We theoretically study optical transmission characteristics of wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) and polarization-multiplexed (POLMUX) signals using high-order optical quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) formats up to 256. First, we conduct intensive computer simulations on bit-error rates (BERs) in WDM POLMUX QAM transmission systems and find maximum transmission distances under the influence of nonlinear impairments. Next, to elucidate the physics behind such nonlinear transmission characteristics, we calculate the distribution of constellation points for QAM signals as functions of the the launched power, the transmission distance, and the symbol rate. These results lead to a closed-form formula for BER of any QAM formats. From such formula, we derive simple laws that determine the maximum transmission distance and the optimum power as functions of the QAM order and the symbol rate. These laws can well explain the simulation results.
©2011 Optical Society of America
High-order optical quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) formats, such as 16, 64, and 256QAM, have attracted significant attention because of their spectrally-efficient transmission characteristics in dense wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) as well as polarization multiplexing (POLMUX) environments [1–3]. The recent development of digital coherent optical receivers may enable the use of such sophisticated modulation formats in the near future [4,5]. We have theoretically shown that 16QAM signals at 12.5 Gsymbol/s can be placed on the 25-GHz-spaced grid, and ultra long-haul transmission of 2,000 km with the spectral efficiency as high as 4 bit/s/Hz is possible even under the influence of self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) between WDM and POLMUX channels . Although the spectral efficiency can potentially be improved with higher-order QAM formats such as 64QAM and 256QAM, their transmission characteristics may suffer more seriously from nonlinear impairments due to SPM and XPM; however, neither experiments nor theoretical works have been reported so far.
This paper aims at analyzing the performance of WDM POLMUX high-order QAM transmission in a systematic manner. We assume that the dispersion-unmanaged link consists only of large-core single-mode fibers (SMFs), whereas the accumulated group-velocity dispersion (GVD) is fully compensated for at the digital coherent receiver. First, we conduct intensive computer simulations on bit-error rates (BERs) in WDM POLMUX QAM transmission systems and find maximum transmission distances under the influence of nonlinear impairments. Next, to elucidate the physics behind such nonlinear transmission characteristics, we calculate the distribution of constellation points for a 4QAM signal as functions of the the launched power, the transmission distance, and the symbol rate. These calculation results clearly show that waveform distortion stemming from the interplay between GVD and nonlinearity of fibers generates the Gaussian distribution for the constellation points. The variance of such Gaussian distribution is proportional to the transmission distance and the cube of the launched power, while it is independent of the symbol rate. The extension of these results to higher-order QAM formats leads to a closed-form formula for BER. From this BER formula, we derive simple laws that express the maximum transmission distance and the optimum power as functions of the QAM order and the symbol rate. The validity of these laws are confirmed by the simulation results.
The organization of the paper is as follows: In Sec. 2, we describe the simulation model of the transmission system and the digital coherent receiver. Section 3 presents simulation results on WDM POLMUX 4QAM, 16QAM, 64QAM and 256QAM transmission characteristics. Section 4 discusses how the distribution of constellation points of a 4QAM signal spreads out through GVD and nonlinearity of fibers for transmission. In Sec. 5, using the results obtained in Sec. 4, we derive closed-form formula for BER of QAM signals in WDM and POLMUX environments, which yields simple laws for high-order QAM transmission. Section 6 is the conclusion of the paper.
2. Simulation model
The model of the transmission system and the digital coherent receiver is shown in Fig. 1. The dispersion-unmanaged link has 80-km-long SMF spans. We assume large-core SMFs, which have the GVD value D of 19 ps/nm/km (β 2 = −24 ps2/km), the nonlinearity coefficient γ of 1.1 /W/km, and the loss coefficient α of 0.17 dB/km at the wavelength of 1550 nm .
We use the 50% return-to-zero (RZ) waveform for the envelope of the complex amplitude of the signal electric field.
Differentially-encoded optical QAM signals are filtered out by root Nyquist filters with the roll-off parameter of 0.3 before transmission. An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with the noise figure of 4 dB compensates for the loss of each span. Linewidths of transmitter lasers are assumed to be negligible in our calculations to investigate only the nonlinear effect. The WDM channel spacing is twice as large as the symbol rate, and the maximum number of WDM channels is five.
WDM POLMUX 4, 16, 64 and 256QAM transmission characteristics are numerically analyzed based on the two-mode nonlinear Schrödinger equations given as7].
At the receiver, the incoming signal of each polarization is detected with a phase-diversity homodyne receiver where the linewidth of a local laser is negligible. The received complex amplitude of each polarization tributary is filtered out by a root Nyquist filter with the roll-off parameter of 0.3 to select the center WDM channel. The accumulated GVD is compensated for by a fixed equalizer. After the data are resampled so as to keep one sample per symbol, the carrier phase is estimated by the 4-th power algorithm . Finally, a nine-tap FIR filter equalizes the signal in an adaptive manner based on the decision-directed least-mean-square (DD-LMS) algorithm. After the equalizing process is converged, we differentially decode the symbol and count the number of bit errors. The total number of symbols is 215 per channel. We have not introduced nonlinearity compensation based on the back-propagation method , because the real-time implementation of this method is very difficult due to huge computational complexity especially in WDM systems.
3. Simulation results
We calculate QAM transmission characteristics of a single channel, co-polarized three WDM channels, co-polarized five WDM channels, and POLMUX five WDM channels. We select the center WDM channel for BER estimation, which is most seriously affected by XPM between WDM channels. In the case of POLMUX transmission, we evaluate BERs of one of the two polarization tributaries. The number of spans n for each QAM format is determined such that the BER of the polarization tributary of the center WDM channels becomes lower than 10−3 at the optimum launched power, when POLMUX five WDM channels are transmitted.
Figures 2(a)–2(d) show BERs of 4QAM, 16QAM, 64QAM, and 256QAM signals, respectively, calculated as a function of the launched average power Pave. Powers of all channels are changed simultaneously. Green, red, black, and blue curves represent BERs when we transmit a single channel, co-polarized three WDM channels, co-polarized five WDM channels, and POLMUX five WDM channels, respectively. The symbol rate is 12.5 Gsymbol/s and the WDM channel spacing 25 GHz. Numbers of spans n corresponding to (a)–(d) are 160, 37, 10, and 3, respectively, resulting in total transmission distances of 12,800 km, 2,960 km, 800 km, and 240 km. Note that the optimum power is about −9 dBm ~ −8 dBm, which is almost common in all of the QAM orders. Above this value, the BER performance is degraded by nonlinear impairments stemming from SPM and XPM between WDM channels and POLMUX channels.
Dots in Fig. 3 show the maximum number of spans n as a function of the order of QAM m, when POLMUX five WDM channels are transmitted. We find that n is inversely proportional to m as seen from the solid line and that transmission distances of 64QAM and 256QAM systems are severely limited below 1,000 km.
Next, changing the symbol rate, we perform similar simulations. Figure 4 shows maximum numbers of spans n for 4, 16, 64, and 256QAM transmission as a function of the symbol rate B. Solid lines represent the slope of n ∝ B −2/3, which is in good agreement with simulation results in the range above 25 Gsymbol/s. On the other hand, the optimum launched power Popt to obtain the minimum BER for 4QAM is plotted as a function of the symbol rate B in Fig. 5. In higher-order QAM transmission systems, we have similar B-versus-Popt characteristics within the error range. The solid line represents the slope of Popt ∝ B 1/3. Simulation results differ from this line significantly in the range below 25 Gsymbol/s. The theoretical background for these dependencies on B will be discussed in Sec. 5 in detail.
4. Distribution of constellation points spread by nonlinear effects
In this section, to understand the physics behind the simulation results in Sec. 3, we discuss how constellation points of a 4QAM signal spread out by nonlinear effects. We consider transmission of five-channel WDM and POLMUX signals. The WDM channel spacing is twice as large as the symbol rate. The received complex amplitude is normalized such that the mean square of its absolute value is unity. In such a case, when the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) is high enough, the distance between constellation points is 2 as shown in Fig. 6, where stands for the variance of the distribution.
Let the symbol rate be 12.5 Gsymbol/s, the WDM channel spacing 25 GHz, and the number of spans 160. We consider the real part of the complex amplitude ranging from −2 to +2 in Fig. 6. This range is divided into 1,000 sections, and the number of data falling in each section is shown as a histogram for 215 sampled data. Black curves in Figs. 7(a), 7(b), and 7(c) show distributions of the real part of the received complex amplitude for launched average powers Pave of −14 dBm, −9 dBm, and −4 dBm, respectively. On the other hand, red curves are Gaussian distributions fitted to black ones.
When Pave =−14 dBm, the BER performance is determined by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from EDFAs as shown in Fig. 2(a). On the other hand, when Pave =−4 dBm, the BER performance is degraded by nonlinear effects. At an intermediate power such as Pave =−9 dBm, both of ASE and nonlinear effects spread out the distribution of constellation points. Note that distributions are Gaussian in all of the three cases.
Next, we calculate the variance of the Gaussian distribution as a function of the launched average power Pave. In Fig. 8, the blue curve is obtained when γ = 0 and ASE is included, i.e., the linear case, whereas the red curve are obtained when ASE is neglected and fiber nonlinearity is included i.e., the nonlinear case. The black curve is calculated when both of ASE and fiber nonlinearity are taken into account. Since the black curve is simply equal to the sum of the red and blue curves, we find that the nonlinear impairment stems from waveform distortion due to GVD and fiber nonlinearity rather than ASE noise enhanced by fiber nonlinearity, i.e., Gordon-Mollenauer phase noise . In the linear case, ASE determines the distribution of constellation points, and it follows that is inversely proportional to Pave. On the other hand, in the nonlinear case, we find that is proportional to . This fact is understood as follows: First, inter-symbol interference (ISI) due to GVD generates the power fluctuation δ P proportional to Pave in all of the channels. Then, SPM and XPM induces the phase fluctuation γδ P per unit length in the channel under consideration, which in turn spreads out the distribution of constellation points through GVD; thus, is proportional to (γ Pave)2.
We move on to the dependence of on the transmission distance. In this calculation, ASE is neglected and only fiber nonlinearity is taken into account. We demodulate the signal at the end of each span and obtain the distribution of constellation points, fixing the launched power Pave at −7 dBm. Figure 9 shows as a function of the transmission distance. The red curve and the black curve are those obtained when symbol rates are 100 Gsymbol/s and 12.5 Gsymbol/s, respectively. We find that is proportional to the number of spans n, as shown by blue fitted lines. This result shows that evolution of the complex amplitude along the link obeys the two-dimensional random-walk model: from one span to the next, the signal sequence takes a random step from its last position, which results in the linear increase in the variance as a function of the number of spans.
Finally, we discuss the symbol-rate-dependence of in the nonlinear case. Figure 10 shows as a function of the symbol rate, when the launched power Pave is −7 dBm, and the number of spans 100. The variance is almost constant when the symbol rate is larger than 25 Gsymbol/s; however, it increases significantly when the symbol rate is lower than 25 Gsymbol/s. This tendency is explained in terms of modulation instability . The bandwidth of modulation-instability gain is about 1 GHz in our case. Therefore, when B < 25 Gsymbol/s, the modulation-instability effect inside the signal bandwidth cannot be ignored, and the variance of the Gaussian distribution is enhanced.
In conclusion of Sec. 4, we have the following equation for :Fig. 10.
In  and , closed-form expressions of nonlinear ISI are derived. The dependence on n and Pave expressed by Eq. (3) is the same as that given in  and ; however, the dependence on B given by Eq. (3) is different from those derived in  and . This may be because modulation instability is not taken into consideration in these references.
5. BER formula for high-order QAM transmission systems
Based on Eq. (3), we derive a closed-form expression of BER. Let the minimum distance between QAM constellation points be 2δ and the variance of the distribution σ 2. In such a case, the bit-error rate for QAM signals is approximately given asEq. (3) as Eqs. (4), (5), (6), and (7) yield
From Eq. (8), we find that when
The analyses mentioned above lead to the following simple laws for QAM transmission in fixed WDM and POLMUX environments:
These laws can well explain simulation results given in Figs. 3, 4, and 5. Figure 3 shows that n ∝ m −1 when B is fixed. On the other hand, for a fixed m, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 lead to relations of n ∝ B −2/3 and Popt ∝ B 1/3, respectively, when B is larger than 50 Gsymbol/s. Deviations of simulation results from these relations at lower symbol rates are due to the fact that Cp in Eq. (3) is enhanced by modulation instability. It should be noted here that the larger GVD of fibers generally provides us with the better transmission performance because of the smaller bandwidth of modulation-instability gain.
Equation (8) is a closed-form BER formula applicable to WDM and POLMUX QAM transmission. Once Cp in Eq. (10) is determined from computer simulations in fixed WDM and POLMUX environments, we can calculate BER of any QAM formats using signal parameters (n, m, B, and Pave) and link parameters (L, G, nsp, and γ). For five-channel WDM and POLMUX transmission at 12.5 Gsymbol/s, which is discussed in Sec. 3, we need to use Cp=56.1 [km] read from Fig. 10. Then, BER curves calculated for 4QAM, 16QAM, 64QAM, and 256QAM are respectively shown by the black, red, blue, and green curves in Fig. 11. Numbers of spans are the same as those used in Sec. 3. Even using such a simple formula, we can obtain BER curves for any QAM formats which are in reasonable agreement with full simulation results given by Fig. 2.
We have analyzed the performance of WDM POLMUX high-order QAM transmission in a systematic manner. First, we conduct intensive computer simulations on BERs and find maximum transmission distances under the influence of nonlinear impairments. The maximum number of spans is inversely proportional to the order of QAM and transmission distances of 64QAM and 256QAM systems are severely limited below 1,000 km at 12.5 Gsymbol/s.
Next, to elucidate the physics behind such nonlinear transmission characteristics, we calculate the distribution of constellation points for QAM signals and find that waveform distortion stemming from the interplay between GVD and nonlinearity of fibers generates the Gaussian distribution for the constellation points. Using the dependence of the variance of such Gaussian distribution on the transmission distance, the launched power, and the symbol rate, we derive a closed-form expression of BER. This BER formula leads to simple laws that determine the maximum transmission distance and the optimum power for each QAM format as a function of the symbol rate.
This work was supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) ( 22246046), the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japan.
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