Abstract

We theoretically examine the effect of carrier-carrier scattering processes on the intraband radiation absorption and their contribution to the net dynamic conductivity in optically or electrically pumped graphene. We demonstrate that the radiation absorption assisted by the carrier-carrier scattering is comparable with Drude absorption due to impurity scattering and is even stronger in sufficiently clean samples. Since the intraband absorption of radiation effectively competes with its interband amplification, this can substantially affect the conditions of the negative dynamic conductivity in the pumped graphene and, hence, the interband terahertz and infrared lasing. We find the threshold values of the frequency and quasi-Fermi energy of nonequilibrium carriers corresponding to the onset of negative dynamic conductivity. The obtained results show that the effect of carrier-carrier scattering shifts the threshold frequency of the radiation amplification in pumped graphene to higher values. In particular, the negative dynamic conductivity is attainable at the frequencies above 6 THz in graphene on SiO2 substrates at room temperature. The threshold frequency can be decreased to markedly lower values in graphene structures with high-κ substrates due to screening of the carrier-carrier scattering, particularly at lower temperatures.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Graphene, a two-dimensional carbon crystal, possesses no energy band gap and, hence, is promising for detection and generation of far-infrared and terahertz (THz) radiation [13]. Several concepts of graphene-based THz lasers with optical pumping [4] or electrical (injection) pumping [5,6] have been proposed and analyzed. Recently, the possibility of THz-wave amplification by optically pumped graphene was shown experimentally [7].

Generally, one of the main reasons for low efficiency of THz semiconductor laser is the intraband (Drude) radiation absorption [8], which grows rapidly with decreasing the radiation frequency. This absorption process aggressively competes with the radiation amplification due to the stimulated interband electron transitions under the conditions of population inversion. This problem is crucial for graphene-based lasers as well.

The optical conductivity of clean undoped graphene is equal to the universal value σq = e2/4, where e is the elementary charge and is the Planck’s constant. This value corresponds to the interband radiation absorption coefficient πα = 2.3 % [10], where α = e2/h̄c is the fine-structure constant (c is the speed of light in vacuum). The optical conductivity of pumped graphene can be negative due to prevailing stimulated electron transitions from the conduction to the valence band associated with the interband population inversion [11]. The interband dynamic conductivity appears to be negative at frequencies ω < 2εF/, where εF is the quasi-Fermi energy of pumped carriers [see Fig. 1(a) and 1(b)]. However, the coefficient of radiation amplification in pumped graphene is still limited by 2.3 %. Hence, for the operation of graphene-based lasers the Drude absorption coefficient [12] should lie below 2.3 %. In the previous models of negative dynamic conductivity in pumped graphene, it was usually assumed that the Drude absorption originates from electron and hole scattering on impurities, lattice defects, and phonons [Fig. 1(d)], which can, in principle, be removed almost completely in high-quality graphene samples and at low temperatures (see, for example, [3,13]). However, there is an unavoidable mechanism leading to the intraband absorption, namely, the radiation absorption assisted by the carrier-carrier scattering [Fig. 1(c)].

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic views of band diagrams of (A) n-type graphene in equilibrium and (B) pumped graphene. Wavy arrows indicate photon absorption and emission processes. Diagram of photon absorption by an electron (e) associated with (C) electron-electron (electron-hole) and (D) impurity (i) scattering.

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The carrier-carrier scattering (for brevity denoted as c-c scattering) was shown to be a key factor in the relaxation kinetics of photoexcited electrons and holes in graphene [7, 9, 14, 15]. It can also be responsible for weakly temperature-dependent minimal dc conductivity of graphene [1620]. The strength of c-c scattering in graphene is governed by the relatively large coupling constant, αc = e2/(κ0h̄vF) ∼ 1, where vF = 106 m/s is the velocity of massless electrons and holes (Fermi velocity) and κ0 is the background dielectric constant.

Among a variety of phenomena originating from the carrier-carrier scattering in graphene-based structures, there are modifications of quasiparticle spectra [20], relaxation [14, 15], thermalization, and recombination [9]. In this paper, we focus on the scattering-assisted intraband radiation absorption. The latter appears to be a quite strong absorption mechanism, especially in the pumped graphene with population inversion. We derive the expression for the real part of the intraband dynamic conductivity Reσcc (which is proportional to the intraband contribution to the radiation absorption) arising due to carrier-carrier collisions in clean pumped graphene. The probability of corresponding intraband radiation absorption process is evaluated using the second-order perturbation theory and the Fermi golden rule. Comparing Reσcc with the inter-band conductivity Reσinter, we find the threshold values of the quasi-Fermi energies of pumped carriers, required to attain the net negative dynamic conductivity (negative absorption coefficient) at given frequency, and calculate the pertinent threshold frequencies. We also show that screening of the Coulomb potential by the carriers in graphene plays the significant role in the c-c scattering. Because of screening, the intraband conductivity due to the c-c collisions grows slowly (almost linearly) with increasing the quasi-Fermi energy of pumped carriers. We find that in the pumped graphene, the main contribution to the intraband conductivity arises from electron-hole (e–h) scattering, while the electron-electron (e-e) and hole-hole (h-h) collisions yield less than one tenth of its total value. The rate of c-c scattering and the corresponding radiation absorption can be reduced in graphene clad between materials with high dielectric constants.

In the present paper, we shall restrict our consideration of dynamic conductivity within terahertz range (1–15 THz). At higher frequencies, the optical response is governed mainly by interband transitions [21] which lead to the absorption of radiation at h̄ω > 2εF, while the Drude absorption drops proportionally to ω−2. At lower frequencies, one can readily use the static limit of Boltzmann / hydrodynamic theory to obtain the conductivity.

The paper is organized as follows. In Sec. 2, we derive the general equations for the radiation power absorbed due to c-c scattering-assisted intraband transitions, and find the pertinent contribution to the dynamic conductivity. In Sec. 3, we obtain the dependences of the intraband, interband, and net dynamic conductivity on the radiation frequency, the quasi-Fermi energy, the background dielectric constant; and find the frequency threshold of the radiation amplification. Section 4 deals with discussion of the obtained results and their validity. In Sec. 5, we draw the main conclusions. Some mathematical details are singled out in Appendix.

2. Intraband dynamic conductivity general equations

There are two mechanisms through which the c-c scattering affects the optical conductivity, and, hence, absorption of radiation. First, the finite lifetime of carriers leads simply to the smearing of the interband absorption/amplification edge [22]. Second, a free electron can absorb a photon and transfer the excess energy and momentum to the other carrier [Fig. 1(c)]. The latter mechanism is quite similar to the conventional Drude absorption, where the excess momentum is transferred to an impurity or phonon [Fig. 1(d)]. However, in the case of graphene, the radiation absorption due to c-c scattering exhibits a number of unusual features.

In semiconductors with parabolic bands, e-e scattering cannot directly affect the conductivity and absorption of radiation. The reason is that the total current carried by two electrons is not changed in the scattering process due to momentum conservation. In graphene, however, electron velocity and momentum are not directly proportional to each other (sometimes referred to as “momentum-velocity decoupling” [19]). Hence, the momentum conservation does not imply the current conservation, and e-e scattering can contribute to relaxation of current [23] and optical absorption. Such effects were studied in III-V semiconductors in the light of p4-corrections to the parabolic bands [24]. In graphene, the carrier dispersion law is not parabolic ”from the very beginning”. Hence, those effects can play a more considerable role.

Electron-hole (e–h) scattering processes do not conserve the total current and can contribute to radiation absorption independent of the carrier spectrum. Apart from graphene with Fermi energy close to Dirac point, e–h scattering plays a minor role in conductivity due to vanishing number of holes. This is not the case of the pumped graphene, where e–h scattering is intensified due to the great number of carriers in both bands.

We consider a two-step quantum-mechanical process: the quasiparticle (electron or hole) absorbs light quantum passing to the virtual state, then it collides with other quasiparticle and transfers the excess energy (and momentum) to it. If the frequency of electromagnetic wave ω substantially exceeds the electron (or hole) collision frequency ν, one can use the Fermi golden rule to calculate the absorption probability in unit time. We will first consider the radiation absorption due to e-e collisions, and then generalize the result to account for e–h processes. The initial momenta of incoming quasiparticles are denoted by p1 and p2, while the final momenta are p3 and p4.

To work out the matrix elements appearing in the Fermi golden rule we apply the second order perturbation theory considering the two perturbations. The first one, F (t), is the interaction of electron with external electromagnetic field

V^F(t)=e2c(A0,v^1+v^2)(eiωt+eiωt),
where 1 and 2 are the velocity operators of the two electrons, A0 is the amplitude of field vector potential, and ω is the frequency of the electromagnetic wave. The vector A0 and the corresponding electric field E0 = A0/c lie in the plane of graphene layer.

The second perturbation, C, is the Coulomb interaction between carriers. It has nonzero matrix elements connecting the two-particle states |p1, p2〉 and |p3, p4〉= |p1 + q, p2q〉, where q is the transferred momentum. We denote these matrix elements by VC(q) ≡ 〈p3, p4|C|p1, p2〉,

VC(q)=2πe2h¯qκ0κ(q)up1(e)up3(e)up2(e)up4(e),
where upi(e)upj(e)=cos(θij/2) are overlap factors of the electron envelope functions in graphene, θij is the angle between momenta pi and pj, κ0 is the background dielectric constant, and κ (q) is the dielectric function of graphene itself. For our purposes, it can be taken in the static limit
κ(q)=1+qTF/q,
qTF is the Thomas-Fermi (screening) momentum [25].

A well-known relation for the second-order matrix element connecting initial |i〉 = |p1, p2〉 and final |f〉 = |p3, p4〉 states reads [26]

f|V^|i=mf|V^Fω|mm|V^C|i(εp1+εp2)(εp1m+εp2m)+f|V^C|mm|V^Fω|i(εp1+εp2+h¯ω)(εp1m+εp2m),
where the index m counts the intermediate states, εp = pvF is the electron dispersion law in graphene, and =(e/2c)(A0, 1 + 2) is the Fourier-component of electron-field interaction. The summation over intermediate momenta pm is easily performed as photon momentum is negligible compared to electron momentum. Using also the energy conservation law
εp1+εp2+h¯ω=εp3+εp4,
we obtain a very simple relation for matrix element
f|V|i=e2cVC(q)h¯ω(A0,vp1+vp2vp3vp4)cos(θ13/2)cos(θ24/2).

Equation (6) clearly demonstrates that for parabolic bands no absorption due to e-e scattering can occur as vp1 + vp2vp3vp4 turns to zero as a result of momentum conservation.

The power, P, absorbed by an electron system is calculated using the Fermi golden rule, taking into account the occupation numbers of the initial and final states:

P=h¯ω22πg2h¯p1,p2,q|f|V|i|2δ(εp1+εp2+h¯ωεp3εp4)×fe(p1)fe(p2)[1fe(p3)][1fe(p4)][1exp(h¯ω/kBT)].
Here g = 4 stands for the spin-valley degeneracy factor in graphene. The pre-factor 1/2 cuts off the equivalent scattering processes; without it the indistinguishable collisions p1 + p2 and p2 + p1 are treated separately, which would be incorrect. The function fe(p) in Eq. (7) is the electron distribution function, which is assumed to be the quasi-equilibrium Fermi function:
fe(p)=[1+exp(εpμekBT)]1.
To treat the radiation absorption in pumped graphene, we introduce the different quasi-Fermi energies of electrons and holes, μe and μh. In symmetrically pumped systems μe = −μh = εF > 0. In what follows, if otherwise not stated, we will consider symmetrically pumped graphene. In such system, the occupation numbers of electrons and holes with energies εp > 0 are equal, hence, the subscripts e and h of the distribution functions can be omitted. In deriving Eq. (7) we have also neglected the exchange-type scattering, which occurs only between electrons with same spin and from the same valley. This assumption does not significantly affect the final numerical values.

Finally, to obtain the real part of the intraband dynamic conductivity due to e-e collisions Reσee, we express the vector-potential in Eq. (6) through electric field and equate (7) with ReσeeE02/2. As a result, this conductivity is expressed via the universal optical conductivity of clean graphene σq, the coupling constant αc = e2/(κ0h̄vF), and the dimensionless ’collision integral’ Iee,ω:

Reσee=σqαc2π3(kBTh¯ω)3[1exp(h¯ωkBT)]Iee,ω,
Iee,ω=dQdk1dk2Q2κ2(Q)(Δnee)2cos2(θ1±/2)cos2(θ2±/2)×δ[k1++k2+h¯ω/(kBT)k1k2+]F(k1+)F(k2)[1F(k1)][1F(k2+)].
Here, for the simplicity of further analysis, we have introduced the dimensionless momenta k =(p1 ±q/2)vF/(kBT), k =(p2±q/2)vF/(kBT), Q = qvF/(kBT), as well as the dimensionless change in the electron current Δnee =(k1+/k1+ + k2−/k2−) − (k1−/k1− + k2+/k2+); θ and θ are the angles between k1+ and k1− and between k2+ and k2−, respectively, F(x)= {1 + exp[xεF/(kBT)]}−1 is the Fermi function of dimensionless argument.

At the frequencies exceeding the carrier collision frequency ων, the contributions to the real part of dynamic conductivity from different scattering mechanisms are summed up. The intraband conductivity due to e-h collisions is given by expression similar to (9–10), with several differences. First, the change in current carried by electron and hole is given by Δneh =(k1+/k1+k2−/k2−) − (k1−/k1−k2+/k2+) as the charge of hole is opposite to that of electron. Second, along with ’simple’ electron-hole scattering, the annihilation-type interaction between electron and hole is also possible. In such process, electron and hole annihilate, emit a virtual photon, which produces again an electron-hole pair. The probability of such process is the same as of scattering process, but the overlap factors upi(e)upj(e)=cos(θij/2) should be changed to upi(e)upj(h)=sin(θij/2) [17]. As a result, the electron-hole scattering contribution to the optical conductivity becomes

Reσeh=σq2αc2π3(kBTh¯ω)3[1exp(h¯ωkBT)]Ieh,ω,
Ieh,ω=dQdk1dk2Q2κ2(Δnee)2[cos2(θ1±/2)cos2(θ2±/2)+sin2(θ1±/2)sin2(θ2±/2)]×δ[k1++k2+h¯ω/(kBT)k1k2+]F(k1+)F(k2)[1F(k1)][1F(k2+)].

Accordingly, the net intraband conductivity due to c-c collisions Reσintra in symmetrically pumped graphene is

Reσee=σq2αc2π3(kBTh¯ω)3[1exp(h¯ωkBT)](Iee,ω+Ieh,ω).
Here we have noted that h-h scattering contribution equals e-e contribution. The coefficient of radiation absorption is readily obtained from Eq. (13) timing it by 4π/c. The dimensionless ’collision integrals’ Iee,ω and Ieh,ω are given by Eqs. (10) and (12). They can be evaluated numerically passing to the elliptic coordinates [9]. In those coordinates, the delta-function can be analytically integrated, reducing the dimensionality of integral by unity. This procedure is described in Appendix.

3. Analysis of intraband and net dynamic conductivity

It is natural that the obtained expression (13) for the real part of conductivity is proportional to the universal ac conductivity of clean undoped graphene σq, and the square of the coupling constant αc. The latter characterizes the strength of Coulomb interaction between carriers in graphene. The frequency behavior of Reσcc follows the well-known Drude-like dependence ω−2. At frequencies h̄ωkBT, the pre-factor before the collision integral in Eq. (13) yields the ω−2-dependence. At large frequencies h̄ωkBT, the pre-factor behaves as ω−3, but the ”collision integrals” Iee,ω and Ieh,ω grow linearly due to the increasing number of final states.

In what follows, we shall study the dynamic conductivity of sufficiently clean pumped graphene. In this situation, the positive intraband conductivity is due to carrier-carrier collisions only, thus Reσintra ≡ Reσcc. Figure 2 shows the dependences of Reσintra given by Eq. (13) (normalized by σq) on frequency ω/2π for the symmetrically pumped graphene at different quasi-Fermi energies εF and different background dielectric constants κ0 at room temperature T = 300 K. In Fig. 2, we also show the frequency-dependent real part of the dynamic conductivity associated with the interband transitions [11]:

Reσinter=σqtanh(h¯ω/2εF2kBT).

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Real parts of the intraband (upper panels) and interband (lower panels) contributions, Reσintra and Reσinter, to dynamic conductivity normalized by σq at different quasi-Fermi energies εF in graphene structures with different background dielectric constants κ0 (T = 300 K).

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From Fig. 2 one can see that at frequencies above ∼ 6.5 THz at κ0 = 1 (and above ∼ 2.5 THz at κ0 = 20) the Drude conductivity due to c-c collisions lies below σq. Accordingly, the net conductivity Re(σintra + σinter) can be negative in this frequency range at some level of pumping.

As the background dielectric constant κ0 is increased, the intraband conductivity due to cc collisions drops, which is illustrated in Fig. 2. Ex facte, one could expect that it scales as κ02, and increasing the dielectric constant one could reduce the radiation absorption due to c-c collisions almost to zero. Such considerations are actually irrelevant due to screening. The Thomas-Fermi screening momentum in pumped graphene is given by

qTF8αckBTvFln[1+exp(εFkBT)].
Thus, at small momenta q the Coulomb scattering matrix element is independent of κ0. At large momenta qεF/vF the scattering matrix element VC2(kF)[κ02+8e2/h¯vF]2, which slightly depends on κ0 due to large value of bare coupling constant e2/h̄vF ≈ 2.2.

In Fig. 3 we show the net dynamic conductivity including interband and intraband c-c contributions. At weak pumping (εF ≃ 20 meV) the negative dynamic conductivity is attainable only in graphene clad between high-κ substrates. At elevated pumping (εF ≃ 40 meV) the negative conductivity is possible at any value of κ0. Further increase in the pumping level is not much efficient as the interband conductivity reaches its maximum value of σq at εFh̄ω, while the intraband conductivity continues to grow with increasing εF.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Real parts of net dynamic conductivity Re(σintra +σinter) normalized by σq at different quasi-Fermi energies εF in graphene structures with different background dielectric constants κ0 (T = 300 K).

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Both the interband and intraband c-c conductivities are actually functions of two dimensionless combinations h̄ω/kBT and εF/kBT. Once the temperature is reduced, Reσintra drops as well due to reduced phase space for collisions near Fermi-surface. The dependence Reσinter(ω) becomes more abrupt in the vicinity of interband threshold h̄ω = 2εF. Thereby, cooling of graphene sample is advantageous for achieving the negative dynamic conductivity. This is confirmed by Fig. 4. In Figs. 4(a) and 4(b), we show the real part of the net dynamic conductivity versus frequency ω/2π and quasi-Fermi energy εF (values of Reσ are marked by colors) at the room temperature T = 300 K (A) and at T = 200 K (B). It is worth noting that the temperature T in the above equations is in fact the effective temperature of the electron-hole system. Therefore, the reduction of this temperature can be achieved not only by decreasing of the ambient temperature, but also by direct cooling of this system at a certain pumping conditions. In particular, the cooling of electron-hole system in the optically and electrically pumped graphene lasing structures due to the emission of optical phonons can be substantial [5, 27].

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Color map of real part of net dynamic conductivity Re(σintra + σinter)/σq vs frequency and quasi-Fermi energy for κ0 = 5: (A) at T = 300 K and (B) at T = 200 K. The area Re(σintra +σinter)/σq < 0.75 is filled in solid color

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In Fig. 5(a) we show the threshold lines of the negative net dynamic conductivity [which are solutions of the equation Reσ(ω, εF)= 0] at different values of background dielectric constant. The normalized threshold frequency h̄ω0/kBT slowly moves to lower values as κ0 increases. This is illustrated in Fig. 5(b). At room temperature and κ0 = 1, the negative conductivity could be attained only at frequencies ω/2π ≥ 6.5 THz. For graphene on SiO2 substrate [κ0 = (κSiO2 + 1)/2 = 2.5], the room temperature threshold lies at ω0/2π ≈ 6 THz. As discussed before, such slow decrease in threshold frequency is owing to the Thomas-Fermi screening of Coulomb interaction. Note that screening can be further enhanced by placing graphene close to the metal gate. In gated graphene, the Fourier component of Coulomb scattering potential VC(q) gains an additional factor [1− exp(−2qd)], where d is the distance to the gate.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (A) Thresholds of negative dynamic conductivity at different values of background dielectric constant κ0. Solid lines correspond to Re(σintra +σinter)= 0. (B) Threshold frequencies ω0/2π vs background dielectric constant at different temperatures T (εF = 3kBT)

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The dependences of the inter- and intraband (carrier-carrier) conductivities on the quasi-Fermi energy at fixed frequency are shown in Fig. 6. The interband conductivity reaches its ultimate value of σq at εFh̄ω/2. Intuitively, Reσintra and the corresponding radiation absorption coefficient should be proportional to the number of particle-particle collisions in unit time. This number is proportional to the carrier density squared, at least for classical carrier systems. In reality, the dependence of Reσintra on the quasi-Fermi energy εF appears to be almost linear. This, first of all, results from the screening and also from the restricted phase space for collisions in Fermi-systems in a narrow layer near the Fermi-surface.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Real parts of intraband dynamic conductivity Reσintra (solid lines) and interband conductivity −Reσinter (dashed line) as functions of quasi-Fermi energy εF at fixed frequency ω/(2π)= 6 THz and different values of background dielectric constant κ0.

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4. Discussion of the results

The obtained relation for the intraband conductivity associated with the c-c scattering [Eq. (13)] corresponds to a Drude-like dependence Reσintraω−2. The latter tends to infinity at small frequencies. This tendency should be cut off at ων, where ν is the electron collision frequency. At such small frequencies, the finite lifetime of quasiparticles leads to inapplicability of the Fermi golden rule. However, one can estimate the carrier-carrier collision frequency and the corresponding low-frequency conductivity by solving the kinetic equation for the massless electrons in graphene. We have generalized the variational approach to the solution of kinetic equation [28] developed in [16,17] for intrinsic graphene, to the case of symmetrically pumped graphene. As a result, the following low-frequency dependence of intraband conductivity due to c-c scattering was obtained:

Reσintra=2e2πh¯kBTh¯ln[1+exp(εFkBT)]vccω2+vcc2,
where the carrier-carrier collision frequency νcc includes the contributions from the e-e and e-h scattering
vcc=αc24π2kBTh¯Iee,0+Ieh,0ln[1+exp(εFkBT)],
and the ”zero” index at dimensionless collision integrals means that they are taken at ω = 0.

At intermediate frequencies νccωkBT/, the results obtained from the kinetic equation[Eq. (16)] and the Fermi golden rule [Eq. (13)] coincide. At room temperature, zero Fermi energy, and background dielectric constant κ0 = 1, the characteristic collision frequency is equal to νcc ≈ 1013 s−1. Once κ0 or εF are increased, the collision frequency decreases due to screening of the Coulomb potential. Hence, for the ’target’ frequencies ω/(2π)= 5 − 10 THz one can readily use the golden rule result [Eq. (13)] to evaluate the carrier-carrier scattering contribution to the optical conductivity.

Until now we considered the intraband conductivity due to the c-c collisions only, as if other scattering processes were removed. In realty, the acoustic phonon contribution is unavoidable as well. The corresponding collision frequency can be presented as (τp1)ph=v0(pvF/kBT), where ν0 ≃ 3×1011 s−1 at room temperature [29]. Thus, at least for not very large values of κ0, the c-c scattering contribution to intraband conductivity appears to be larger than the acoustic phonon contribution. The momentum relaxation time due to scattering by randomly distributed charged impurities with average density ni is

(τp1)i=2παc2pvFh¯h¯2niqTF20πsin2θdθ[1+(2p/qTF)sin(θ/2)]2.
The estimates for intrinsic graphene at room temperature, κ0 = 1, impurity density ni = 1011 cm−2 and electron energy equal to the thermal energy (pvF = kBT) yield the electron-impurity collision frequency (τp1)i7×1012s1, which is of the same order as the carrier-carrier collision frequency, and scales linearly with ni. To obtain the real part of the net intraband dynamic conductivity, one should sum the collision frequencies due to various scattering mechanisms. The presented analysis shows that the carrier-carrier scattering contribution cannot be neglected in the case of intrinsic or symmetrically pumped graphene.

In our estimates for the Coulomb scattering probability, we have used the static (Thomas-Fermi) approximation for dielectric function of graphene. The use of the dynamic dielectric function can be mandatory to avoid the divergence in collision integrals for collinear scattering [9]. However, in Eqs. (10) and (12) such a divergence does not appear due to the presence of factor Δn2. The difference between Reσintra obtained using static and dynamic screening is below 10 %.

As known, the e-e and h-h scattering does not lead to the finite resistivity and the absorption of radiation by the carriers with the parabolic dispersion law (in the absence of umklapp processes [28]). In graphene, such an effect is possible due to the momentum-velocity decoupling. Formally, e-e collisions in pumped graphene are of the same “strength” as e-h collisions [see Eqs. (9) and (11)]. However, the numerical comparison of Eqs. (9) and (11) shows that the e-e and h-h collisions play a minor role in the radiation absorption in the pumped graphene. The major contribution to Reσcc comes from the electron-hole collisions, while Reσee actually constitutes less than 10% of Reσcc (see Fig. 7(a). This can be understood by analyzing the change in current in a single collision act. The corresponding change is given by the terms (Δnee)2 and (Δneh)2 in Eqs. (10) and (12). Expanding in powers of q and averaging over directions, one obtains (Δnee)2q2(k11k21)2 and (Δneh)2q2(k11+k21)2. The latter implies that collisions of electrons with sufficiently different energies only play significant role in the e-e and h-h scattering-assisted absorption. For electron-hole collisions there is no such a restriction.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Separate contributions of e-h, e-e, and h-h scattering processes to real part of interband conductivity: (A) for pumped graphene and (B) for electron-doped graphene in thermodynamic equilibrium (κ0 = 1, ω/2π = 6 THz, and T = 300 K).

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For the electron-hole system in equilibrium, the relative contributions of e-e and e–h scattering to the intraband conductivity are much different [see Fig. 7(b)]. The h-h and e–h contributions drop quickly with increasing the Fermi energy due to vanishingly small number of holes. The remaining part of intraband conductivity due to the e-e collisions is of order of 0.1σq at ω/(2π)= 6 THz and κ0 = 1. The corresponding contribution to radiation absorption can be in principle detected for rather clean samples.

Recent experiments have shown that the THz radiation gain in the pumped graphene can greatly exceed 2.3 % [30]. This phenomenon is attributed to the self-excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons in electron-hole system with population inversion [31]. The threshold of plasmon self-excitation in the pumped graphene is also governed by the ratio of the negative interband and positive intraband conductivities. The latter results mainly from the e-h collisions [18]. The presented calculations show that terahertz plasmons are rather amplified than damped in the pumped graphene, at least at high pumping levels and large background dielectric constants.

5. Conclusions

We have shown that in graphene there exists a strong mechanism of the intraband Drude-like radiation absorption, assisted by the carrier-carrier collisions. In such a process, a carrier absorbs a photon and transfers the excess energy and momentum to the other carrier, electron or hole. The radiation absorption assisted by the electron-electron and hole-hole collisions is possible only in semiconductors with non-parabolic bands, and graphene (with its linear energy spectrum of electrons and holes) is one of brightest representatives of such a family. We have evaluated the carrier-carrier scattering contribution to the intraband conductivity using the second-order perturbation theory and the Fermi golden rule. As demonstrated, the radiation absorption due to the carrier-carrier collisions can markedly surpass the Drude absorption due to the scattering on thermal or static disorder. This is especially pronounced in the pumped graphene with a large number of carriers in both bands.

We have studied the effect of carrier-carrier scattering on the conditions of the negative dynamic conductivity in pumped graphene by comparing the positive intraband dynamic conductivity due to the carrier-carrier collisions and the negative interband conductivity. We have shown that at room temperature, the net negative dynamic conductivity is attainable at frequencies above ∼ 6.5 THz in suspended graphene. This frequency threshold can be shifted to lower values (∼ 2.5 THz at room temperature) for graphene on high-κ substrates, as the presence of dielectric partially screens the Coulomb interaction. Cooling of the electron-hole system also reduces the negative conductivity threshold. Our results show that screening of Coulomb interaction by carriers in graphene itself (Thomas-Fermi screening) significantly affects the real part of intraband conductivity. Due to the screening, the c-c contribution to the intraband conductivity grows slowly (almost linearly) with increasing quasi-Fermi energy of nonequilibrium electrons and holes.

Appendix evaluation of Coulomb integrals

We introduce the dimensionless energies of incident particles ε1 = k1+ and ε2 = k2−, and the transferred energy δε = k1+k1−w/2 = k2+k2−w/2. Here, for brevity, w = h̄ω/(kBT). The kernel of the e-e Coulomb integral depends only on those energies and the transferred momentum Q:

Cee(ε1,ε2,δ3,Q)=dk1dk2(Δnee)2cos2(θ1±/2)cos2(θ2±/2)δ(ε1k1+)δ(ε2k2)×δ[δε(k2+k2ω/2)]δ[δε(k1+k1+ω/2)].
In these notations, Iee,ω is rewritten as
Iee,ω=w/2QdQ(Q+QTF)2δεminδεmaxdδεε1mindε1ε2mindε2Cee(ε1,ε2,δε,Q)F(ε1)F(ε2)×[1F(ε2+δε+w/2)][1F(ε1δε+w/2)].
The limits of integration will be found further. In elliptic coordinates the Coulomb kernel is evaluated analytically. The change of variables is (i = 1, 2)
ki=Q2{coshuicosvi,sinhuisinvi},
where ui > 0, and −π < vi < π. The product of four delta-functions in Eq. (19) can be rewritten as
4Q4(cosv2δε+w/2Q)δ(cosv1δεw/2Q)δ(cosu1w/2δε+2ε1Q)×δ(coshu2w/2+δε+2ε2Q).
Considering the arguments of delta-functions in Eq. (22), one finds the limits of integration over energies in Eq. (20) from general requirements cosh ui > 1, |cosvi| < 1, i = 1,2:
ε1>(Q+δεw/2)2;ε2>(Q+δεw/2)2,Q>w/2;Q+w/2<δε<Qw/2.
Integration over du1, du2, dv1, and dv2 removes the delta-functions, and the Coulomb kernel becomes
C(ε1,ε2,δε,Q)=4(Δn)2Q4cos2(θ1±/2)cos2(θ2±/2)[sinv1sinv2sinhu1sinhu2]k1+k1k2+k2.
Here the sin- and sinh-terms in the denominator appear from the rule θ [f(x)] = ∑i|f′(xi)|−1δ (xxi), where the summation is performed over all zeros xi of f(x). In Eq. (24) k1+k1−k2+k2− is the Jacobian determinant for elliptic coordinates.

The envelope function overlap factors are also concisely expressed in the elliptic coordinates:

cos2(θ1±/2)cos2(θ2±/2)k1+k1k2+k2=116[(2ε1δε+w/2)2Q2][(2ε2+δε+w/2)2Q2].
As a result, the Coulomb kernel takes on the following form:
Cee(ε1,ε2,δε,Q)=(Δn)ee24sinhu1sinhu2sinv1sinv2=(Δn)ee24[(2ε1δε+w/2)2Q2][(2ε2+δε+w/2)2Q2][Q2(δε+w/2)2][Q2(δεw/2)2].
The expression for (Δn)ee2 in elliptic coordinates is quite lengthy, here we present in only in the limit w → 0:
(Δn)ee2=2(Q2δε2)ε1ε2(ε1δε)(δε+ε2)×[δε2+4δε(ε2ε1)+2(ε1ε2)2δε2(δε2ε1)(δε+2ε2)Q2].
Note that Eq. (26) contains the denominator divergent at w → 0, which manifests the collinear scattering anomaly for massless particles [9, 16, 17]. This divergence is removed by the similar term in the expression for (Δn)ee2, which stands in the numerator.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to M. Ryzhii for useful comments. The work at RIEC was supported by the Japan Society for Promotion of Science (Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoting Research # 23000008), Japan. The work at IPT RAS was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (grant # 14-07-00937). The work by D.S was also supported by the grant of the Russian Foundation of Basic Research # 14-07-31315 and by the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowship For Foreign Researchers (Short-term), Japan.

References and links

1. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]  

2. A. Tredicucci and M. S. Vitiello, “Device concepts for graphene-based terahertz photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8500109 (2014). [CrossRef]  

3. P. Weis, J. L. Garcia-Pomar, and M. Rahm, “Towards loss compensated and lasing terahertz metamaterials based on optically pumped graphene,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8473–8489 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. A. Dubinov, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz laser with optically pumped graphene layers and Fabri-Perot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092301 (2009). [CrossRef]  

5. V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, and T. Otsuji, “Toward the creation of terahertz graphene injection laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094503 (2011). [CrossRef]  

6. V. Ryzhii, A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, and M. Shur, “Double-graphene-layer terahertz laser: concept, characteristics, and comparison,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31567–31577 (2013). [CrossRef]  

7. S. Boubanga-Tombet, S. Chan, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz emission in optically pumped graphene at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035443 (2012). [CrossRef]  

8. M. Martl, J. Darmo, C. Deutsch, M. Brandstetter, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Gain and losses in THz quantum cascade laser with metal-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 19, 733 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. K.F. Mak, M.Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.H. Lui, J.A. Misewich, and T.F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083114 (2007). [CrossRef]  

12. L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, Y. Kurita, and T. Otsuji, “Threshold of terahertz population inversion and negative dynamic conductivity in graphene under pulse photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 143108 (2013). [CrossRef]  

14. J.M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M.G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008). [CrossRef]  

15. M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. A.B. Kashuba, “Conductivity of defectless graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085415 (2008). [CrossRef]  

17. L. Fritz, J. Schmalian, M. Müller, and S. Sachdev, “Quantum critical transport in clean graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085416 (2008). [CrossRef]  

18. D. Svintsov, V. Vyurkov, S. Yurchenko, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Hydrodynamic model for electron-hole plasma in graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083715 (2012). [CrossRef]  

19. M. Schütt, P. M. Ostrovsky, I. V. Gornyi, and A. D. Mirlin, “Coulomb interaction in graphene: Relaxation rates and transport,” Phys. Rev. B. 83, 155441 (2011). [CrossRef]  

20. V. N. Kotov, B. Uchoa, V. M. Pereira, F. Guinea, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Electron-electron interactions in graphene: current status and perspectives,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1067 (2012). [CrossRef]  

21. L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007). [CrossRef]  

22. F.T. Vasko, V.V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 235424 (2012). [CrossRef]  

23. D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012). [CrossRef]  

24. G. G. Zegrya and V. E. Perlin, “Intraband absorption of light in quantum wells induced by electron-electron collisions,” Semiconductors 32, 417–422 (1998). [CrossRef]  

25. E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007). [CrossRef]  

26. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon Press, 1965).

27. V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, A. Satou, and T. Otsuji, “Effect of heating and cooling of photogenerated electron-hole plasma in optically pumped graphene on population inversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 094001 (2011).

28. J. M. Ziman, Electrons and Phonons (Oxford University Press, 1960).

29. F. T. Vasko and V. Ryzhii, “Voltage and temperature dependencies of conductivity in gated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 233404 (2007).

30. T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

31. A. Dubinov, V. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,”J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 145302 (2011).

References

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  1. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Tredicucci and M. S. Vitiello, “Device concepts for graphene-based terahertz photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8500109 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Weis, J. L. Garcia-Pomar, and M. Rahm, “Towards loss compensated and lasing terahertz metamaterials based on optically pumped graphene,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8473–8489 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Dubinov, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz laser with optically pumped graphene layers and Fabri-Perot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092301 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, and T. Otsuji, “Toward the creation of terahertz graphene injection laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094503 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. V. Ryzhii, A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, and M. Shur, “Double-graphene-layer terahertz laser: concept, characteristics, and comparison,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31567–31577 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Boubanga-Tombet, S. Chan, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz emission in optically pumped graphene at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035443 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Martl, J. Darmo, C. Deutsch, M. Brandstetter, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Gain and losses in THz quantum cascade laser with metal-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 19, 733 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K.F. Mak, M.Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.H. Lui, J.A. Misewich, and T.F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083114 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, Y. Kurita, and T. Otsuji, “Threshold of terahertz population inversion and negative dynamic conductivity in graphene under pulse photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 143108 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. J.M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M.G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A.B. Kashuba, “Conductivity of defectless graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085415 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. Fritz, J. Schmalian, M. Müller, and S. Sachdev, “Quantum critical transport in clean graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085416 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Svintsov, V. Vyurkov, S. Yurchenko, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Hydrodynamic model for electron-hole plasma in graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083715 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Schütt, P. M. Ostrovsky, I. V. Gornyi, and A. D. Mirlin, “Coulomb interaction in graphene: Relaxation rates and transport,” Phys. Rev. B. 83, 155441 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. V. N. Kotov, B. Uchoa, V. M. Pereira, F. Guinea, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Electron-electron interactions in graphene: current status and perspectives,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1067 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. F.T. Vasko, V.V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 235424 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. G. G. Zegrya and V. E. Perlin, “Intraband absorption of light in quantum wells induced by electron-electron collisions,” Semiconductors 32, 417–422 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  25. E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon Press, 1965).
  27. V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, A. Satou, and T. Otsuji, “Effect of heating and cooling of photogenerated electron-hole plasma in optically pumped graphene on population inversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 094001 (2011).
  28. J. M. Ziman, Electrons and Phonons (Oxford University Press, 1960).
  29. F. T. Vasko and V. Ryzhii, “Voltage and temperature dependencies of conductivity in gated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 233404 (2007).
  30. T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).
  31. A. Dubinov, V. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,”J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 145302 (2011).

2014 (3)

A. Tredicucci and M. S. Vitiello, “Device concepts for graphene-based terahertz photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8500109 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Weis, J. L. Garcia-Pomar, and M. Rahm, “Towards loss compensated and lasing terahertz metamaterials based on optically pumped graphene,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8473–8489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, Y. Kurita, and T. Otsuji, “Threshold of terahertz population inversion and negative dynamic conductivity in graphene under pulse photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 143108 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, and M. Shur, “Double-graphene-layer terahertz laser: concept, characteristics, and comparison,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31567–31577 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

2012 (6)

F.T. Vasko, V.V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 235424 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Boubanga-Tombet, S. Chan, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz emission in optically pumped graphene at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035443 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Svintsov, V. Vyurkov, S. Yurchenko, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Hydrodynamic model for electron-hole plasma in graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083715 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. N. Kotov, B. Uchoa, V. M. Pereira, F. Guinea, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Electron-electron interactions in graphene: current status and perspectives,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1067 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

M. Schütt, P. M. Ostrovsky, I. V. Gornyi, and A. D. Mirlin, “Coulomb interaction in graphene: Relaxation rates and transport,” Phys. Rev. B. 83, 155441 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Martl, J. Darmo, C. Deutsch, M. Brandstetter, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Gain and losses in THz quantum cascade laser with metal-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 19, 733 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, and T. Otsuji, “Toward the creation of terahertz graphene injection laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094503 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Dubinov, V. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,”J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 145302 (2011).

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, A. Satou, and T. Otsuji, “Effect of heating and cooling of photogenerated electron-hole plasma in optically pumped graphene on population inversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 094001 (2011).

2010 (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Dubinov, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz laser with optically pumped graphene layers and Fabri-Perot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092301 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

K.F. Mak, M.Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.H. Lui, J.A. Misewich, and T.F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M.G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

A.B. Kashuba, “Conductivity of defectless graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085415 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Fritz, J. Schmalian, M. Müller, and S. Sachdev, “Quantum critical transport in clean graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085416 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083114 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. T. Vasko and V. Ryzhii, “Voltage and temperature dependencies of conductivity in gated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 233404 (2007).

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

G. G. Zegrya and V. E. Perlin, “Intraband absorption of light in quantum wells induced by electron-electron collisions,” Semiconductors 32, 417–422 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aleshkin, V.

A. Dubinov, V. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,”J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 145302 (2011).

Aleshkin, V. Ya.

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

Aleshkin, V.Ya.

V. Ryzhii, A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, and M. Shur, “Double-graphene-layer terahertz laser: concept, characteristics, and comparison,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31567–31577 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Dubinov, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz laser with optically pumped graphene layers and Fabri-Perot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Andrews, A. M.

Berger, C.

M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boubanga Tombet, S.A.

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

Boubanga-Tombet, S.

S. Boubanga-Tombet, S. Chan, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz emission in optically pumped graphene at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035443 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brandstetter, M.

Brida, D.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
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V. N. Kotov, B. Uchoa, V. M. Pereira, F. Guinea, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Electron-electron interactions in graphene: current status and perspectives,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1067 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Boubanga-Tombet, S. Chan, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz emission in optically pumped graphene at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035443 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J.M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M.G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Darmo, J.

Das Sarma, S.

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[Crossref]

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J.M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M.G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

de Heer, W.A.

M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Divin, C.

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
[Crossref]

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V. Ryzhii, A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, and M. Shur, “Double-graphene-layer terahertz laser: concept, characteristics, and comparison,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31567–31577 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

A. Dubinov, V. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,”J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 145302 (2011).

A. Dubinov, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz laser with optically pumped graphene layers and Fabri-Perot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092301 (2009).
[Crossref]

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L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
[Crossref]

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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A.C.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

First, P.N.

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
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Fritz, L.

L. Fritz, J. Schmalian, M. Müller, and S. Sachdev, “Quantum critical transport in clean graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085416 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fukushima, T.

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

Garcia-Pomar, J. L.

Gornyi, I. V.

M. Schütt, P. M. Ostrovsky, I. V. Gornyi, and A. D. Mirlin, “Coulomb interaction in graphene: Relaxation rates and transport,” Phys. Rev. B. 83, 155441 (2011).
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Guinea, F.

V. N. Kotov, B. Uchoa, V. M. Pereira, F. Guinea, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Electron-electron interactions in graphene: current status and perspectives,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1067 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T.F.

K.F. Mak, M.Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.H. Lui, J.A. Misewich, and T.F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helm, M.

M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, E. H.

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jin, Z.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaneko, R.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
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A.B. Kashuba, “Conductivity of defectless graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085415 (2008).
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L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.J.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klang, P.

Knorr, A.

M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kono, J.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotov, V. N.

V. N. Kotov, B. Uchoa, V. M. Pereira, F. Guinea, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Electron-electron interactions in graphene: current status and perspectives,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1067 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kurita, Y.

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, Y. Kurita, and T. Otsuji, “Threshold of terahertz population inversion and negative dynamic conductivity in graphene under pulse photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 143108 (2013).
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L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon Press, 1965).

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon Press, 1965).

Lombardo, A.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lui, C.H.

K.F. Mak, M.Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.H. Lui, J.A. Misewich, and T.F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mak, K.F.

K.F. Mak, M.Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.H. Lui, J.A. Misewich, and T.F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malic, E.

M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Manzoni, C.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martl, M.

Mihnev, M.

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Milana, S.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirlin, A. D.

M. Schütt, P. M. Ostrovsky, I. V. Gornyi, and A. D. Mirlin, “Coulomb interaction in graphene: Relaxation rates and transport,” Phys. Rev. B. 83, 155441 (2011).
[Crossref]

Misewich, J.A.

K.F. Mak, M.Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.H. Lui, J.A. Misewich, and T.F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitin, V.

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

A. Dubinov, V. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,”J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 145302 (2011).

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, and T. Otsuji, “Toward the creation of terahertz graphene injection laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094503 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, A. Satou, and T. Otsuji, “Effect of heating and cooling of photogenerated electron-hole plasma in optically pumped graphene on population inversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 094001 (2011).

Mitin, V.V.

F.T. Vasko, V.V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 235424 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mittendorff, M.

M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, M.

L. Fritz, J. Schmalian, M. Müller, and S. Sachdev, “Quantum critical transport in clean graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085416 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nair, R.R.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanot, S.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K.S.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ostrovsky, P. M.

M. Schütt, P. M. Ostrovsky, I. V. Gornyi, and A. D. Mirlin, “Coulomb interaction in graphene: Relaxation rates and transport,” Phys. Rev. B. 83, 155441 (2011).
[Crossref]

Otsuji, T.

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, Y. Kurita, and T. Otsuji, “Threshold of terahertz population inversion and negative dynamic conductivity in graphene under pulse photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 143108 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, and M. Shur, “Double-graphene-layer terahertz laser: concept, characteristics, and comparison,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31567–31577 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

S. Boubanga-Tombet, S. Chan, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz emission in optically pumped graphene at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035443 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Svintsov, V. Vyurkov, S. Yurchenko, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Hydrodynamic model for electron-hole plasma in graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083715 (2012).
[Crossref]

F.T. Vasko, V.V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 235424 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, A. Satou, and T. Otsuji, “Effect of heating and cooling of photogenerated electron-hole plasma in optically pumped graphene on population inversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 094001 (2011).

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, and T. Otsuji, “Toward the creation of terahertz graphene injection laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094503 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Dubinov, V. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,”J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 145302 (2011).

A. Dubinov, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz laser with optically pumped graphene layers and Fabri-Perot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092301 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pereira, V. M.

V. N. Kotov, B. Uchoa, V. M. Pereira, F. Guinea, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Electron-electron interactions in graphene: current status and perspectives,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1067 (2012).
[Crossref]

Perlin, V. E.

G. G. Zegrya and V. E. Perlin, “Intraband absorption of light in quantum wells induced by electron-electron collisions,” Semiconductors 32, 417–422 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pershoguba, S. S.

L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Polini, M.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahm, M.

Rana, F.

J.M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M.G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ren, L.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryzhii, M.

V. Ryzhii, A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, and M. Shur, “Double-graphene-layer terahertz laser: concept, characteristics, and comparison,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31567–31577 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, and T. Otsuji, “Toward the creation of terahertz graphene injection laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094503 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, A. Satou, and T. Otsuji, “Effect of heating and cooling of photogenerated electron-hole plasma in optically pumped graphene on population inversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 094001 (2011).

A. Dubinov, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz laser with optically pumped graphene layers and Fabri-Perot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092301 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ryzhii, V.

V. Ryzhii, A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, and M. Shur, “Double-graphene-layer terahertz laser: concept, characteristics, and comparison,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31567–31577 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, Y. Kurita, and T. Otsuji, “Threshold of terahertz population inversion and negative dynamic conductivity in graphene under pulse photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 143108 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

D. Svintsov, V. Vyurkov, S. Yurchenko, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Hydrodynamic model for electron-hole plasma in graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083715 (2012).
[Crossref]

F.T. Vasko, V.V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 235424 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Boubanga-Tombet, S. Chan, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz emission in optically pumped graphene at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035443 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, and T. Otsuji, “Toward the creation of terahertz graphene injection laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094503 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, A. Satou, and T. Otsuji, “Effect of heating and cooling of photogenerated electron-hole plasma in optically pumped graphene on population inversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 094001 (2011).

A. Dubinov, V. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,”J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 145302 (2011).

A. Dubinov, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz laser with optically pumped graphene layers and Fabri-Perot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092301 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083114 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. T. Vasko and V. Ryzhii, “Voltage and temperature dependencies of conductivity in gated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 233404 (2007).

Sachdev, S.

L. Fritz, J. Schmalian, M. Müller, and S. Sachdev, “Quantum critical transport in clean graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085416 (2008).
[Crossref]

Satou, A.

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, Y. Kurita, and T. Otsuji, “Threshold of terahertz population inversion and negative dynamic conductivity in graphene under pulse photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 143108 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

S. Boubanga-Tombet, S. Chan, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz emission in optically pumped graphene at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035443 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, A. Satou, and T. Otsuji, “Effect of heating and cooling of photogenerated electron-hole plasma in optically pumped graphene on population inversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 094001 (2011).

Schmalian, J.

L. Fritz, J. Schmalian, M. Müller, and S. Sachdev, “Quantum critical transport in clean graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085416 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schneider, H.

M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schütt, M.

M. Schütt, P. M. Ostrovsky, I. V. Gornyi, and A. D. Mirlin, “Coulomb interaction in graphene: Relaxation rates and transport,” Phys. Rev. B. 83, 155441 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sfeir, M.Y.

K.F. Mak, M.Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.H. Lui, J.A. Misewich, and T.F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shivaraman, S.

J.M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M.G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

Sipe, J.E.

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spencer, M.G.

J.M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M.G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

Sun, D.

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Svintsov, D.

D. Svintsov, V. Vyurkov, S. Yurchenko, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Hydrodynamic model for electron-hole plasma in graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083715 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tomadin, A.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tour, J. M.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tredicucci, A.

A. Tredicucci and M. S. Vitiello, “Device concepts for graphene-based terahertz photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8500109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Uchoa, B.

V. N. Kotov, B. Uchoa, V. M. Pereira, F. Guinea, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Electron-electron interactions in graphene: current status and perspectives,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1067 (2012).
[Crossref]

Unterrainer, K.

Vasko, F. T.

F. T. Vasko and V. Ryzhii, “Voltage and temperature dependencies of conductivity in gated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 233404 (2007).

Vasko, F.T.

F.T. Vasko, V.V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 235424 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vitiello, M. S.

A. Tredicucci and M. S. Vitiello, “Device concepts for graphene-based terahertz photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8500109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vyurkov, V.

D. Svintsov, V. Vyurkov, S. Yurchenko, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Hydrodynamic model for electron-hole plasma in graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083715 (2012).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

S. Boubanga-Tombet, S. Chan, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz emission in optically pumped graphene at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035443 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weis, P.

Winnerl, S.

M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winzer, T.

M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

K.F. Mak, M.Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.H. Lui, J.A. Misewich, and T.F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yabe, Y.

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

Yan, Z.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yurchenko, S.

D. Svintsov, V. Vyurkov, S. Yurchenko, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Hydrodynamic model for electron-hole plasma in graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083715 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zegrya, G. G.

G. G. Zegrya and V. E. Perlin, “Intraband absorption of light in quantum wells induced by electron-electron collisions,” Semiconductors 32, 417–422 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziman, J. M.

J. M. Ziman, Electrons and Phonons (Oxford University Press, 1960).

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

A. Dubinov, V.Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz laser with optically pumped graphene layers and Fabri-Perot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J.M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M.G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Tredicucci and M. S. Vitiello, “Device concepts for graphene-based terahertz photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8500109 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, and T. Otsuji, “Toward the creation of terahertz graphene injection laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094503 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083114 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Svintsov, V. Vyurkov, S. Yurchenko, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Hydrodynamic model for electron-hole plasma in graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083715 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, Y. Kurita, and T. Otsuji, “Threshold of terahertz population inversion and negative dynamic conductivity in graphene under pulse photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 143108 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

A. Dubinov, V. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,”J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 145302 (2011).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, V. Mitin, A. Satou, and T. Otsuji, “Effect of heating and cooling of photogenerated electron-hole plasma in optically pumped graphene on population inversion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 094001 (2011).

Nano Lett. (2)

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12, 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mittendorff, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1504–1507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y.J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R.R. Nair, K.S. Novoselov, A.C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (2)

T. Watanabe, T. Fukushima, Y. Yabe, S.A. Boubanga Tombet, A. Satou, A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “The gain enhancement effect of surface plasmon polaritons on terahertz stimulated emission in optically pumped monolayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 075003 (2013).

D. Sun, C. Divin, M. Mihnev, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, J.E. Sipe, C. Berger, W.A. de Heer, and P.N. First, “Current relaxation due to hot carrier scattering in graphene,” New J. Phys. 14, 105012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (7)

S. Boubanga-Tombet, S. Chan, T. Watanabe, A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz emission in optically pumped graphene at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 035443 (2012).
[Crossref]

A.B. Kashuba, “Conductivity of defectless graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085415 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Fritz, J. Schmalian, M. Müller, and S. Sachdev, “Quantum critical transport in clean graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 085416 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
[Crossref]

F.T. Vasko, V.V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 235424 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. T. Vasko and V. Ryzhii, “Voltage and temperature dependencies of conductivity in gated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 233404 (2007).

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

M. Schütt, P. M. Ostrovsky, I. V. Gornyi, and A. D. Mirlin, “Coulomb interaction in graphene: Relaxation rates and transport,” Phys. Rev. B. 83, 155441 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K.F. Mak, M.Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.H. Lui, J.A. Misewich, and T.F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

V. N. Kotov, B. Uchoa, V. M. Pereira, F. Guinea, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Electron-electron interactions in graphene: current status and perspectives,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1067 (2012).
[Crossref]

Semiconductors (1)

G. G. Zegrya and V. E. Perlin, “Intraband absorption of light in quantum wells induced by electron-electron collisions,” Semiconductors 32, 417–422 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon Press, 1965).

J. M. Ziman, Electrons and Phonons (Oxford University Press, 1960).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic views of band diagrams of (A) n-type graphene in equilibrium and (B) pumped graphene. Wavy arrows indicate photon absorption and emission processes. Diagram of photon absorption by an electron (e) associated with (C) electron-electron (electron-hole) and (D) impurity (i) scattering.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Real parts of the intraband (upper panels) and interband (lower panels) contributions, Reσintra and Reσinter, to dynamic conductivity normalized by σq at different quasi-Fermi energies εF in graphene structures with different background dielectric constants κ0 (T = 300 K).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Real parts of net dynamic conductivity Re(σintra +σinter) normalized by σq at different quasi-Fermi energies εF in graphene structures with different background dielectric constants κ0 (T = 300 K).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Color map of real part of net dynamic conductivity Re(σintra + σinter)/σq vs frequency and quasi-Fermi energy for κ0 = 5: (A) at T = 300 K and (B) at T = 200 K. The area Re(σintra +σinter)/σq < 0.75 is filled in solid color
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (A) Thresholds of negative dynamic conductivity at different values of background dielectric constant κ0. Solid lines correspond to Re(σintra +σinter)= 0. (B) Threshold frequencies ω0/2π vs background dielectric constant at different temperatures T (εF = 3kBT)
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Real parts of intraband dynamic conductivity Reσintra (solid lines) and interband conductivity −Reσinter (dashed line) as functions of quasi-Fermi energy εF at fixed frequency ω/(2π)= 6 THz and different values of background dielectric constant κ0.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Separate contributions of e-h, e-e, and h-h scattering processes to real part of interband conductivity: (A) for pumped graphene and (B) for electron-doped graphene in thermodynamic equilibrium (κ0 = 1, ω/2π = 6 THz, and T = 300 K).

Equations (27)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V ^ F ( t ) = e 2 c ( A 0 , v ^ 1 + v ^ 2 ) ( e i ω t + e i ω t ) ,
V C ( q ) = 2 π e 2 h ¯ q κ 0 κ ( q ) u p 1 ( e ) u p 3 ( e ) u p 2 ( e ) u p 4 ( e ) ,
κ ( q ) = 1 + q TF / q ,
f | V ^ | i = m f | V ^ F ω | m m | V ^ C | i ( ε p 1 + ε p 2 ) ( ε p 1 m + ε p 2 m ) + f | V ^ C | m m | V ^ F ω | i ( ε p 1 + ε p 2 + h ¯ ω ) ( ε p 1 m + ε p 2 m ) ,
ε p 1 + ε p 2 + h ¯ ω = ε p 3 + ε p 4 ,
f | V | i = e 2 c V C ( q ) h ¯ ω ( A 0 , v p 1 + v p 2 v p 3 v p 4 ) cos ( θ 13 / 2 ) cos ( θ 24 / 2 ) .
P = h ¯ ω 2 2 π g 2 h ¯ p 1 , p 2 , q | f | V | i | 2 δ ( ε p 1 + ε p 2 + h ¯ ω ε p 3 ε p 4 ) × f e ( p 1 ) f e ( p 2 ) [ 1 f e ( p 3 ) ] [ 1 f e ( p 4 ) ] [ 1 exp ( h ¯ ω / k B T ) ] .
f e ( p ) = [ 1 + exp ( ε p μ e k B T ) ] 1 .
Re σ e e = σ q α c 2 π 3 ( k B T h ¯ ω ) 3 [ 1 exp ( h ¯ ω k B T ) ] I e e , ω ,
I e e , ω = d Q d k 1 d k 2 Q 2 κ 2 ( Q ) ( Δ n e e ) 2 cos 2 ( θ 1 ± / 2 ) cos 2 ( θ 2 ± / 2 ) × δ [ k 1 + + k 2 + h ¯ ω / ( k B T ) k 1 k 2 + ] F ( k 1 + ) F ( k 2 ) [ 1 F ( k 1 ) ] [ 1 F ( k 2 + ) ] .
Re σ e h = σ q 2 α c 2 π 3 ( k B T h ¯ ω ) 3 [ 1 exp ( h ¯ ω k B T ) ] I e h , ω ,
I e h , ω = d Q d k 1 d k 2 Q 2 κ 2 ( Δ n e e ) 2 [ cos 2 ( θ 1 ± / 2 ) cos 2 ( θ 2 ± / 2 ) + sin 2 ( θ 1 ± / 2 ) sin 2 ( θ 2 ± / 2 ) ] × δ [ k 1 + + k 2 + h ¯ ω / ( k B T ) k 1 k 2 + ] F ( k 1 + ) F ( k 2 ) [ 1 F ( k 1 ) ] [ 1 F ( k 2 + ) ] .
Re σ e e = σ q 2 α c 2 π 3 ( k B T h ¯ ω ) 3 [ 1 exp ( h ¯ ω k B T ) ] ( I e e , ω + I e h , ω ) .
Re σ inter = σ q tanh ( h ¯ ω / 2 ε F 2 k B T ) .
q TF 8 α c k B T v F ln [ 1 + exp ( ε F k B T ) ] .
Re σ intra = 2 e 2 π h ¯ k B T h ¯ ln [ 1 + exp ( ε F k B T ) ] v c c ω 2 + v c c 2 ,
v c c = α c 2 4 π 2 k B T h ¯ I e e , 0 + I e h , 0 ln [ 1 + exp ( ε F k B T ) ] ,
( τ p 1 ) i = 2 π α c 2 p v F h ¯ h ¯ 2 n i q TF 2 0 π sin 2 θ d θ [ 1 + ( 2 p / q TF ) sin ( θ / 2 ) ] 2 .
C e e ( ε 1 , ε 2 , δ 3 , Q ) = d k 1 d k 2 ( Δ n e e ) 2 cos 2 ( θ 1 ± / 2 ) cos 2 ( θ 2 ± / 2 ) δ ( ε 1 k 1 + ) δ ( ε 2 k 2 ) × δ [ δ ε ( k 2 + k 2 ω / 2 ) ] δ [ δ ε ( k 1 + k 1 + ω / 2 ) ] .
I e e , ω = w / 2 Q d Q ( Q + Q TF ) 2 δ ε min δ ε max d δ ε ε 1 min d ε 1 ε 2 min d ε 2 C e e ( ε 1 , ε 2 , δ ε , Q ) F ( ε 1 ) F ( ε 2 ) × [ 1 F ( ε 2 + δ ε + w / 2 ) ] [ 1 F ( ε 1 δ ε + w / 2 ) ] .
k i = Q 2 { cosh u i cos v i , sinh u i sin v i } ,
4 Q 4 ( cos v 2 δ ε + w / 2 Q ) δ ( cos v 1 δ ε w / 2 Q ) δ ( cos u 1 w / 2 δ ε + 2 ε 1 Q ) × δ ( cosh u 2 w / 2 + δ ε + 2 ε 2 Q ) .
ε 1 > ( Q + δ ε w / 2 ) 2 ; ε 2 > ( Q + δ ε w / 2 ) 2 , Q > w / 2 ; Q + w / 2 < δ ε < Q w / 2 .
C ( ε 1 , ε 2 , δ ε , Q ) = 4 ( Δ n ) 2 Q 4 cos 2 ( θ 1 ± / 2 ) cos 2 ( θ 2 ± / 2 ) [ sin v 1 sin v 2 sinh u 1 sinh u 2 ] k 1 + k 1 k 2 + k 2 .
cos 2 ( θ 1 ± / 2 ) cos 2 ( θ 2 ± / 2 ) k 1 + k 1 k 2 + k 2 = 1 16 [ ( 2 ε 1 δ ε + w / 2 ) 2 Q 2 ] [ ( 2 ε 2 + δ ε + w / 2 ) 2 Q 2 ] .
C e e ( ε 1 , ε 2 , δ ε , Q ) = ( Δ n ) e e 2 4 sinh u 1 sinh u 2 sin v 1 sin v 2 = ( Δ n ) e e 2 4 [ ( 2 ε 1 δ ε + w / 2 ) 2 Q 2 ] [ ( 2 ε 2 + δ ε + w / 2 ) 2 Q 2 ] [ Q 2 ( δ ε + w / 2 ) 2 ] [ Q 2 ( δ ε w / 2 ) 2 ] .
( Δ n ) e e 2 = 2 ( Q 2 δ ε 2 ) ε 1 ε 2 ( ε 1 δ ε ) ( δ ε + ε 2 ) × [ δ ε 2 + 4 δ ε ( ε 2 ε 1 ) + 2 ( ε 1 ε 2 ) 2 δ ε 2 ( δ ε 2 ε 1 ) ( δ ε + 2 ε 2 ) Q 2 ] .

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