Abstract

New nonlinear crystals Na3La9O3(BO3)8 (abbreviated as NLBO) with desired morphologies, high quality and weight exceeding 40g have been grown along different directions, such as [001], [110], and [100], by top-seeded solution growth(TSSG) method. The refractive indices were accurately measured over the full transmission range, and the second-order nonlinear optical coefficients were determined by the Maker fringe technique. The optimal phase-matching (PM) conditions and the corresponding effective nonlinear coefficient were calculated for second harmonic generation (SHG) at different wavelengths. In order to confirm the correctness of our calculation, we also performed the SHG experiments under 1064 and 800 nm pumping, respectively. In addition, we directly compared the SHG performance of NLBO with that of LBO under the same experimental conditions with the 1064 nm pumping source. As the results, a conversion efficiency of 58.3% at 532 nm was obtained for NLBO, and whereas only 21.5% was obtained for LBO, indicating that NLBO is a highly attractive nonlinear material for frequency conversion of pulses into the visible and ultraviolet.

©2010 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Borate-based nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been used widely for frequency conversion in NLO devices and modern laser systems due to their excellent properties such as high laser damage threshold, high optical quality, high ultraviolet (UV) transparency and good chemical stability. In 1993, the anionic group theory and the corresponding molecular design system were developed by C. Chen, and which have greatly promoted the discovery of new borate NLO crystals, such as KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF), Sr2Be2B2O7 (SBBO) etc [1,2], By using these crystals, the range of laser wavelengths has been successfully expanded from the near infrared (IR) to the deep-UV spectral region. Recently, a new promising borate NLO crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8 (NLBO) was discovered in our group [3], and the parallel arrangements of their BO3 anionic groups are, according to the anionic group theory, favorable for producing large macroscopic second harmonic generation (SHG) coefficients. Subsequently P. Gravereau [4] prepared the single crystals by spontaneous crystallization and solved the structure by using X-ray data. NLBO crystallizes in the hexagonal system with space group P 6¯2m. It has excellent physical chemical features such as good mechanical properties, chemically very stable and free from moisture etc. which make it an attractive candidate for a wide range of frequency conversion applications in the visible and UV spectral regions. Since the discovery of this material, a number of experiments and theoretical calculations have been performed in it. These include: investigation of new fluxes for crystal growth [5,6], spectroscopic properties of rare-earth doped NLBO [7], and ab initio studies of its electronic structure etc [8], Despite the encouraging results, high quality crystals with large sizes are difficult to obtain, which therefore limit the optical applications of NLBO.

In this paper, we report that high quality and large bulk NLBO crystals with the desired morphologies have been successfully grown based on the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. The refractive indices were measured accurately over the full transmission range, and the second-order nonlinear optical coefficients were determined by the Maker fringe technique. We also present the numerical calculations of the optimal phase-matching(PM) conditions and the corresponding effective nonlinear coefficient. SHG experiments were also performed for the first time by a Ti:Sapphire laser with the central wavelength of 800 nm and a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with working wavelength 1064 nm, respectively. A conversion efficiency of 58.3% at 532 nm was obtained for NLBO, and whereas only 21.5% was obtained for LBO under the same experimental conditions. Our results confirm that NLBO is a new competitive candidate for SHG conversion applications.

2. Crystal Growth and Optical Homogeneity

Previous attempts to grow NLBO crystals were mentioned in Refs.5 and 6. However, at that time the crystals obtained were comparatively small sizes and poor quality, so they are difficult to meet the requirement of further characterization and optical applications. Recently, we optimized technological parameters of the equipments to improve the growth conditions. As a result, a series of even larger good quality bulk NLBO crystals with weight exceeding 40g have been successfully grown along different crystallographic directions, such as [001], [110], and [100] etc., respectively by TSSG method. As an example, the as-grown NLBO crystal with seed orientations along [210] directions is given in Fig. 1(a) . From this figure, we can see that the crystal has the good quality, and furthermore the morphologies were much more suitable for optical applications than those grown ever before.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) NLBO crystal grown along [210] directions; (b) The fitted dispersion curves of the NLBO prism over the full transmission range

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The optical homogeneity of a NLBO sample with dimensions of 8 × 6 × 1.45 mm3 was measured by a Veeco interferometer Wyko RTI 4100. The optical source in the instrument was a He–Ne laser of wavelength 633 nm and the incident beam laser was parallel to the crystal optical axis. The optical homogeneity characterized by the root-mean-squared of the gradient of refractive index was measured to be about 4.15 × 10−6 cm−1, indicating that the optical quality of this crystal was very good.

3. Measurements of the refractive indices

The refractive indices were measured by, up to now, the most accurate refractive index measurement system HR SpectroMaster UV-VIS-IR (Trioptics, Germany) at 12 different wavelengths over the full transmission range of NLBO. The sample was cut as right-angle prism with apex angle about 30° and kept at 21°C during the measurement. The experimental values with a high accuracy of 1 × 10−5 and calculated values of refractive indices are compared in Table 1 .

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of the refractive indices between the experimental and calculated values for NLBO

Figure 1(b) shows the fitted dispersion curves of the NLBO prism over the full transmission range, and the Sellmeier's equations fitted by the least squares fitting method were given as following:

ne2=3.1207853+0.02825765λ20.01475680.005254×λ2.no2=3.4339330+0.0350044λ20.01804030.014413×λ2.

4. Measurement of the NLO Coefficients

NLBO is a negative uniaxial optical crystal with space group P 6¯2m, so it has only one non-zero independent SHG coefficient, i.e. d 22, assuming Kleinman symmetry relations. Here the magnitude of the coefficient d 22 was determined by the Maker fringe technique. In this experiment the pulsed Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (Spectral Physics, Model, Pro 230) at 1064.2 nm with the pulse width 10ns and the repetition frequency 10Hz was used as the fundamental light source. The SH signal from the sample was selectively detected by the photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu, Model R105), averaged by the fast gated integrators and boxcar averagers (Stanford Research Systems), and then recorded. The sample was uncoated and cut along c directions with sizes of 6 × 8 × 1.45 mm3. Figure 2(a) shows the orientation of the c-cut NLBO sample to measure the Maker fringes of d 22, the E ω is the fundamental light and the E is the SH light. A KDP crystal was cut along [110] directions as the calibrated sample. The type-I Maker fringes of d 22 was shown in Fig. 2(b), where the solid and dashed curves represent the experimental and calculated values, respectively. The d 22 coefficient of NLBO crystals relative to d 36 (KDP) was then derived as d 22(NLBO) = (5.925 ± 0.171)d 36 (KDP) = (2.31 ± 0.07) pm/V, by the ratio of the central inserted values of the envelopes (dashed curves in the figures) between the crystals to be measured and the KDP crystal.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) Orientation of the c-cut NLBO crystal to measure the Maker fringes of d 22; the (E)ω is the fundamental light and the (E) is the SH light. (b) (Color online) Experimental Maker fringe (type-I) of d 22(solid curve); theoretical fringe and theoretical envelope(dashed curves).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

5. Phase-matching

By using the above measured Sellmeier equations and nonlinear optical coefficients, we calculated PM directions for SHG and the corresponding effective nonlinear coefficients. The PM curves for different wavelengths for type I (PM-I) and type II (PM-II) are given in 
Fig. 3(a) . From this figure, we learned that NLBO is phase matchable in the region from 560~5000 nm for a PM-I and 790~4344 nm for a PM-II, respectively. Spatial walk-off angle is an important parameter which effectively reduces the gain length for SHG, and therefore effects the attainment of maximum SHG output power and efficiency. The variation curve of walk-off angle for PM-I shown in Fig. 3(b), indicating that the walk-off angle for PM-I varies between ~0 mrad and ~52 mrad for fundamental wavelengths between 0.56 and 1.5 μm. As can also be seen from this plot, over the fundamental range of 1.5 to 5 μm the walk-off angle varies from 0 mrad to ~44 mrad. Generally, several samples with different lengths could be used to find out the optimum conditions for obtaining maximum SHG conversion efficiency and output power.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) Phase-matching curves for type I and type II; (b) Variation of walk-off angle for type I as a function of fundamental wavelength

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 4(a) shows the spatial configuration of the PM angles and the corresponding magnitude of the effective nonlinear coefficient for PM-I (red) and PM-II (blue) as a function of fundamental wavelength. The calculation results indicate that the variation of the effective nonlinear coefficient d eff for PM-I is ranging from 0 to 2.06 pm/V across the tuning range 560~5000 nm, and for PM-II, ranging from 0 to 1.44 pm/V across the tuning range 790~4344 nm. As can also be seen form Fig. 4(a), the effective nonlinear coefficient d eff for PM-I and PM-II is periodic variation in the azimuthal angle range 0<ϕ<90, and the period is 60°. The cross sections of Fig. 4(a) with certain wavelengths, 800, 1064, 1773 and 1812 nm are given in Fig. 4(b), which clearly indicated that the maximum peaks of d eff appears at ϕ = 30° and 90° for PM-I, and ϕ = 0° and 60° for PM-II. The maximum value of d eff are 2.06, 1.90, and 1.60pm/V for PM-I at the fundamental wavelength 1773, 1064, and 800 nm respectively, again 1.44, 0.93, and 0.07 for PM-II at the fundamental wavelength 1812, 1064, and 800 nm respectively. So that the optimal PM conditions can be determined as: (θ, ϕ) = (34.0°, 30° or 90°) for PM-I and (50.6°, 0° or 60°) for PM-II at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm, again (θ, ϕ) = (45.9°, 30° or 90°) for PM-I and (80.0°, 0° or 60°) for PM-II at the fundamental wavelength 800 nm. As can also be seen from Fig. 4(a), 4(b), the max value of d eff is up to 2.06 pm/V for optimal PM-I conditions (θ, ϕ) = (26.7°, 30° or 90°) at the fundamental wavelength 1773 nm, and however, the max value of d eff for optimal PM-II conditions (θ, ϕ) = (37.8°, 0° or 60°) is only 1.44 pm/V at the fundamental wavelength 1812 nm, indicating that the PM-I cut samples would show more excellent SHG property than those cut in PM-II conditions. In order to confirm the correctness of our calculation, we also performed the SHG experiments for PM-I with 800 and 1064 nm pumping sources, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) Phase-matching angles and the corresponding magnitude of the effective nonlinear coefficient for SHG type I (red) and type II(blue) as a function of fundamental wavelengths (b) Cross sections with certain wavelengths

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

6. Optical second harmonic generation properties

The spatial directions between the optical indicatrix and crystallographic axes are very important for sample processing. For hexagonal NLBO, the optical indicatrix axis (Nx, Ny, Nz) do not coincide with the crystallographic axes (a, b, c). Nx and Ny are located in the ab plane, while Nz, is parallel to c and the principal axis Nx, was located 30° from the a axis, and therefore the value of the Ny orientations is 60° with respect to the b crystallographic axis as shown in Fig. 5(a) .

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) The orientations relationship of the optical indicatrix axes (Nx, Ny, Nz) and crystallographic axes (a, b, c); (b) Conversion efficiency and output power versus input fundamental power.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Firstly the SHG experiment was performed using a Ti:Sapphire laser (Tsunami, Spectra-Physics) as the pumping fundamental source, which has a central wavelength of 800 nm. The laser delivered pulses with durations of ~100 fs at 80 MHz repetition rate, with an average power of ~0.7 W over a tunable range 720~880 nm. A 2.7-mm-long NLBO crystal was cut for the optimal PM-I direction of (θ, ϕ) = (46.1°, 30°), and the facets were uncoated. The experiment was performed at room temperature.

Figure 5(b) shows the conversion efficiency and output power of the SHG in the NLBO crystal. The maximum conversion efficiency of as high as 18.3% and 112 mW output power of lasing at 400 nm were obtained at the fundamental average power of 612 mW, and in the experiment we find no thermal effect affecting the SHG performance with the input powers.

Then we performed the SHG experiments under 1064 nm pumping. In addition, we also directly compared the SHG performance of NLBO with that of LBO crystal under the same experimental conditions. In these experiments, the fundamental light source was a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser (PL2143B, EKSPLA) with a pulse width of 25 ps, and a repetition of 10 Hz at the working wavelength 1064 nm. The beam diameter was minimized by a lens system to 2.5 mm in the NLBO and LBO crystals. A Brewster prism was used to separate the fundamental and SH waves. The (34°, 30°)-cut NLBO and (90°, 11.3°)-cut LBO samples for PM-I were used in these experiments. Both the samples had the same length of 7 mm, and their transparent ends were polished but uncoated. The experiment was performed at room temperature as well.

The SHG conversion efficiency versus the incident power intensity is presented in 
Fig. 6(a) for the NLBO and LBO crystals, where the superior performance of NLBO is clearly evident. An energy conversion efficiency of 58.3% was obtained for NLBO crystal at a fundamental peak-power intensity of 0.43 GW/cm2, however for LBO, only 21.5% conversion efficiency was obtained at the same incident power intensity. In general, SHG conversion efficiency could be increase if a longer NLBO crystal is utilized.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Comparison of the SHG (a) conversion efficiency versus incident peak intensity (b) output power versus input fundamental power in NLBO and LBO

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 6(b) shows the output power of 532 nm as a function of the incident pump power for NLBO and LBO crystals. At the fundamental input power of 7.08 mW, an output SH power of 4.05 mW is obtained with the NLBO crystal, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 57.2%. While at the same incident pump power, the output is only 2.02 mW for the LBO crystal, giving a conversion efficiency of 28.5%. The results indicate that NLBO has a higher effective nonlinear coefficient than LBO. As can also been seen from Fig. 6(b), at the maximum fundamental power, there is no evidence of saturation in SH output power, that is to say, the output powers could be further increased by using increased fundamental power and larger the crystal lengths. These results suggested that NLBO is a competitive candidate for SHG conversion applications.

7. Conclusions

Weight exceeding 40g NLBO crystals with high quality have been grown along different directions by TSSG method. The morphologies were improved and much more suitable for optical applications than those grown ever before. The optimal PM conditions were fully investigated and the SHG experiments were demonstrated for the first time compared with that of LBO crystal under the same conditions. The SH conversion efficiency of as high as 58.3% is achieved at the fundamental intensity of 0.43 GW/cm2.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant no. 50802100.

References and links

1. D. Cyranoski, “Materials science: China’s crystal cache,” Nature 457(7232), 953–955 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, “Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7,” Nature 373(6512), 322–324 (1995). [CrossRef]  

3. Y. C. Wu, G. C. Zhang, P. Z. Fu, C. T. Chen, Chinese Patent, Application No., 01134393.1, November 2, 2001, Publication No. CN052I010563.

4. P. Gravereau, J. P. Chaminade, S. Pechev, V. Nikolov, D. Ivanova, and P. Peshev, “Na3La9O3(BO3)8, a new oxyborate in the ternary system Na2O_La2O3_B2O3: preparation and crystal structure,” Solid State Sci. 4(7), 993–998 (2002). [CrossRef]  

5. G. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Li, F. Chang, S. Pan, P. Fu, and C. Chen, “Flux growth and characterization of a new oxyborate crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), e1997–e2001 (2005). [CrossRef]  

6. Y. Li, Y. Wu, G. Zhang, P. Fu, and X. Bai, “Flux growth and optical properties of Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 292(2), 468–471 (2006). [CrossRef]  

7. C. Cascales, R. Balda, V. Jubera, J. P. Chaminade, and J. Fernández, “Optical spectroscopic study of Eu3+ crystal field sites in Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystal,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2653–2662 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. A. H. Reshak, S. Auluck, and I. V. Kityk, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and full potential studies of the electronic density of state of ternary oxyborate Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Alloy. Comp. 472(1-2), 30–34 (2009). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Cyranoski, “Materials science: China’s crystal cache,” Nature 457(7232), 953–955 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, “Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7,” Nature 373(6512), 322–324 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. C. Wu, G. C. Zhang, P. Z. Fu, C. T. Chen, Chinese Patent, Application No., 01134393.1, November 2, 2001, Publication No. CN052I010563.
  4. P. Gravereau, J. P. Chaminade, S. Pechev, V. Nikolov, D. Ivanova, and P. Peshev, “Na3La9O3(BO3)8, a new oxyborate in the ternary system Na2O_La2O3_B2O3: preparation and crystal structure,” Solid State Sci. 4(7), 993–998 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Li, F. Chang, S. Pan, P. Fu, and C. Chen, “Flux growth and characterization of a new oxyborate crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), e1997–e2001 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Li, Y. Wu, G. Zhang, P. Fu, and X. Bai, “Flux growth and optical properties of Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 292(2), 468–471 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Cascales, R. Balda, V. Jubera, J. P. Chaminade, and J. Fernández, “Optical spectroscopic study of Eu3+ crystal field sites in Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystal,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2653–2662 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. H. Reshak, S. Auluck, and I. V. Kityk, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and full potential studies of the electronic density of state of ternary oxyborate Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Alloy. Comp. 472(1-2), 30–34 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. Cyranoski, “Materials science: China’s crystal cache,” Nature 457(7232), 953–955 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Reshak, S. Auluck, and I. V. Kityk, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and full potential studies of the electronic density of state of ternary oxyborate Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Alloy. Comp. 472(1-2), 30–34 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

Y. Li, Y. Wu, G. Zhang, P. Fu, and X. Bai, “Flux growth and optical properties of Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 292(2), 468–471 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Li, F. Chang, S. Pan, P. Fu, and C. Chen, “Flux growth and characterization of a new oxyborate crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), e1997–e2001 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. Gravereau, J. P. Chaminade, S. Pechev, V. Nikolov, D. Ivanova, and P. Peshev, “Na3La9O3(BO3)8, a new oxyborate in the ternary system Na2O_La2O3_B2O3: preparation and crystal structure,” Solid State Sci. 4(7), 993–998 (2002).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, “Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7,” Nature 373(6512), 322–324 (1995).
[Crossref]

Auluck, S.

A. H. Reshak, S. Auluck, and I. V. Kityk, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and full potential studies of the electronic density of state of ternary oxyborate Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Alloy. Comp. 472(1-2), 30–34 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bai, X.

Y. Li, Y. Wu, G. Zhang, P. Fu, and X. Bai, “Flux growth and optical properties of Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 292(2), 468–471 (2006).
[Crossref]

Balda, R.

Cascales, C.

Chaminade, J. P.

C. Cascales, R. Balda, V. Jubera, J. P. Chaminade, and J. Fernández, “Optical spectroscopic study of Eu3+ crystal field sites in Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystal,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2653–2662 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gravereau, J. P. Chaminade, S. Pechev, V. Nikolov, D. Ivanova, and P. Peshev, “Na3La9O3(BO3)8, a new oxyborate in the ternary system Na2O_La2O3_B2O3: preparation and crystal structure,” Solid State Sci. 4(7), 993–998 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chang, F.

G. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Li, F. Chang, S. Pan, P. Fu, and C. Chen, “Flux growth and characterization of a new oxyborate crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), e1997–e2001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

G. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Li, F. Chang, S. Pan, P. Fu, and C. Chen, “Flux growth and characterization of a new oxyborate crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), e1997–e2001 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, “Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7,” Nature 373(6512), 322–324 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cyranoski, D.

D. Cyranoski, “Materials science: China’s crystal cache,” Nature 457(7232), 953–955 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández, J.

Fu, P.

Y. Li, Y. Wu, G. Zhang, P. Fu, and X. Bai, “Flux growth and optical properties of Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 292(2), 468–471 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Li, F. Chang, S. Pan, P. Fu, and C. Chen, “Flux growth and characterization of a new oxyborate crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), e1997–e2001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gravereau, P.

P. Gravereau, J. P. Chaminade, S. Pechev, V. Nikolov, D. Ivanova, and P. Peshev, “Na3La9O3(BO3)8, a new oxyborate in the ternary system Na2O_La2O3_B2O3: preparation and crystal structure,” Solid State Sci. 4(7), 993–998 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ivanova, D.

P. Gravereau, J. P. Chaminade, S. Pechev, V. Nikolov, D. Ivanova, and P. Peshev, “Na3La9O3(BO3)8, a new oxyborate in the ternary system Na2O_La2O3_B2O3: preparation and crystal structure,” Solid State Sci. 4(7), 993–998 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jubera, V.

Kityk, I. V.

A. H. Reshak, S. Auluck, and I. V. Kityk, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and full potential studies of the electronic density of state of ternary oxyborate Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Alloy. Comp. 472(1-2), 30–34 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Wu, G. Zhang, P. Fu, and X. Bai, “Flux growth and optical properties of Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 292(2), 468–471 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Li, F. Chang, S. Pan, P. Fu, and C. Chen, “Flux growth and characterization of a new oxyborate crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), e1997–e2001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nikolov, V.

P. Gravereau, J. P. Chaminade, S. Pechev, V. Nikolov, D. Ivanova, and P. Peshev, “Na3La9O3(BO3)8, a new oxyborate in the ternary system Na2O_La2O3_B2O3: preparation and crystal structure,” Solid State Sci. 4(7), 993–998 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pan, S.

G. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Li, F. Chang, S. Pan, P. Fu, and C. Chen, “Flux growth and characterization of a new oxyborate crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), e1997–e2001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pechev, S.

P. Gravereau, J. P. Chaminade, S. Pechev, V. Nikolov, D. Ivanova, and P. Peshev, “Na3La9O3(BO3)8, a new oxyborate in the ternary system Na2O_La2O3_B2O3: preparation and crystal structure,” Solid State Sci. 4(7), 993–998 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peshev, P.

P. Gravereau, J. P. Chaminade, S. Pechev, V. Nikolov, D. Ivanova, and P. Peshev, “Na3La9O3(BO3)8, a new oxyborate in the ternary system Na2O_La2O3_B2O3: preparation and crystal structure,” Solid State Sci. 4(7), 993–998 (2002).
[Crossref]

Reshak, A. H.

A. H. Reshak, S. Auluck, and I. V. Kityk, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and full potential studies of the electronic density of state of ternary oxyborate Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Alloy. Comp. 472(1-2), 30–34 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, “Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7,” Nature 373(6512), 322–324 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, “Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7,” Nature 373(6512), 322–324 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wu, K.

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, “Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7,” Nature 373(6512), 322–324 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Wu, G. Zhang, P. Fu, and X. Bai, “Flux growth and optical properties of Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 292(2), 468–471 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Li, F. Chang, S. Pan, P. Fu, and C. Chen, “Flux growth and characterization of a new oxyborate crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), e1997–e2001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, “Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7,” Nature 373(6512), 322–324 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zeng, W.

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, “Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7,” Nature 373(6512), 322–324 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Y. Li, Y. Wu, G. Zhang, P. Fu, and X. Bai, “Flux growth and optical properties of Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 292(2), 468–471 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Li, F. Chang, S. Pan, P. Fu, and C. Chen, “Flux growth and characterization of a new oxyborate crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), e1997–e2001 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

A. H. Reshak, S. Auluck, and I. V. Kityk, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and full potential studies of the electronic density of state of ternary oxyborate Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Alloy. Comp. 472(1-2), 30–34 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

G. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Li, F. Chang, S. Pan, P. Fu, and C. Chen, “Flux growth and characterization of a new oxyborate crystal Na3La9O3(BO3)8,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), e1997–e2001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, Y. Wu, G. Zhang, P. Fu, and X. Bai, “Flux growth and optical properties of Na3La9O3(BO3)8 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 292(2), 468–471 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

D. Cyranoski, “Materials science: China’s crystal cache,” Nature 457(7232), 953–955 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, “Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7,” Nature 373(6512), 322–324 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Solid State Sci. (1)

P. Gravereau, J. P. Chaminade, S. Pechev, V. Nikolov, D. Ivanova, and P. Peshev, “Na3La9O3(BO3)8, a new oxyborate in the ternary system Na2O_La2O3_B2O3: preparation and crystal structure,” Solid State Sci. 4(7), 993–998 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Y. C. Wu, G. C. Zhang, P. Z. Fu, C. T. Chen, Chinese Patent, Application No., 01134393.1, November 2, 2001, Publication No. CN052I010563.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) NLBO crystal grown along [210] directions; (b) The fitted dispersion curves of the NLBO prism over the full transmission range
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Orientation of the c-cut NLBO crystal to measure the Maker fringes of d 22; the (E)ω is the fundamental light and the (E) is the SH light. (b) (Color online) Experimental Maker fringe (type-I) of d 22(solid curve); theoretical fringe and theoretical envelope(dashed curves).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Phase-matching curves for type I and type II; (b) Variation of walk-off angle for type I as a function of fundamental wavelength
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Phase-matching angles and the corresponding magnitude of the effective nonlinear coefficient for SHG type I (red) and type II(blue) as a function of fundamental wavelengths (b) Cross sections with certain wavelengths
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The orientations relationship of the optical indicatrix axes (Nx, Ny, Nz) and crystallographic axes ( a , b , c ); (b) Conversion efficiency and output power versus input fundamental power.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of the SHG (a) conversion efficiency versus incident peak intensity (b) output power versus input fundamental power in NLBO and LBO

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the refractive indices between the experimental and calculated values for NLBO

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n e 2 = 3.1207853 + 0.02825765 λ 2 0.0147568 0.005254 × λ 2 . n o 2 = 3.4339330 + 0.0350044 λ 2 0.0180403 0.014413 × λ 2 .

Metrics