Abstract

We demonstrate low-loss splicing between a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and a single-mode fiber (SMF) with a conventional electric-arc fusion splicer, where nitrogen gas (N2) with a proper pressure is pumped into the air holes of the PCF to control the air-hole collapse ratio so as to optimize the mode-field match at the joint. The method is applicable to both solid-core and hollow-core PCFs. With this method, we achieve a splice loss (measured at 1550 nm) of ~0.40 dB for a solid-core PCF and ~1.05 dB for a hollow-core PCF. The method could find wide applications in the fabrication of PCF-based devices.

©2012 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Photonic crystal fiber (PCF), which consists of a large number of regular air holes running along the fiber, has gained much attention because it can be designed to yield many useful properties, such as endless single-mode operation, flexible dispersion control, extremely high or low nonlinearity, and high birefringence [15]. These properties can be explored for implementing new fiber devices for many applications. To integrate PCFs into fiber communication or sensing systems, robust low-loss splicing of PCFs to single-mode fibers (SMFs) is required. Since the first demonstration of splicing between a PCF and a SMF [6], many splicing techniques have been reported, including the use of a filament splicer, a CO2 laser, and gradient-index fiber lenses [710]. Bourliaguet et al. reported a 0.7 − 1.1 dB splice loss for a solid-core PCF by using an arc of short duration and weak power [11]. Thapa et al. reported a 1.5 − 2.0 dB splice loss by offset electrode arc discharge [12]. Xiao et al. applied repeated arc discharges on the joint to gradually collapse the air holes of a PCF [13] and achieved splice losses of 0.9 − 1.41 dB and 1.45 − 2.01 dB for solid-core and hollow-core PCFs, respectively. Recently, splicing of a polarization-maintaining PCF to a SMF with an arc fusion splicer was reported, where a low splice loss was achieved by matching the mode-field diameters (MFDs) of the two fibers [14]. Splicing with a CO2 laser to control the air-hole collapse was also demonstrated, which can give an exceptionally low loss for a solid-core PCF [15]. However, the method introduces polarization-dependent loss and cannot be applied to a hollow-core PCF.

The factors that contribute to the splice loss include the transverse offset, the angular misalignment, the mode-field mismatch, and the deformation of the fiber structure [16]. For fusion splicing between a PCF and a SMF, the mode-field mismatch and the air-hole collapse during splicing are the two main factors. Air-hole collapse, in particular, may destroy the light guiding property of the PCF and significantly increase the loss [17]. Under certain conditions, however, a collapse of the air holes can help to reduce the mode-field mismatch and thus lower the loss. For a hollow-core PCF, where light is guided along the central hole of the fiber by the bandgap effect, air-hole collapse must be avoided.

In this paper, we propose a method of splicing between a PCF and a SMF, where nitrogen gas (N2) is pumped into the air holes of the PCF during fusion discharge to help reduce the splice loss. We tried two popular PCFs from NKT Photonics: a solid-core PCF (ESM-12-01), which can provide endless single-mode operation, and a hollow-core PCF (HC-1550-2), which guides light on the principle of the photonic bandgap effect. The SMF used was a telecommunication fiber from Corning (SMF-28e). With our method, the air-hole collapse ratio of the PCF can be efficiently controlled or avoided by adjusting the N2 pressure, which thus allows a more precise control of the MFD of the fiber and hence leads to a lower splice loss.

2. Principle of low-loss splicing

The PCF/SMF splice loss is mainly caused by the MFD mismatch. It is possible to match the MFDs of a SMF and a solid-core PCF by collapsing the air holes of the PCF [13]. In the splicing process, the air holes of the PCF shrink and the relation between the hole diameter d and the distance of the adjacent holes Λ is given by [18]

(ΛΛ0)2=32π4(d0Λ0)232π4(dΛ)2,
where d0 and Λ0 are the initial hole diameter and the pitch of the air holes, respectively. The MFD of a solid-core PCF, denoted by 2ωPCF, increases approximately linearly with the pitch Λ and decreases with an increase in d/Λ, and the relation can be expressed by [19]
ωPCF=[0.549(dΛ)+0.8562]Λ+[0.01298(dΛ)-3+0.07]
According to Eq. (1) and Eq. (2), we get
dΛ=d0(1r)Λ013π6(d0Λ0)2+3π6[d0(1r)Λ0]2,
where r is the collapse ratio of the air holes given by r = (d0d)/d0 with 0 ≤ r ≤ 1. We can estimate the butt coupling loss α between the SMF and the PCF by [20]
 α=20log2ωSMFωPCFωSMF2+ωPCF2,
where 2ωSMF is the MFD of the SMF. We can now calculate d/Λ, MFD, and α by varying the collapse ratio r. The results calculated for the solid-core PCF ESM-12-01 are shown in Fig. 1 (see Table 1 for the fiber parameters).

 

Fig. 1 The relationship between collapse ratio, d/Λ, and MFD for the solid-core PCF ESM-12-01, where the inset shows the dependence of the butt coupling loss on the collapse ratio.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of the fibers used in the study at 1550 nm

The MFD of the SMF SMF-28e is about 10 μm. According to Fig. 1, the enlarged mode field of the PCF can match that of the SMF when the hole collapse ratio is 0.5 – 0.6. Figure 2(a) shows schematically how the hole collapse can lead to a change of the MFD of the PCF. As shown in Fig. 2(a), the PCF experiences a smooth transition after arc discharge because of the longitudinally decreasing temperature, which makes the holes collapse gradually along the fiber. As a result, the MFD of the PCF increases gradually from its original value to a value that can match with that of the SMF at the joint. The idea of realizing the MFD match by hole collapse has been achieved by several methods [12,13,21]. In general, both the outer diameter and the pitch shrink longitudinally [21], which is not desirable. Our method can provide a better control of the MFD of the PCF and yet does not lead to a significant change in the outer diameter.

 

Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams showing (a) a splice between a SMF and a solid-core PCF, where the MFD of the PCF undergoes a smooth transition due to hole collapse and (b) a splice between a SMF and a hollow-core fiber without hole collapse.

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We simulate the splice between the SMF and the solid-core PCF with a full-vector beam propagation method (OptiBPM, Optiwave inc.). The variation of the splice loss with the transition length at different collapse ratios at the wavelength 1550 nm are shown in Fig. 3(a) . We find that the loss is lowest when the transition length is around 20 μm, which can be achieved with a collapse ratio in the range [0.457, 0.592], in agreement with the results shown in Fig. 1. We also calculate the spectral dependence of the loss. The results are shown in Fig. 3(b), which assumes a transition length of 21.6 μm and a collapse ratio of 0.293. The oscillations shown in Fig. 3(b) suggest that the MFD of the SMF and the PCF have different spectral dependences. Nevertheless, by properly controlling the hole collapse ratio and the transition length, it is possible to achieve a low splice loss over a wide wavelength range.

 

Fig. 3 (a) Variation of the splice loss with the transition length at different collapse ratios and (b) spectral variation of the splice loss at a transition length of 21.6 μm and a collapse ratio of 0.293 for splicing between SMF-28e and the solid-core PCF ESM-12-01.

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For a hollow-core PCF, where light is confined in the central hole by the photonic bandgap effect, fusion splicing can easily destroy the bandgap structure of the fiber and introduce a large loss. To achieve a low splice loss, it is necessary to maintain the structure of the fiber as much as possible, which means that no air-hole collapse should be allowed, as shown schematically in Fig. 2(b). To confirm this, we simulate the splice between the SMF and the hollow-core PCF HC-1550-2 with OptiBPM (see Table 1 for the fiber parameters). The variation of the splice loss with the collapse ratio for different transition lengths at the wavelength of 1550 nm are shown in Fig. 4 . The lowest loss occurs at a zero collapse ratio, i.e., when there is no hole collapse.

 

Fig. 4 Variation of the splice loss with the air-hole collapse ratio at different transition lengths for splicing between SMF-28e and the hollow-core PCF HC-1550-2.

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From the simulation, we know that the key to achieve low-loss splicing between a SMF and a PCF is to control the joint profile. For the solid-core PCF, we should control the collapse of the holes to obtain a suitable transition length, whereas, for the hollow-core PCF, we should avoid the collapse of the holes. However, during arc discharge, the surface tension of the glass-air interface in the microstructure region offers less resistance to deformation than that of the solid glass in the outer cladding of the PCF, so a recess is formed at the end side of the fiber, which leads to deformation of the holes [22]. To solve this problem, we propose pumping N2 into the air holes of the PCF during splicing. The idea is to control the pressure in the holes so that the collapse of the holes can be controlled or avoided.

2. Experiments and discussion

The parameters of the fibers used in our study (SMF-28e, ESM-12-01, and HC-1550-02) are given in Table 1. Figure 5(a) and Fig. 5(b) show the scanning electronic micrographs (SEM) of the cross sections of ESM-12-01 and HC-1550-02 PCFs, respectively.

 

Fig. 5 SEM images of (a) ESM-12-01 and (b) HC-1550-02. (c) Experimental setup for the splicing.

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In our experiments, we sealed the PCF at one end with the SMF and pumped dry N2 into the PCF from the other end with a gas flow controller to introduce pressure in the air holes of the PCF, as shown in Fig. 5(c). We used a fusion splicer (Furukawa Electric Co., S176) to do the splicing. The parameters of the fusion splicer setting we used for the two PCFs are given in Table 2 . To measure the splice loss, we launched continuous-wave laser light into the SMF and measured the output power from the PCF (which was about 1-m long) with an optical power meter (Newport, 1830-C). We did 16 splices for each gas pressure and repeated the experiments at different gas pressures.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Setting parameters of the S176 fusion splicer

The results measured at 1550 nm are shown in Fig. 6(a) and Fig. 6(b) for ESM-12-01 and HC-1550-02, respectively, where the splice loss at each gas pressure is the average of 16 splices. The minimum splice loss for the solid-core PCF ESM-12-01 is 0.40 ± 0.05 dB at a pressure of ~1.3 bar, while the minimum splice loss for the hollow-core PCF HC-1550-2 is 1.05 ± 0.05 dB at a pressure of ~1.7 bar. The side views of several splices are shown in Fig. 7 . As shown in Fig. 7(a), the air holes of the solid-core PCF can be collapsed to a desired ratio at a proper pressure (1.34 bar). On the other hand, as shown in Fig. 7(c), a proper pressure (1.65 bar) can also prevent the air holes of the hollow-core PCF from collapsing. Without applying any pressure to the air holes, however, the air holes in both PCFs are almost completely collapsed, as shown in Fig. 7(b) and (d). By the way, the very low splice loss could be easily achieved from the SMF to the PCFs direction. In our experiment, the splice loss could be 0.1 ± 0.05dB and 0.3 ± 0.05dB for solid core PCF/SMF and hollow core PCF/SMF, respectively.

 

Fig. 6 The splice loss varying with pressure for (a) ESM-12-01 and (b) HC-1550-02, respectively.

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Fig. 7 Splice of ESM-12-01 to SMF-28e at a pressure of (a) 1.34 bar and (b) 1.01 bar (ambient). Splice of HC-1550-02 to SMF at a pressure of (c) 1.65 bar and (d) 1.01 bar (ambient).

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We calculate the optical mode-field distributions of ESM-12-01 and HC-1550-02 with different air-hole collapse ratios with a mode solver (COMSOL). The results are shown in Fig. 8 . As shown in Figs. 8(a) and 8(b), the MFD of ESM-12-01 is enlarged from ~6 μm to ~11 μm, when the collapse ratio changes from 0% to 60%. On the other hand, as shown in Figs. 8(c) and 8(d), a collapse ratio of just 10% is sufficient to destroy the mode in HC-1550-02, which confirms the need of maintaining the sizes of the holes in a hollow-core PCF during splicing. As shown by our experiments, the application of a proper pressure to the air holes of a hollow-core PCF can prevent the air holes from collapsing.

 

Fig. 8 Optical mode-field distributions of (a) ESM-12-01 with 0% hole collapse ratio, (b) ESM-12-01 with 60% hole collapse ratio, (c) HC-1550-02 with 0% hole collapse ratio, and (d) HC-1550-02 with 10% hole collapse ratio.

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4. Conclusions

We have demonstrated an effective method for low-loss splicing between a SMF and a PCF. The method relies on pumping N2 into the air holes of the PCF during fusion splicing to control the air-hole collapse ratio of the PCF. In the case of a solid-core PCF, the pressure can be controlled to achieve the desired collapse ratio and hence the MFD required to best match with the SMF. In the case of a hollow-core PCF, the pressure can be adjusted to prevent the air holes of the fiber from collapsing, which is essential for achieving a low splice loss for such a fiber. Using this method, we have achieved a splice loss of ~0.40 dB for a solid-core PCF (ESM-12-01) and ~1.05 dB for a hollow-core PCF (HC-1550-02), when splicing the PCF to a conventional SMF (SMF-28e). The method should be useful for the development of PCF-based devices for application in optical communication and sensing systems.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61007049 and 60807019, and the Program for NCET (Grant No. NCET-08-0602).

References and links

1. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]  

2. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,’,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 807–809 (2000). [CrossRef]  

4. J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. P. J. Bennett, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “Toward practical holey fiber technology: fabrication, splicing, modeling, and characterization,” Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1203–1205 (1999). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and Single-Mode Fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009). [CrossRef]  

8. J. T. Lizier and G. E. Town, “Splice losses in holey optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(3), 466–467 (2001).

9. J. H. Chong and M. K. Rao, “Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1365–1370 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise, “Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 118–120 (2005). [CrossRef]  

11. B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Emond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, and R. Vallée, “Microstructured fiber splicing,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3412–3417 (2003). [PubMed]  

12. R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, and B. R. Washburn, “Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for gas-filled fiber cells,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9576–9583 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. L. M. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. P. Wang, and C. L. Zhao, “Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3563–3574 (2007). [CrossRef]  

14. J. T. Kristensen, A. Houmann, X. M. Liu, and D. Turchinovich, “Low-loss polarization-maintaining fusion splicing of single-mode fibers and hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, relevant for monolithic fiber laser pulse compression,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9986–9995 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. G. Fu, W. Jin, X. Fu, and W. Bi, “Air-holes collapse properties of photonic crystal fiber in heating process by CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Jour. 4(3), 1028–1034 (2012). [CrossRef]  

16. A. Ishikura, Y. Kato, T. Ooyanagi, and M. Myauchi, “Loss factors analysis for single-mode fiber splicing without core axis alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(4), 577–583 (1989). [CrossRef]  

17. L. Xiao, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Fusion splicing small-core photonic crystal fibers and single mode fibers by repeated arc discharges,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 115–117 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Reduction of coupling loss to photonic crystal fibers by controlled hole collapse: a numerical study,” Opt. Commun. 237(4-6), 431–435 (2004). [CrossRef]  

19. J. Ju, W. Jin, Y. L. Hoo, and M. S. Demokan, “A simple method for estimating the splice loss of photonic-crystal fiber/single-mode fiber,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 42(2), 171–173 (2004). [CrossRef]  

20. Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009). [CrossRef]  

21. G. E. Town and J. T. Lizier, “Tapered holey fibers for spot-size and numerical-aperture conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26(14), 1042–1044 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,’,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 807–809 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. P. J. Bennett, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “Toward practical holey fiber technology: fabrication, splicing, modeling, and characterization,” Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1203–1205 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and Single-Mode Fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. T. Lizier and G. E. Town, “Splice losses in holey optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(3), 466–467 (2001).
  9. J. H. Chong and M. K. Rao, “Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1365–1370 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise, “Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 118–120 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Emond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, and R. Vallée, “Microstructured fiber splicing,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3412–3417 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  12. R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, and B. R. Washburn, “Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for gas-filled fiber cells,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9576–9583 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. L. M. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. P. Wang, and C. L. Zhao, “Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3563–3574 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. T. Kristensen, A. Houmann, X. M. Liu, and D. Turchinovich, “Low-loss polarization-maintaining fusion splicing of single-mode fibers and hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, relevant for monolithic fiber laser pulse compression,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9986–9995 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. G. Fu, W. Jin, X. Fu, and W. Bi, “Air-holes collapse properties of photonic crystal fiber in heating process by CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Jour. 4(3), 1028–1034 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Ishikura, Y. Kato, T. Ooyanagi, and M. Myauchi, “Loss factors analysis for single-mode fiber splicing without core axis alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(4), 577–583 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. Xiao, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Fusion splicing small-core photonic crystal fibers and single mode fibers by repeated arc discharges,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 115–117 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Reduction of coupling loss to photonic crystal fibers by controlled hole collapse: a numerical study,” Opt. Commun. 237(4-6), 431–435 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Ju, W. Jin, Y. L. Hoo, and M. S. Demokan, “A simple method for estimating the splice loss of photonic-crystal fiber/single-mode fiber,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 42(2), 171–173 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  20. Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. E. Town and J. T. Lizier, “Tapered holey fibers for spot-size and numerical-aperture conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26(14), 1042–1044 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

G. Fu, W. Jin, X. Fu, and W. Bi, “Air-holes collapse properties of photonic crystal fiber in heating process by CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Jour. 4(3), 1028–1034 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and Single-Mode Fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise, “Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 118–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Reduction of coupling loss to photonic crystal fibers by controlled hole collapse: a numerical study,” Opt. Commun. 237(4-6), 431–435 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, W. Jin, Y. L. Hoo, and M. S. Demokan, “A simple method for estimating the splice loss of photonic-crystal fiber/single-mode fiber,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 42(2), 171–173 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

2001 (2)

J. T. Lizier and G. E. Town, “Splice losses in holey optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(3), 466–467 (2001).

G. E. Town and J. T. Lizier, “Tapered holey fibers for spot-size and numerical-aperture conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26(14), 1042–1044 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,’,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1989 (1)

A. Ishikura, Y. Kato, T. Ooyanagi, and M. Myauchi, “Loss factors analysis for single-mode fiber splicing without core axis alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(4), 577–583 (1989).
[Crossref]

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,’,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, P. J.

Bi, W.

G. Fu, W. Jin, X. Fu, and W. Bi, “Air-holes collapse properties of photonic crystal fiber in heating process by CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Jour. 4(3), 1028–1034 (2012).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,’,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bise, R. T.

A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise, “Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 118–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bjarklev, A.

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Reduction of coupling loss to photonic crystal fibers by controlled hole collapse: a numerical study,” Opt. Commun. 237(4-6), 431–435 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bourliaguet, B.

Chong, J. H.

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Croteau, A.

Demokan, M. S.

Dong, L.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and Single-Mode Fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[Crossref]

Duan, K.

Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
[Crossref]

Emond, F.

Fu, G.

G. Fu, W. Jin, X. Fu, and W. Bi, “Air-holes collapse properties of photonic crystal fiber in heating process by CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Jour. 4(3), 1028–1034 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fu, L. B.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and Single-Mode Fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

G. Fu, W. Jin, X. Fu, and W. Bi, “Air-holes collapse properties of photonic crystal fiber in heating process by CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Jour. 4(3), 1028–1034 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hoo, Y. L.

J. Ju, W. Jin, Y. L. Hoo, and M. S. Demokan, “A simple method for estimating the splice loss of photonic-crystal fiber/single-mode fiber,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 42(2), 171–173 (2004).
[Crossref]

Houmann, A.

Ishikura, A.

A. Ishikura, Y. Kato, T. Ooyanagi, and M. Myauchi, “Loss factors analysis for single-mode fiber splicing without core axis alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(4), 577–583 (1989).
[Crossref]

Jin, W.

G. Fu, W. Jin, X. Fu, and W. Bi, “Air-holes collapse properties of photonic crystal fiber in heating process by CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Jour. 4(3), 1028–1034 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. M. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. P. Wang, and C. L. Zhao, “Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3563–3574 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Xiao, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Fusion splicing small-core photonic crystal fibers and single mode fibers by repeated arc discharges,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 115–117 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, W. Jin, Y. L. Hoo, and M. S. Demokan, “A simple method for estimating the splice loss of photonic-crystal fiber/single-mode fiber,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 42(2), 171–173 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ju, J.

J. Ju, W. Jin, Y. L. Hoo, and M. S. Demokan, “A simple method for estimating the splice loss of photonic-crystal fiber/single-mode fiber,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 42(2), 171–173 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kato, Y.

A. Ishikura, Y. Kato, T. Ooyanagi, and M. Myauchi, “Loss factors analysis for single-mode fiber splicing without core axis alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(4), 577–583 (1989).
[Crossref]

Knabe, K.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,’,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kristensen, J. T.

Lægsgaard, J.

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Reduction of coupling loss to photonic crystal fibers by controlled hole collapse: a numerical study,” Opt. Commun. 237(4-6), 431–435 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. M.

Liu, Z.

Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lizier, J. T.

G. E. Town and J. T. Lizier, “Tapered holey fibers for spot-size and numerical-aperture conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26(14), 1042–1044 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Lizier and G. E. Town, “Splice losses in holey optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(3), 466–467 (2001).

Lu, C.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and Single-Mode Fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mangan, B. J.

Monro, T. M.

Myauchi, M.

A. Ishikura, Y. Kato, T. Ooyanagi, and M. Myauchi, “Loss factors analysis for single-mode fiber splicing without core axis alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(4), 577–583 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ooyanagi, T.

A. Ishikura, Y. Kato, T. Ooyanagi, and M. Myauchi, “Loss factors analysis for single-mode fiber splicing without core axis alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(4), 577–583 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,’,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Paré, C.

Proulx, A.

Rao, M. K.

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. S. J.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Tam, H. Y.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and Single-Mode Fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thapa, R.

Thomas, B. K.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and Single-Mode Fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[Crossref]

Town, G. E.

J. T. Lizier and G. E. Town, “Splice losses in holey optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(3), 466–467 (2001).

G. E. Town and J. T. Lizier, “Tapered holey fibers for spot-size and numerical-aperture conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26(14), 1042–1044 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tse, M. L. V.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and Single-Mode Fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[Crossref]

Turchinovich, D.

Vallée, R.

Wadsworth, W. J.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,’,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wai, P. K. A.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and Single-Mode Fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. P.

Washburn, B. R.

Xiao, L.

Xiao, L. M.

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yablon, A. D.

A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise, “Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 118–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. L.

Zhao, W.

Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Jour. (1)

G. Fu, W. Jin, X. Fu, and W. Bi, “Air-holes collapse properties of photonic crystal fiber in heating process by CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Jour. 4(3), 1028–1034 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise, “Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 118–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,’,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and Single-Mode Fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. T. Lizier and G. E. Town, “Splice losses in holey optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(3), 466–467 (2001).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Ju, W. Jin, Y. L. Hoo, and M. S. Demokan, “A simple method for estimating the splice loss of photonic-crystal fiber/single-mode fiber,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 42(2), 171–173 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Reduction of coupling loss to photonic crystal fibers by controlled hole collapse: a numerical study,” Opt. Commun. 237(4-6), 431–435 (2004).
[Crossref]

Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The relationship between collapse ratio, d/Λ, and MFD for the solid-core PCF ESM-12-01, where the inset shows the dependence of the butt coupling loss on the collapse ratio.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams showing (a) a splice between a SMF and a solid-core PCF, where the MFD of the PCF undergoes a smooth transition due to hole collapse and (b) a splice between a SMF and a hollow-core fiber without hole collapse.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Variation of the splice loss with the transition length at different collapse ratios and (b) spectral variation of the splice loss at a transition length of 21.6 μm and a collapse ratio of 0.293 for splicing between SMF-28e and the solid-core PCF ESM-12-01.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Variation of the splice loss with the air-hole collapse ratio at different transition lengths for splicing between SMF-28e and the hollow-core PCF HC-1550-2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM images of (a) ESM-12-01 and (b) HC-1550-02. (c) Experimental setup for the splicing.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The splice loss varying with pressure for (a) ESM-12-01 and (b) HC-1550-02, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Splice of ESM-12-01 to SMF-28e at a pressure of (a) 1.34 bar and (b) 1.01 bar (ambient). Splice of HC-1550-02 to SMF at a pressure of (c) 1.65 bar and (d) 1.01 bar (ambient).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Optical mode-field distributions of (a) ESM-12-01 with 0% hole collapse ratio, (b) ESM-12-01 with 60% hole collapse ratio, (c) HC-1550-02 with 0% hole collapse ratio, and (d) HC-1550-02 with 10% hole collapse ratio.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the fibers used in the study at 1550 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Setting parameters of the S176 fusion splicer

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( Λ Λ 0 ) 2 = 3 2 π 4 ( d 0 Λ 0 ) 2 3 2 π 4 ( d Λ ) 2 ,
ω PCF =[0.549( d Λ )+0.8562]Λ+[0.01298( d Λ ) -3 +0.07]
d Λ = d 0 (1r) Λ 0 1 3 π 6 ( d 0 Λ 0 ) 2 + 3 π 6 [ d 0 (1r) Λ 0 ] 2 ,
 α=20log 2 ω SMF ω PCF ω SMF 2 + ω PCF 2 ,

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