Abstract

The radiation force of circular Airy beams (CAB) on a dielectric Rayleigh particle is investigated in this paper. Our results show that the CAB can be used to trap the particle whose refractive index is larger than the ambient at different positions along the beam axis. Comparing with the Gaussian beam under the same conditions, the longitudinal and the transverse gradient force of CAB on the Rayleigh particle are increased, and the particle can be trapped more stable. Our analyses also demonstrate that the trapping properties of CAB can be modulated by controlling corresponding parameters of CAB.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The circular Airy beam (CAB) has attract intensive interest due to its unique abruptly autofocusing property [13]. This beam abruptly focuses its energy right before the focal point while maintaining a low intensity profile until the very point. This feature is very useful in biomedical treatment, for only the intended area would be affected in the propagation direction. Up to now, the CAB with optical vortices [4, 5], and the radially polarized CAB [6] are proposed and observed in experiment. In optical trapping, the CAB may produce a greater gradient force on the particle, because the abruptly autofocusing property means a great intensity gradient in the focal region. The CAB has been used to trap and guide the micro particles in experiment [7]. But the advantages or the particularities of the optical trapping through CAB have not been detailedly analyzed.

Nowadays, the optical tweezers have been widely applied in many fields, since they are first invented in 1986 by Ashkin [8]. It now becomes an important tool to investigate the biological cells, DNA molecules, neutral atoms, and other particles [913]. The conventional optical tweezers are generally constructed with fundamental Gaussian beams (GB). Because of the gradient force of the Gaussian beam, the particle would be stably trapped at the beam waist [14]. Many researches show that other beams also can be used in optical manipulation [15]. For example, the Laguerre Gaussian beam can be used to rotate the particle [16]; the Bessel Gaussian beam can trap particles in multiple planes [17]; the Airy beam can be used to transversely clear the particles [18]. Besides, the radiation force of the cylindrical vector beam [19], Gaussian Schell model beam [20], Lorentz-Gaussian beam [21] and other beams [2224] on the micro particles have also been studied in theory or in experiment. To our best knowledge, the radiation force of CAB on the Rayleigh particle has not been studied before.

In this paper, we investigate the propagation of the CAB under paraxial condition and non-paraxial condition. Because in most situations the light beams must be small enough to trap particles. So it is necessary to know whether the paraxial propagation expression is satisfied when the beam size is very small. The distributions of radiation forces on the Rayleigh particle demonstrate the unique trapping properties of CAB. Similar trapping can also be achieved with generalized abruptly autofocusing beams [25]. By analyzing the optical trap of CAB with different parameters and comparing it with that of the GB, some interesting and useful results are found in our investigations.

2. Non-paraxial propagation and paraxial propagation of CAB

The electric field of the circular airy beam (CAB) at the input plane is defined as [1]:

E(r,z=0)=Ai(r0rs)exp(ar0rs),
where Ai(x) is the Airy function, r0 is a parameter related with the radius of the beam at the initial plane, s is the radial scale, a is the decaying parameter. When r0 is large enough, the CAB shows abruptly autofocusing properties while propagating in free space. The abruptly autofocuisng property is originated from the character of the Airy function. The radius of the CAB follows a parabolic trajectory and the intensity suddenly increases at the focus point.

At first, we’d like to investigate the non-paraxial effect on the abruptly autofocusing property of the CAB. For simplicity, we assume the incident light is linear polarized in the x-direction. The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula can be applied to analyze the propagation of the CAB in the free space. The electric field can be expressed as [26]:

E(r,φ,z)=Ex(r,z)x^+Ez(r,φ,z)z^,
where Ex is not related withφin our case, and it can be computed in terms of the Hankel transform pair [27]:
Ex(r,z)=2π0g˜(k)J0(2πkr)e2iπzkzkdk,
g˜(k)=2π0E(r,0)J0(2πkr)rdr,
whereλis the wavelength, k is the spatial frequency, kz=λ2k2. The expression of Ez in cylindrical coordinates is [26]:
Ez(r,φ,z)=02π0kcosθkzg˜(k)ei2π[kzz+krcos(θφ)]kdkdθ=0k22kzg˜(k)ei2πkzz(02πei2πkrcos(θφ)+iθdθ+02πei2πkrcos(θφ)iθdθ)dk=i2π0k2kzg˜(k)ei2πkzzJ1(2πkr)dkcosφ,
where the integral representation of Bessel function,Jn(t)=inπ0πeitcosθcos(nθ)dθ, is used [28]. The numerical computation of Eq. (3)-(5) is complicated, and some numerical methods could be used [29, 30]. But under paraxial approximation, we can obtain an analytic expression for the propagation of the CAB at the beam center (r = 0) which is useful in calculating the distribution of the radiation force along the beam axis.

Under the paraxial approximation, the component of Ez in Eq. (2) can be neglected. The propagation of the CAB can be calculated from the Collins formula [31]:

E(r,z)=2iπλzexp(iπr22λz)0Ai(r0rs)exp(ar0rs)exp(iπr22λz)J0(2πrrλz)rdr,
where r and r′ are coordinates in the output plane and the input plane, respectively. When r0 islarge enough, the integral of Eq. (6) can be extended towithout affecting the result. So the electric field in the beam center can be expressed as follows:
E(0,z)=2iπλzAi(r0rs)exp(ar0rs)exp(iπr2λz)rdr.
Applying the integral formulae of the Airy transform [32],
φβ(y)=1βex2Ai(yxβ)dx=πβexp[14β3(y+124β3)]Ai(yβ+116β4),
1βxex2Ai(yxβ)dx=yφβ(y)+α3φβ(y),
we can obtain:
E(0,z)=πexp(P1)[Ai(P2)(14s3c3/2bc1/2)Ai(P2)sc1/2]exp(cb2+ar0s),
whereAi(x)is the derivative of the Airy function, b=iλaz2πs,c=iπλz,

P1=r0+b4cs3+196c3s6,P2=r0+bs+116c2s4.

Now we can compare the non-paraxial results calculated by Eq. (2) with the paraxial results calculated by Eq. (10). In our calculation, we assume a = 0.08,λ = 1064 nm, r0 = 10s, ξ=λz/2πs2, the incident power is 1W. The parameter s is usually considered as a proportional coefficient. It does not affect the beam shape or the propagation characteristics of the CAB under the paraxial approximation,as we can see in Fig. 1. As Fig. 1(a) shows, when s = 5μm, the paraxial result calculated by Eq. (10) and the non-paraxial result calculated by Eq. (2) agree quite closely. The CAB shows abruptly autofocusing property at aboutξ=5.8, and the intensity reaches its maximum value atξ=6.6. When s is too small, the paraxial result does not agree with the non-paraxial result, as we can see in Fig. 1(b). When s = 1μm, the non-paraxial result shows that the abruptly autofocusing property of the CAB along the beam axis becomes weak, which indicates that the beam size of the abruptly autofocusing Airy beam is generally limited in practice.

 

Fig. 1 Comparison about the intensity of the CAB in the beam center of the paraxial and the non-paraxial propagation results. (a) s = 5μm, (b) s = 1μm.

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2. Radiation force of CAB exerted on a Rayleigh particle

As is well known, the Rayleigh dielectric particle can be considered as a point dipole in the light fields.And the polarisabilityαis [33]:

α=4πR3εpεmεp+2εm,
where R is the radius of the particle,εpandεmare dielectric functions of the particle and the medium surrounding the particle, respectively. So the gradient forceFgand the scattering forceFscan be calculated by [14, 34]:
Fg=14ε0εmRe(α)|E2|,
Fs=ε0εm3k0412π|α2||E2|,
whereε0is the dielectric constant in vacuum, k0 is the vacuum wave number.

In our calculation, we choose s = 5μm. So the paraxial expression of Eq. (10) can be used to calculate the longitudinal radiation force of the CAB at the beam center. However, Eq. (2) should also be used when we want to calculate the transverse radiation force of CAB. We assume R = 20 nm, the refractive index of the surrounding medium nm = 1.33 (i.e., water). Two kinds of particles are discussed below, whose refractive index is np = 1.59 (i.e., glass micro particle) or np = 1.00 (i.e., air bubble), soεp=np2,εm=nm2.

Figure 2 shows the distributions of the longitudinal and transverse radiation force when np = 1.59. In order to understand the advantages of the CAB over the GB in optical trapping, we assume the initial radius (i.e., r0) and the focal length (i.e., zf, the distance between the initial plane and the waist plane) of the GB are the same as the CAB. The scattering force Fs is directed to the propagation direction, and the gradient force Fg is directed to the equilibrium point in Fig. 2. From Figs. 2(a)-2(c), we can see that the particle could be trapped at the focus point (zf = 975μm) by the longitudinal gradient force. And there are several stable equilibrium points in the distribution of the sum of the longitudinal gradient force and scattering force (Fig. 2(c)), which indicates that the CAB can trap particles in multiple planes. Typically speaking, for the first two equilibrium points za = 981μm, zc = 1076μm, and the zero point between them, zb = 1038μm, the particle can be longitudinally trapped at za and zc, but cannot be trapped at zb. Note that the position of za is slightly shifted forward from the focus point, because of the influence of the scattering force. Comparing with GB, the longitudinal gradient force of CAB is increased, the scattering force of CAB is decreased. In our case, the GB cannot trap the particle at the beam waist, because the backward gradient force is not large enough to overcome the forward scattering force (Fig. 2(c)). Figures 2(d)-2(f) show that the particle can be transversely trapped at za and zc, but cannot be transverse trapped at zb by CAB. The transverse gradient force decreases as z increases. The gradient force generated from CAB is also larger than that generated from GB at the same position. However, the transverse gradient force cannot attract particles at the beam center when z = zb, which is different from GB. Comparing with GB, the gradient force of CAB is larger and the trapping region of CAB is smaller, as is shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(d), which indicates that the stiffness of the optical trap formed by CAB is greater. So the particle will be trapped more stably by CAB.

 

Fig. 2 The distribution of the radiation force on the Rayleigh particle with np = 1.59. (a) The longitudinal gradient force; (b) the scattering force, (c) the sum of the gradient force and the scattering force, the inset figure shows the positions of za, zb and zc. (d) The transverse gradient force at za = 981μm; (e) the transverse gradient force at zb = 1038μm, (f) the transverse gradient force of zc = 1076μm.

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The distribution of the radiation force for the particle with np = 1.00 are shown in Fig. 3. In contrary to the case of np = 1.59, this particle could be longitudinally trapped at zb = 1038μm, but could not be trapped at za and zc. Although there is equilibrium point at the beam center in Fig. 3(b), yet the gradient force is too small to overcome the Brownian motion, as we will show below. So the particle could not be trapped at zb.

 

Fig. 3 The distribution of the radiation force on the Rayleigh particle with np = 1.00. (a) The sum of the gradient force and the scattering force. (b) The transverse gradient force at zb = 1038μm.

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The radiation force can be modulated by controlling corresponding parameters of the CAB. Figure 4(a) shows that when a becomes smaller, the longitudinal radiation force (i.e., the sum of the longitudinal gradient force and the scattering force) for each optical trap will become larger. So the number of effective optical traps formed along the beam axis will be increased. However, the trapping positions are not changed with a. The transverse gradient force also increases with a, as Fig. 4(b) shows. Figure 4(c) shows that the parameter r0 is related with positions of the optical traps, the trapping positions would be moved backward as r0 decreases. The transverse gradient force also increases as r0 decreases (Fig. 4(d)). However, r0 should not be too small, because the CAB possesses the abruptly autofocusing property only when r0 is large enough [1].

 

Fig. 4 The distributions of radiation forces with different parameters exerted on the Rayleigh particle with np = 1.59. (a)The longitudinal radiation forces with different a, while s = 5um, r0 = 50um; (b) the transverse gradient forces at the first equilibrium point in Fig. 4(a). (c) The longitudinal radiation forces with different r0, while a = 0.08, s = 5um; (d) the transverse gradient forces at the first equilibrium points in Fig. 4(c). (e) The longitudinal gradient forces with different s, while a = 0.08, r0 = 50um; (f) the transvers gradient forces at the first equilibrium points in Fig. 4(e).

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The distribution of radiation force will be stretched or compressed by varying s, because s is a proportional coefficient. When s increases, the positions of the optical traps will be moved forward, the longitudinal radiation force for each optical trap is decreased and the corresponding trapping region is broadened obviously, as Fig. 4(e) shows. The transverse gradient force also increases as s decreases (Fig. 4(f)). However, s should not be too small because the abruptly autofocusing property of CAB will disappear as Fig. 1(b) shows.

3. Analysis of trapping stability

There are several necessary conditions for stably trapping in optical traps by CAB. First the backward longitudinal gradient force must be large enough to overcome the forward scattering force, which is satisfied as we can see in Figs. 2(c), 3(a) and 4. Second, the longitudinal gradient force must be large enough to overcome the influences of the buoyancy and the gravity. In our investigations, the difference between the buoyancy and the gravity for the glass micro particle or the air bubble is about 10−7 pN, which is smaller than maximum value of longitudinal radiation force.

The third condition is that the potential well of the gradient force must be larger than the kinetic energy of the Brownian particle. It is judged by the Boltzmann factor as follows [8, 14]:

R=exp(U/kBT)1,
where
U=14ε0εmRe(α)Δ(E2)
is the potential energy of the gradient force at the trap position. kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature of the medium. We assume T = 300 K in our calculation.Δ(E2) denotes the intensity difference related with the potential well of the gradient force. For the CAB, the values ofΔ(E2)in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction are not equivalent, which can be known from the intensity distribution. For simplicity, we only analyze the optical traps formed in Figs. 2 and 3. For the glass particle trapped at za, Rb for the longitudinal gradient force and the transverse gradient force is about 3.7×1011and 5.1×1012, respectively. For the glass particle trapped at zc, Rb for the longitudinal gradient force and the transverse gradient force is about3.9×104and4.5×105, respectively. These values are far less than 1. So the glass particle could be stably trapped at za and zc. But for the air bubble trapped at zb, Rb for the longitudinal gradient force is 2.4×105and for the transverse gradient force is 0.59, which approaches 1. So this particle cannot be stably trapped by the transverse gradient force of CAB, because of the influence of the Brownian motion.

4. Conclusions

In conclusions, we have studied the radiation force of CAB exerted on a dielectric spherical particle in the Rayleigh scattering regime. The numerical results show that the CAB can be used to trap the particle whose refractive index is larger than the surrounding medium. The particle can be trapped at different positions along the beam axis, at the focus or the position some distance behind the focus. Comparing with the conventional optical trap with GB, the longitudinal gradient force and the transverse gradient force are both increased by using the CAB, when the initial radius, the focus length, and the incident power of the two beams are the same. Because of the unique abruptly autofocusing property of CAB, the trap stiffness of the optical trap formed by CAB is larger than that of the GB. For the particle whose refractive index is smaller than the surrounding medium, the longitudinal trapping by CAB is stable, but the transverse trapping is not stable because of the influence of the Brownian motion. The trapping properties of CAB can be controlled by corresponding parameters of the CAB. The value of the longitudinal radiation force can be controlled by varying a or s, the positions of the optical traps along the beam axis can be controlled by varying r0 or s, and the trapping range can be effectively controlled by s. In most cases, the decrease of the beam size is helpful to increase the gradient force. But for the optical trap formed by CAB, the abruptly autofocusing property will disappear when the beam size is too small. We believe our investigation results are useful in optical micromanipulation or other fields.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No.2012CB921602), National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant No.10974177, 10874012) and the program of International S&T Cooperation of China (Grant No.2010DFA04690).

References and links

1. N. K. Efremidis and D. N. Christodoulides, “Abruptly autofocusing waves,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 4045–4047 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. D. G. Papazoglou, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and S. Tzortzakis, “Observation of abruptly autofocusing waves,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1842–1844 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. I. Chremmos, P. Zhang, J. Prakash, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. G. Chen, “Fourier-space generation of abruptly autofocusing beams and optical bottle beams,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3675–3677 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, and D. Sand, “Abruptly autofocusing vortex beams,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13302–13310 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. Y. F. Jiang, K. K. Huang, and X. H. Lu, “Propagation dynamics of abruptly autofocusing Airy beams with optical vortices,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18579–18584 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. S. Liu, M. Wang, P. Li, P. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Abrupt polarization transition of vector autofocusing Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2416–2418 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. P. Zhang, J. Prakash, Z. Zhang, M. S. Mills, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. G. Chen, “Trapping and guiding microparticles with morphing autofocusing Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2883–2885 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a Single-Beam Gradient Force Optical Trap for Dielectric Particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead Movement by Single Kinesin Molecules Studied with Optical Tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. L. Tskhovrebova, J. Trinick, J. A. Sleep, and R. M. Simmons, “Elasticity and unfolding of single molecules of the giant muscle protein titin,” Nature 387(6630), 308–312 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 72(3), 1335–1346 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. P. Zemanek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998). [CrossRef]  

14. Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996). [CrossRef]  

15. D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct Observation of Transfer of Angular Momentum to Absorptive Particles from a Laser Beam with a Phase Singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 826–829 (1995). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419(6903), 145–147 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optically mediated particle clearing using Airy wavepackets,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 675–678 (2008). [CrossRef]  

19. Q. W. Zhan, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(3), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef]  

20. L. G. Wang, C. L. Zhao, L. Q. Wang, X. H. Lu, and S. Y. Zhu, “Effect of spatial coherence on radiation forces acting on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1393–1395 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. Y. F. Jiang, K. K. Huang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation force of highly focused Lorentz-Gauss beams on a Rayleigh particle,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9708–9713 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. C. L. Zhao, Y. J. Cai, X. H. Lu, and H. T. Eyyuboğlu, “Radiation force of coherent and partially coherent flat-topped beams on a Rayleigh particle,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1753–1765 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. C. L. Zhao and Y. J. Cai, “Trapping two types of particles using a focused partially coherent elegant Laguerre-Gaussian beam,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2251–2253 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. Z. R. Liu and D. M. Zhao, “Radiation forces acting on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere produced by highly focused elegant Hermite-cosine-Gaussian beams,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2895–2904 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. I. Chremmos, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Pre-engineered abruptly autofocusing beams,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1890–1892 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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28. F. W. Olver, D. W. Lozier, R. F. Boisvert, and C. W. Clark, The NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions, (Cambridge University Press, 2010).

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30. M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. C. Gutiérrez-Vega, “Computation of quasi-discrete Hankel transforms of integer order for propagating optical wave fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(1), 53–58 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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References

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  1. N. K. Efremidis and D. N. Christodoulides, “Abruptly autofocusing waves,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 4045–4047 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. G. Papazoglou, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and S. Tzortzakis, “Observation of abruptly autofocusing waves,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1842–1844 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. I. Chremmos, P. Zhang, J. Prakash, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. G. Chen, “Fourier-space generation of abruptly autofocusing beams and optical bottle beams,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3675–3677 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, and D. Sand, “Abruptly autofocusing vortex beams,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13302–13310 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y. F. Jiang, K. K. Huang, and X. H. Lu, “Propagation dynamics of abruptly autofocusing Airy beams with optical vortices,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18579–18584 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Liu, M. Wang, P. Li, P. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Abrupt polarization transition of vector autofocusing Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2416–2418 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. Zhang, J. Prakash, Z. Zhang, M. S. Mills, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. G. Chen, “Trapping and guiding microparticles with morphing autofocusing Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2883–2885 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a Single-Beam Gradient Force Optical Trap for Dielectric Particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead Movement by Single Kinesin Molecules Studied with Optical Tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. Tskhovrebova, J. Trinick, J. A. Sleep, and R. M. Simmons, “Elasticity and unfolding of single molecules of the giant muscle protein titin,” Nature 387(6630), 308–312 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. P. Zemanek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct Observation of Transfer of Angular Momentum to Absorptive Particles from a Laser Beam with a Phase Singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 826–829 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419(6903), 145–147 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optically mediated particle clearing using Airy wavepackets,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 675–678 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. Q. W. Zhan, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(3), 229–232 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. G. Wang, C. L. Zhao, L. Q. Wang, X. H. Lu, and S. Y. Zhu, “Effect of spatial coherence on radiation forces acting on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1393–1395 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. F. Jiang, K. K. Huang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation force of highly focused Lorentz-Gauss beams on a Rayleigh particle,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9708–9713 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C. L. Zhao, Y. J. Cai, X. H. Lu, and H. T. Eyyuboğlu, “Radiation force of coherent and partially coherent flat-topped beams on a Rayleigh particle,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1753–1765 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. C. L. Zhao and Y. J. Cai, “Trapping two types of particles using a focused partially coherent elegant Laguerre-Gaussian beam,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2251–2253 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. Z. R. Liu and D. M. Zhao, “Radiation forces acting on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere produced by highly focused elegant Hermite-cosine-Gaussian beams,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2895–2904 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. I. Chremmos, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Pre-engineered abruptly autofocusing beams,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1890–1892 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. W. H. Carter, “Electromagnetic Field of a Gaussian Beam with an Elliptical Cross Section,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(10), 1195–1201 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, (Roberts & Company Publishers, 2005).
  28. F. W. Olver, D. W. Lozier, R. F. Boisvert, and C. W. Clark, The NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions, (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
  29. D. Leseberg, “Computer-generated three-dimensional image holograms,” Appl. Opt. 31(2), 223–229 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. C. Gutiérrez-Vega, “Computation of quasi-discrete Hankel transforms of integer order for propagating optical wave fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(1), 53–58 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. S. A. Collins., “Lens-System Diffraction Integral Written in Terms of Matrix Optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60(9), 1168–1177 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  32. O. Vallée and M. Soares, Airy Functions and Applications to Physics, (Imperial College, 2004).
  33. B. T. Draine, “The Discrete-Dipole Approximation and Its Application to Interstellar Graphite Grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles: a review,” J. Nanophotonics 2, (2008).

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2011 (6)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles: a review,” J. Nanophotonics 2, (2008).

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optically mediated particle clearing using Airy wavepackets,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 675–678 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

Q. W. Zhan, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(3), 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419(6903), 145–147 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

P. Zemanek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

L. Tskhovrebova, J. Trinick, J. A. Sleep, and R. M. Simmons, “Elasticity and unfolding of single molecules of the giant muscle protein titin,” Nature 387(6630), 308–312 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct Observation of Transfer of Angular Momentum to Absorptive Particles from a Laser Beam with a Phase Singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead Movement by Single Kinesin Molecules Studied with Optical Tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

B. T. Draine, “The Discrete-Dipole Approximation and Its Application to Interstellar Graphite Grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1972 (1)

1970 (1)

Asakura, T.

Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

Baumgartl, J.

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optically mediated particle clearing using Airy wavepackets,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 675–678 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead Movement by Single Kinesin Molecules Studied with Optical Tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, Y. J.

Carter, W. H.

Chen, Z. G.

Chiou, P. Y.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chremmos, I.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Chu, S.

Collins, S. A.

Cottrell, D. M.

Davis, J. A.

Dholakia, K.

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optically mediated particle clearing using Airy wavepackets,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 675–678 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles: a review,” J. Nanophotonics 2, (2008).

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419(6903), 145–147 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dienerowitz, M.

M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles: a review,” J. Nanophotonics 2, (2008).

Draine, B. T.

B. T. Draine, “The Discrete-Dipole Approximation and Its Application to Interstellar Graphite Grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Efremidis, N. K.

Eyyuboglu, H. T.

Foot, C. J.

P. Zemanek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Friese, M. E. J.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct Observation of Transfer of Angular Momentum to Absorptive Particles from a Laser Beam with a Phase Singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcés-Chávez, V.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419(6903), 145–147 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gelles, J.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldstein, L. S. B.

S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead Movement by Single Kinesin Molecules Studied with Optical Tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Gutiérrez-Vega, J. C.

Harada, Y.

Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
[Crossref]

He, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct Observation of Transfer of Angular Momentum to Absorptive Particles from a Laser Beam with a Phase Singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heckenberg, N. R.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct Observation of Transfer of Angular Momentum to Absorptive Particles from a Laser Beam with a Phase Singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, K. K.

Jiang, Y. F.

Landick, R.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leseberg, D.

Li, P.

Liu, S.

Liu, Z. R.

Lu, X. H.

Mazilu, M.

M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles: a review,” J. Nanophotonics 2, (2008).

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optically mediated particle clearing using Airy wavepackets,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 675–678 (2008).
[Crossref]

McGloin, D.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419(6903), 145–147 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melville, H.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419(6903), 145–147 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mills, M. S.

Ohta, A. T.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papazoglou, D. G.

Prakash, J.

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct Observation of Transfer of Angular Momentum to Absorptive Particles from a Laser Beam with a Phase Singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sand, D.

Schnapp, B. J.

S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead Movement by Single Kinesin Molecules Studied with Optical Tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419(6903), 145–147 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simmons, R. M.

L. Tskhovrebova, J. Trinick, J. A. Sleep, and R. M. Simmons, “Elasticity and unfolding of single molecules of the giant muscle protein titin,” Nature 387(6630), 308–312 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sleep, J. A.

L. Tskhovrebova, J. Trinick, J. A. Sleep, and R. M. Simmons, “Elasticity and unfolding of single molecules of the giant muscle protein titin,” Nature 387(6630), 308–312 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trinick, J.

L. Tskhovrebova, J. Trinick, J. A. Sleep, and R. M. Simmons, “Elasticity and unfolding of single molecules of the giant muscle protein titin,” Nature 387(6630), 308–312 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tskhovrebova, L.

L. Tskhovrebova, J. Trinick, J. A. Sleep, and R. M. Simmons, “Elasticity and unfolding of single molecules of the giant muscle protein titin,” Nature 387(6630), 308–312 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tzortzakis, S.

Wang, L. G.

Wang, L. Q.

Wang, M.

Wang, M. D.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M. C.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, H.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zemanek, P.

P. Zemanek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Q. W.

Q. W. Zhan, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(3), 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, C. L.

Zhao, D. M.

Zhao, J.

Zhu, S. Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

B. T. Draine, “The Discrete-Dipole Approximation and Its Application to Interstellar Graphite Grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (1)

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Q. W. Zhan, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(3), 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optically mediated particle clearing using Airy wavepackets,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 675–678 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (5)

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419(6903), 145–147 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead Movement by Single Kinesin Molecules Studied with Optical Tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tskhovrebova, J. Trinick, J. A. Sleep, and R. M. Simmons, “Elasticity and unfolding of single molecules of the giant muscle protein titin,” Nature 387(6630), 308–312 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Zemanek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (9)

C. L. Zhao and Y. J. Cai, “Trapping two types of particles using a focused partially coherent elegant Laguerre-Gaussian beam,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2251–2253 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wang, C. L. Zhao, L. Q. Wang, X. H. Lu, and S. Y. Zhu, “Effect of spatial coherence on radiation forces acting on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1393–1395 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Chremmos, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Pre-engineered abruptly autofocusing beams,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1890–1892 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, M. Wang, P. Li, P. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Abrupt polarization transition of vector autofocusing Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2416–2418 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zhang, J. Prakash, Z. Zhang, M. S. Mills, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. G. Chen, “Trapping and guiding microparticles with morphing autofocusing Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2883–2885 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a Single-Beam Gradient Force Optical Trap for Dielectric Particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Efremidis and D. N. Christodoulides, “Abruptly autofocusing waves,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 4045–4047 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Papazoglou, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and S. Tzortzakis, “Observation of abruptly autofocusing waves,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1842–1844 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Chremmos, P. Zhang, J. Prakash, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. G. Chen, “Fourier-space generation of abruptly autofocusing beams and optical bottle beams,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3675–3677 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optical manipulation of nanoparticles: a review (1)

M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles: a review,” J. Nanophotonics 2, (2008).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct Observation of Transfer of Angular Momentum to Absorptive Particles from a Laser Beam with a Phase Singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 826–829 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

O. Vallée and M. Soares, Airy Functions and Applications to Physics, (Imperial College, 2004).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, (Roberts & Company Publishers, 2005).

F. W. Olver, D. W. Lozier, R. F. Boisvert, and C. W. Clark, The NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions, (Cambridge University Press, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Comparison about the intensity of the CAB in the beam center of the paraxial and the non-paraxial propagation results. (a) s = 5 μ m , (b) s = 1 μ m .
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The distribution of the radiation force on the Rayleigh particle with np = 1.59. (a) The longitudinal gradient force; (b) the scattering force, (c) the sum of the gradient force and the scattering force, the inset figure shows the positions of za, zb and zc. (d) The transverse gradient force at za = 981 μ m ; (e) the transverse gradient force at zb = 1038 μ m , (f) the transverse gradient force of zc = 1076 μ m .
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The distribution of the radiation force on the Rayleigh particle with np = 1.00. (a) The sum of the gradient force and the scattering force. (b) The transverse gradient force at zb = 1038 μ m .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The distributions of radiation forces with different parameters exerted on the Rayleigh particle with np = 1.59. (a)The longitudinal radiation forces with different a, while s = 5um, r0 = 50um; (b) the transverse gradient forces at the first equilibrium point in Fig. 4(a). (c) The longitudinal radiation forces with different r0, while a = 0.08, s = 5um; (d) the transverse gradient forces at the first equilibrium points in Fig. 4(c). (e) The longitudinal gradient forces with different s, while a = 0.08, r0 = 50um; (f) the transvers gradient forces at the first equilibrium points in Fig. 4(e).

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( r , z = 0 ) = A i ( r 0 r s ) exp ( a r 0 r s ) ,
E ( r , φ , z ) = E x ( r , z ) x ^ + E z ( r , φ , z ) z ^ ,
E x ( r , z ) = 2 π 0 g ˜ ( k ) J 0 ( 2 π k r ) e 2 i π z k z k d k ,
g ˜ ( k ) = 2 π 0 E ( r , 0 ) J 0 ( 2 π k r ) r d r ,
E z ( r , φ , z ) = 0 2 π 0 k cos θ k z g ˜ ( k ) e i 2 π [ k z z + k r cos ( θ φ ) ] k d k d θ = 0 k 2 2 k z g ˜ ( k ) e i 2 π k z z ( 0 2 π e i 2 π k r cos ( θ φ ) + i θ d θ + 0 2 π e i 2 π k r cos ( θ φ ) i θ d θ ) d k = i 2 π 0 k 2 k z g ˜ ( k ) e i 2 π k z z J 1 ( 2 π k r ) d k cos φ ,
E ( r , z ) = 2 i π λ z exp ( i π r 2 2 λ z ) 0 A i ( r 0 r s ) exp ( a r 0 r s ) exp ( i π r 2 2 λ z ) J 0 ( 2 π r r λ z ) r d r ,
E ( 0 , z ) = 2 i π λ z A i ( r 0 r s ) exp ( a r 0 r s ) exp ( i π r 2 λ z ) r d r .
φ β ( y ) = 1 β e x 2 A i ( y x β ) d x = π β exp [ 1 4 β 3 ( y + 1 24 β 3 ) ] A i ( y β + 1 16 β 4 ) ,
1 β x e x 2 A i ( y x β ) d x = y φ β ( y ) + α 3 φ β ( y ) ,
E ( 0 , z ) = π exp ( P 1 ) [ A i ( P 2 ) ( 1 4 s 3 c 3 / 2 b c 1 / 2 ) A i ( P 2 ) s c 1 / 2 ] exp ( c b 2 + a r 0 s ) ,
P 1 = r 0 + b 4 c s 3 + 1 96 c 3 s 6 , P 2 = r 0 + b s + 1 16 c 2 s 4 .
α = 4 π R 3 ε p ε m ε p + 2 ε m ,
F g = 1 4 ε 0 ε m Re ( α ) | E 2 | ,
F s = ε 0 ε m 3 k 0 4 12 π | α 2 | | E 2 | ,
R = exp ( U / k B T ) 1 ,
U = 1 4 ε 0 ε m Re ( α ) Δ ( E 2 )

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