ceramic eye-safe laser operating at 1442.8 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3075–3077 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. H. Yang, L. Zhang, D. W. Luo, X. B. Qiao, J. Zhang, T. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Optical properties of Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG polycrystalline transparent ceramics,” Opt. Express 5(1), 142–146 (2015). [CrossRef]  

3. S. Lee, J. T. Jin, D. S. Jang, B. H. Cha, S. Kwon, C. J. Kim, and H. S. Kim, “A diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with a 540-W output power,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 372–376 (2007). [CrossRef]  

4. Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Pan, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Y. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Laser-diode pumped 40-W Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17734–17738 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. A. Pirri, D. Alderighi, G. Toci, and M. Vannini, “High-efficiency, high-power and low threshold Yb3+:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23344–23349 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. J. L. Li, K. Ueda, M. Musha, L. X. Zhong, and A. Shirakawa, “Radially polarized and pulsed output from passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2686–2688 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. Y. Wang, D. Shen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, X. Qin, D. Tang, X. Yang, and T. Zhao, “Highly efficient Tm:YAG ceramic laser resonantly pumped at 1617 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4485–4487 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. L. Wang, C. Gao, M. Gao, Y. Li, F. Yue, J. Zhang, and D. Tang, “A resonantly-pumped tunable Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser with diffraction-limit beam quality,” Opt. Express 22(1), 254–261 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. R. C. Stoneman, R. Hartman, E. A. Schneider, C. G. Garvin, and S. W. Henderson, “Eyesafe diffraction-limited single-frequency 1 ns pulsewidth Er:YAG laser transmitter,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 65520H (2007). [CrossRef]  

10. C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011). [CrossRef]  

11. A. Aubourg, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Comment on ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 μm for methane differential absorption lidar’,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(4), 048001 (2014). [CrossRef]  

12. N. Ter-Gabrielyan, L. D. Merkle, E. R. Kupp, G. L. Messing, and M. Dubinskii, “Efficient resonantly pumped tape cast composite ceramic Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 922–924 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. C. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, Y. Wang, L. J. Qian, J. Zhang, X. P. Qin, D. Y. Tang, X. F. Yang, and T. Zhao, “High-power polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1617 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4767–4769 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. Y. Wang, T. Zhao, D. Shen, H. Zhu, J. Zhang, and D. Tang, “Resonantly pumped Q-switched Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24004–24009 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. D. W. Chen, P. M. Belden, T. S. Rose, and S. M. Beck, “Narrowband Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1197–1199 (2011). [PubMed]  

16. L. Zhu, C. Gao, R. Wang, M. Gao, Y. Zheng, and Z. Wang, “Resonantly pumped 1.645 μm single longitudinal mode Er:YAG laser with intracavity etalons,” Appl. Opt. 51(10), 1616–1618 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. L. N. Zhu, C. Q. Gao, R. Wang, Y. Zheng, and M. W. Gao, “Fiber-bulk hybrid Er:YAG laser with 1617 nm single frequency laser output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(9), 674–677 (2012). [CrossRef]  

18. C. Gao, L. Zhu, R. Wang, M. Gao, Y. Zheng, and L. Wang, “6.1 W single frequency laser output at 1645 nm from a resonantly pumped Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1859–1861 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. B. Q. Yao, X. Yu, X. L. Liu, X. M. Duan, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Room temperature single longitudinal mode laser output at 1645 nm from a laser-diode pumped Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8916–8921 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. Y. Zheng, C. Gao, R. Wang, M. Gao, and Q. Ye, “Single frequency 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator resonantly pumped by a 1470 nm laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 784–786 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. R. Wang, C. Q. Gao, Y. Zheng, M. W. Gao, and Q. Ye, “A resonantly pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator with 10.5 W single frequency output,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(10), 955–957 (2013). [CrossRef]  

22. I. Freitag, A. Tiinnermann, and H. Welling, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115(5-6), 511–515 (1995). [CrossRef]  

23. P. Burdack, T. Fox, M. Bode, and I. Freitag, “1 W of stable single-frequency output at 1.03 mum from a novel, monolithic, non-planar Yb:YAG ring laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4363–4367 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. C. Gao, M. Gao, Y. Zhang, Z. Lin, and L. Zhu, “Stable single-frequency output at 2.01 microm from a diode-pumped monolithic double diffusion-bonded Tm:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 3029–3031 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. L. Wang, C. Gao, M. Gao, and Y. Li, “Resonantly pumped monolithic nonplanar Ho:YAG ring laser with high-power single-frequency laser output at 2122 nm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9541–9546 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. L. Harris, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “The Verdet constant of Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 429–433 (2012). [CrossRef]  

27. T. J. Kane and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic, unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 10(2), 65–67 (1985). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, and W. A. Clarkson, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on threshold pump power in quasi-three-level solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11935–11943 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. H. N. Zhang, X. H. Chen, Q. P. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, J. Chang, L. Gao, H. B. Shen, Z. H. Cong, Z. J. Liu, X. T. Tao, and P. Li, “High efficiency Nd:YAG ceramic eye-safe laser operating at 1442.8 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3075–3077 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Yang, L. Zhang, D. W. Luo, X. B. Qiao, J. Zhang, T. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Optical properties of Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG polycrystalline transparent ceramics,” Opt. Express 5(1), 142–146 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Lee, J. T. Jin, D. S. Jang, B. H. Cha, S. Kwon, C. J. Kim, and H. S. Kim, “A diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with a 540-W output power,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 372–376 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Pan, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Y. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Laser-diode pumped 40-W Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17734–17738 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Pirri, D. Alderighi, G. Toci, and M. Vannini, “High-efficiency, high-power and low threshold Yb3+:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23344–23349 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. L. Li, K. Ueda, M. Musha, L. X. Zhong, and A. Shirakawa, “Radially polarized and pulsed output from passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2686–2688 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Wang, D. Shen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, X. Qin, D. Tang, X. Yang, and T. Zhao, “Highly efficient Tm:YAG ceramic laser resonantly pumped at 1617 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4485–4487 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. L. Wang, C. Gao, M. Gao, Y. Li, F. Yue, J. Zhang, and D. Tang, “A resonantly-pumped tunable Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser with diffraction-limit beam quality,” Opt. Express 22(1), 254–261 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. R. C. Stoneman, R. Hartman, E. A. Schneider, C. G. Garvin, and S. W. Henderson, “Eyesafe diffraction-limited single-frequency 1 ns pulsewidth Er:YAG laser transmitter,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 65520H (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Aubourg, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Comment on ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 μm for methane differential absorption lidar’,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(4), 048001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Ter-Gabrielyan, L. D. Merkle, E. R. Kupp, G. L. Messing, and M. Dubinskii, “Efficient resonantly pumped tape cast composite ceramic Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 922–924 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, Y. Wang, L. J. Qian, J. Zhang, X. P. Qin, D. Y. Tang, X. F. Yang, and T. Zhao, “High-power polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1617 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4767–4769 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Wang, T. Zhao, D. Shen, H. Zhu, J. Zhang, and D. Tang, “Resonantly pumped Q-switched Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24004–24009 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. W. Chen, P. M. Belden, T. S. Rose, and S. M. Beck, “Narrowband Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1197–1199 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  16. L. Zhu, C. Gao, R. Wang, M. Gao, Y. Zheng, and Z. Wang, “Resonantly pumped 1.645 μm single longitudinal mode Er:YAG laser with intracavity etalons,” Appl. Opt. 51(10), 1616–1618 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. L. N. Zhu, C. Q. Gao, R. Wang, Y. Zheng, and M. W. Gao, “Fiber-bulk hybrid Er:YAG laser with 1617 nm single frequency laser output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(9), 674–677 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. Gao, L. Zhu, R. Wang, M. Gao, Y. Zheng, and L. Wang, “6.1 W single frequency laser output at 1645 nm from a resonantly pumped Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1859–1861 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. B. Q. Yao, X. Yu, X. L. Liu, X. M. Duan, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Room temperature single longitudinal mode laser output at 1645 nm from a laser-diode pumped Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8916–8921 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Zheng, C. Gao, R. Wang, M. Gao, and Q. Ye, “Single frequency 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator resonantly pumped by a 1470 nm laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 784–786 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. Wang, C. Q. Gao, Y. Zheng, M. W. Gao, and Q. Ye, “A resonantly pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator with 10.5 W single frequency output,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(10), 955–957 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. I. Freitag, A. Tiinnermann, and H. Welling, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115(5-6), 511–515 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Burdack, T. Fox, M. Bode, and I. Freitag, “1 W of stable single-frequency output at 1.03 mum from a novel, monolithic, non-planar Yb:YAG ring laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4363–4367 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. C. Gao, M. Gao, Y. Zhang, Z. Lin, and L. Zhu, “Stable single-frequency output at 2.01 microm from a diode-pumped monolithic double diffusion-bonded Tm:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 3029–3031 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. L. Wang, C. Gao, M. Gao, and Y. Li, “Resonantly pumped monolithic nonplanar Ho:YAG ring laser with high-power single-frequency laser output at 2122 nm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9541–9546 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. L. Harris, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “The Verdet constant of Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 429–433 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. J. Kane and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic, unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 10(2), 65–67 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, and W. A. Clarkson, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on threshold pump power in quasi-three-level solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11935–11943 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

H. Yang, L. Zhang, D. W. Luo, X. B. Qiao, J. Zhang, T. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Optical properties of Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG polycrystalline transparent ceramics,” Opt. Express 5(1), 142–146 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (5)

2012 (4)

L. N. Zhu, C. Q. Gao, R. Wang, Y. Zheng, and M. W. Gao, “Fiber-bulk hybrid Er:YAG laser with 1617 nm single frequency laser output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(9), 674–677 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, C. Gao, R. Wang, M. Gao, Y. Zheng, and Z. Wang, “Resonantly pumped 1.645 μm single longitudinal mode Er:YAG laser with intracavity etalons,” Appl. Opt. 51(10), 1616–1618 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Harris, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “The Verdet constant of Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 429–433 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Gao, L. Zhu, R. Wang, M. Gao, Y. Zheng, and L. Wang, “6.1 W single frequency laser output at 1645 nm from a resonantly pumped Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1859–1861 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

R. C. Stoneman, R. Hartman, E. A. Schneider, C. G. Garvin, and S. W. Henderson, “Eyesafe diffraction-limited single-frequency 1 ns pulsewidth Er:YAG laser transmitter,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 65520H (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, J. T. Jin, D. S. Jang, B. H. Cha, S. Kwon, C. J. Kim, and H. S. Kim, “A diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with a 540-W output power,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 372–376 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

1995 (1)

I. Freitag, A. Tiinnermann, and H. Welling, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115(5-6), 511–515 (1995).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

Alderighi, D.

Amediek, A.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aubourg, A.

A. Aubourg, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Comment on ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 μm for methane differential absorption lidar’,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(4), 048001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Balembois, F.

A. Aubourg, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Comment on ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 μm for methane differential absorption lidar’,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(4), 048001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beck, S. M.

Belden, P. M.

Bode, M.

Burdack, P.

Byer, R. L.

Cha, B. H.

S. Lee, J. T. Jin, D. S. Jang, B. H. Cha, S. Kwon, C. J. Kim, and H. S. Kim, “A diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with a 540-W output power,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 372–376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, J.

Chen, D. W.

Chen, H.

Chen, X. H.

Clarkson, W. A.

Cong, Z. H.

Duan, X. M.

Dubinskii, M.

Ehret, G.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fix, A.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fox, T.

Freitag, I.

P. Burdack, T. Fox, M. Bode, and I. Freitag, “1 W of stable single-frequency output at 1.03 mum from a novel, monolithic, non-planar Yb:YAG ring laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4363–4367 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Freitag, A. Tiinnermann, and H. Welling, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115(5-6), 511–515 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gao, C.

Gao, C. Q.

R. Wang, C. Q. Gao, Y. Zheng, M. W. Gao, and Q. Ye, “A resonantly pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator with 10.5 W single frequency output,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(10), 955–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. N. Zhu, C. Q. Gao, R. Wang, Y. Zheng, and M. W. Gao, “Fiber-bulk hybrid Er:YAG laser with 1617 nm single frequency laser output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(9), 674–677 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gao, L.

Gao, M.

Gao, M. W.

R. Wang, C. Q. Gao, Y. Zheng, M. W. Gao, and Q. Ye, “A resonantly pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator with 10.5 W single frequency output,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(10), 955–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. N. Zhu, C. Q. Gao, R. Wang, Y. Zheng, and M. W. Gao, “Fiber-bulk hybrid Er:YAG laser with 1617 nm single frequency laser output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(9), 674–677 (2012).
[Crossref]

Garvin, C. G.

R. C. Stoneman, R. Hartman, E. A. Schneider, C. G. Garvin, and S. W. Henderson, “Eyesafe diffraction-limited single-frequency 1 ns pulsewidth Er:YAG laser transmitter,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 65520H (2007).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

A. Aubourg, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Comment on ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 μm for methane differential absorption lidar’,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(4), 048001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hao, Q.

Harris, L.

L. Harris, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “The Verdet constant of Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 429–433 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hartman, R.

R. C. Stoneman, R. Hartman, E. A. Schneider, C. G. Garvin, and S. W. Henderson, “Eyesafe diffraction-limited single-frequency 1 ns pulsewidth Er:YAG laser transmitter,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 65520H (2007).
[Crossref]

Henderson, S. W.

R. C. Stoneman, R. Hartman, E. A. Schneider, C. G. Garvin, and S. W. Henderson, “Eyesafe diffraction-limited single-frequency 1 ns pulsewidth Er:YAG laser transmitter,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 65520H (2007).
[Crossref]

Jang, D. S.

S. Lee, J. T. Jin, D. S. Jang, B. H. Cha, S. Kwon, C. J. Kim, and H. S. Kim, “A diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with a 540-W output power,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 372–376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jiang, B.

Jin, J. T.

S. Lee, J. T. Jin, D. S. Jang, B. H. Cha, S. Kwon, C. J. Kim, and H. S. Kim, “A diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with a 540-W output power,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 372–376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ju, Y. L.

Kane, T. J.

Kiemle, C.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. J.

S. Lee, J. T. Jin, D. S. Jang, B. H. Cha, S. Kwon, C. J. Kim, and H. S. Kim, “A diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with a 540-W output power,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 372–376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

S. Lee, J. T. Jin, D. S. Jang, B. H. Cha, S. Kwon, C. J. Kim, and H. S. Kim, “A diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with a 540-W output power,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 372–376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

Kupp, E. R.

Kwon, S.

S. Lee, J. T. Jin, D. S. Jang, B. H. Cha, S. Kwon, C. J. Kim, and H. S. Kim, “A diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with a 540-W output power,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 372–376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, J. T. Jin, D. S. Jang, B. H. Cha, S. Kwon, C. J. Kim, and H. S. Kim, “A diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with a 540-W output power,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 372–376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J. L.

Li, P.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Lin, Z.

Liu, X. L.

Liu, Z. J.

Luo, D. W.

H. Yang, L. Zhang, D. W. Luo, X. B. Qiao, J. Zhang, T. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Optical properties of Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG polycrystalline transparent ceramics,” Opt. Express 5(1), 142–146 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mackenzie, J. I.

Merkle, L. D.

Messing, G. L.

Musha, M.

Ottaway, D.

L. Harris, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “The Verdet constant of Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 429–433 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pan, H.

Pan, Y.

Pirri, A.

Qian, L. J.

Qiao, X. B.

H. Yang, L. Zhang, D. W. Luo, X. B. Qiao, J. Zhang, T. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Optical properties of Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG polycrystalline transparent ceramics,” Opt. Express 5(1), 142–146 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qin, X.

Qin, X. P.

Quatrevalet, M.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rose, T. S.

Schneider, E. A.

R. C. Stoneman, R. Hartman, E. A. Schneider, C. G. Garvin, and S. W. Henderson, “Eyesafe diffraction-limited single-frequency 1 ns pulsewidth Er:YAG laser transmitter,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 65520H (2007).
[Crossref]

Shen, D.

Shen, D. Y.

H. Yang, L. Zhang, D. W. Luo, X. B. Qiao, J. Zhang, T. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Optical properties of Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG polycrystalline transparent ceramics,” Opt. Express 5(1), 142–146 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, Y. Wang, L. J. Qian, J. Zhang, X. P. Qin, D. Y. Tang, X. F. Yang, and T. Zhao, “High-power polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1617 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4767–4769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, H. B.

Shirakawa, A.

Stoneman, R. C.

R. C. Stoneman, R. Hartman, E. A. Schneider, C. G. Garvin, and S. W. Henderson, “Eyesafe diffraction-limited single-frequency 1 ns pulsewidth Er:YAG laser transmitter,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 65520H (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

H. Yang, L. Zhang, D. W. Luo, X. B. Qiao, J. Zhang, T. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Optical properties of Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG polycrystalline transparent ceramics,” Opt. Express 5(1), 142–146 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, Y. Wang, L. J. Qian, J. Zhang, X. P. Qin, D. Y. Tang, X. F. Yang, and T. Zhao, “High-power polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1617 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4767–4769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, X. T.

Ter-Gabrielyan, N.

Tiinnermann, A.

I. Freitag, A. Tiinnermann, and H. Welling, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115(5-6), 511–515 (1995).
[Crossref]

Toci, G.

Ueda, K.

Vannini, M.

Veitch, P. J.

L. Harris, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “The Verdet constant of Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 429–433 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, Q. P.

Wang, R.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. Z.

Wang, Z.

Welling, H.

I. Freitag, A. Tiinnermann, and H. Welling, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115(5-6), 511–515 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wirth, M.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, L. Zhang, D. W. Luo, X. B. Qiao, J. Zhang, T. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Optical properties of Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG polycrystalline transparent ceramics,” Opt. Express 5(1), 142–146 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

Yang, X. F.

Yao, B. Q.

Ye, Q.

Y. Zheng, C. Gao, R. Wang, M. Gao, and Q. Ye, “Single frequency 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator resonantly pumped by a 1470 nm laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 784–786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, C. Q. Gao, Y. Zheng, M. W. Gao, and Q. Ye, “A resonantly pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator with 10.5 W single frequency output,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(10), 955–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Yue, F.

Zeng, H.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, H. N.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

H. Yang, L. Zhang, D. W. Luo, X. B. Qiao, J. Zhang, T. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Optical properties of Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG polycrystalline transparent ceramics,” Opt. Express 5(1), 142–146 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X. Y.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, T.

Zheng, Y.

Zhong, L. X.

Zhu, H.

Zhu, L.

Zhu, L. N.

L. N. Zhu, C. Q. Gao, R. Wang, Y. Zheng, and M. W. Gao, “Fiber-bulk hybrid Er:YAG laser with 1617 nm single frequency laser output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(9), 674–677 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Harris, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “The Verdet constant of Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 429–433 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Wang, C. Q. Gao, Y. Zheng, M. W. Gao, and Q. Ye, “A resonantly pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator with 10.5 W single frequency output,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(10), 955–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

S. Lee, J. T. Jin, D. S. Jang, B. H. Cha, S. Kwon, C. J. Kim, and H. S. Kim, “A diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser with a 540-W output power,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 372–376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Aubourg, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Comment on ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 μm for methane differential absorption lidar’,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(4), 048001 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. N. Zhu, C. Q. Gao, R. Wang, Y. Zheng, and M. W. Gao, “Fiber-bulk hybrid Er:YAG laser with 1617 nm single frequency laser output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(9), 674–677 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Freitag, A. Tiinnermann, and H. Welling, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115(5-6), 511–515 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

P. Burdack, T. Fox, M. Bode, and I. Freitag, “1 W of stable single-frequency output at 1.03 mum from a novel, monolithic, non-planar Yb:YAG ring laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4363–4367 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Q. Yao, X. Yu, X. L. Liu, X. M. Duan, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Room temperature single longitudinal mode laser output at 1645 nm from a laser-diode pumped Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8916–8921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, C. Gao, M. Gao, and Y. Li, “Resonantly pumped monolithic nonplanar Ho:YAG ring laser with high-power single-frequency laser output at 2122 nm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9541–9546 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, and W. A. Clarkson, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on threshold pump power in quasi-three-level solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11935–11943 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, T. Zhao, D. Shen, H. Zhu, J. Zhang, and D. Tang, “Resonantly pumped Q-switched Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24004–24009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Pan, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Y. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Laser-diode pumped 40-W Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17734–17738 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pirri, D. Alderighi, G. Toci, and M. Vannini, “High-efficiency, high-power and low threshold Yb3+:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23344–23349 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, L. Zhang, D. W. Luo, X. B. Qiao, J. Zhang, T. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Optical properties of Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG polycrystalline transparent ceramics,” Opt. Express 5(1), 142–146 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, C. Gao, M. Gao, Y. Li, F. Yue, J. Zhang, and D. Tang, “A resonantly-pumped tunable Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser with diffraction-limit beam quality,” Opt. Express 22(1), 254–261 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (10)

H. N. Zhang, X. H. Chen, Q. P. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, J. Chang, L. Gao, H. B. Shen, Z. H. Cong, Z. J. Liu, X. T. Tao, and P. Li, “High efficiency Nd:YAG ceramic eye-safe laser operating at 1442.8 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3075–3077 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Li, K. Ueda, M. Musha, L. X. Zhong, and A. Shirakawa, “Radially polarized and pulsed output from passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2686–2688 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, D. Shen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, X. Qin, D. Tang, X. Yang, and T. Zhao, “Highly efficient Tm:YAG ceramic laser resonantly pumped at 1617 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4485–4487 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Chen, P. M. Belden, T. S. Rose, and S. M. Beck, “Narrowband Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1197–1199 (2011).
[PubMed]

C. Gao, L. Zhu, R. Wang, M. Gao, Y. Zheng, and L. Wang, “6.1 W single frequency laser output at 1645 nm from a resonantly pumped Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1859–1861 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, L. D. Merkle, E. R. Kupp, G. L. Messing, and M. Dubinskii, “Efficient resonantly pumped tape cast composite ceramic Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 922–924 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, Y. Wang, L. J. Qian, J. Zhang, X. P. Qin, D. Y. Tang, X. F. Yang, and T. Zhao, “High-power polycrystalline Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1617 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4767–4769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, C. Gao, R. Wang, M. Gao, and Q. Ye, “Single frequency 1645 nm Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator resonantly pumped by a 1470 nm laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 784–786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Kane and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic, unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 10(2), 65–67 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gao, M. Gao, Y. Zhang, Z. Lin, and L. Zhu, “Stable single-frequency output at 2.01 microm from a diode-pumped monolithic double diffusion-bonded Tm:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 3029–3031 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. C. Stoneman, R. Hartman, E. A. Schneider, C. G. Garvin, and S. W. Henderson, “Eyesafe diffraction-limited single-frequency 1 ns pulsewidth Er:YAG laser transmitter,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 65520H (2007).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The output power and power stability of single-frequency Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser. The solid squares denote output powers and the dash line is the linear fit of the output power as a function of the incident pump power. The solid line is the maximum single-frequency output power measured in 40 min. The inset is the FPI spectrum of Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The wavelength and the wavelength stability of the single-frequency Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The wavelengths at different set temperatures of Er:YAG ceramic NPRO .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental setup for Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser delayed self-heterodyne linewidth measurement.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Delayed self-heterodyne signal recorded by an RF spectral analyzer at maximum power.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Beam propagation factor of the single-frequency Er:YAG ceramic NPRO laser. The inserted picture is the two-dimensional beam profiles of the laser beam.

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