Abstract

The propagation of optical pulses inside dispersion-managed fibers is considered. It is found that the chirped compact parabolic pulse can propagate inside the dispersion-managed fibers self-similarly. Such a finite-width pulse can be served as the background for the propagation and interaction of dark similaritons. Approximate but highly accurate analytical methods are proposed to describe the interaction dynamics of multiple dark similaritons on the self-similar compact parabolic background.

©2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Solitons, the special wave envelopes that maintain their overall shapes, sizes and speeds during propagation and after collision [1], have been widely investigated in many fields of physics, especially in the contexts of nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates, where the governing equation is the famous standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). It is well-known that the standard NLSE admits sech (tanh) type soliton solution when the dispersion (or diffraction) and nonlinearity parameters are of the same (different) sign. Recently, a more general class of shape-preserving waves, which maintain their overall shapes but with their parameters such as amplitudes and widths changing with the propagation distance, have been found in nonlinear optical systems described by the nonautonomous NLSE with varying coefficients [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9], and in nonlinear optical systems described by the autonomous NLSE in the presence of amplification and spatial inhomogeneity [10, 11, 12, 13]. In contrast to the concept of solitons, these self-similar waves were called similaritons, including the exact similaritons and the asymptotic similaritons. The exact similaritons are described by the sech and tanh functions (correspond to the bright and dark similaritons) [3, 5, 8, 9, 12]. Note that the exact dark similaritons are embedded in the infinite-width continuous wave background. The asymptotic similaritons are mainly described by the Gaussian-Hermite functions and the compact parabolic functions (correspond to the Gaussian-Hermite and parabolic similaritons) [2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13]. They appear at the asymptotic limit, for example, the parabolic similaritons appear in nonlinear optical fiber amplifier when the the relative strength of nonlinearity is much larger than that of dispersion (diffraction). Compared to the exact similaritons where their generation need delicate balances between system parameters, the asymptotic similaritons can be easily generated (see [14, 15] for the generation of asymptotic compact parabolic pulses in dispersion-decreasing fibers).

In nonlinear fiber optics, dispersion-managed optical fibers are of fundamental interest in optical soliton transmission, since exact optical similariton can be formed in lossy fibers with exponentially-decreasing dispersion [16]. Although the exact multiple optical similaritons can be obtained by the inverse scattering technique [3], the initial conditions described by the multiple similariton solutions are difficult to realize in real applications. In fact, the simplest initial pulses are the direct linearly add (for bright solitons) or multiplication (for dark solitons, see Fig. 1) of many single solitons, with their separations larger than their widths. Due to the non-linearity, the interaction between these similaritons are inevitable. The interaction of bright similaritons were well studied, and it was shown that the interaction between two exact bright similaritons could lead to the formation of molecule-like bound state [9]. Also, the interaction of more than two bright similaritons were studied numerically in loss- and dispersion-managed fibers [17]. However,to the best of our knowledge, less work has been paid to the interaction dynamics of dark similaritons, especially when they are embedded in the varying and finite-width backgrounds.

To make the dark optical similaritons applicable in real applications, one should investigate how does the varying and finite-width background and the interaction between dark similaritons affect their propagations. In this paper, we shall consider these problems in the dispersion-managed fiber, where the governing equation for the slowly-varying pulse envelop u(z,t) is the following normalized NLSE:

iuzβ(z)2utt+γ|u|2u=0.

Here β(z) represents the group velocity dispersion (GVD) parameter, and γ is the nonlinearity parameter. Fibers with varying GVD can be fabricated by changing their core diameters during the drawing process [18], or by using comb-like dispersion profiles [19]. Both approaches have been recently successfully adopted to the normal dispersion regime in order to experimentally generate compact parabolic self-similar pulses [14,20]. Higher-order dispersion is not included in Eq. (1), since it is possible to manufacture dispersion-managed fiber with reduced third-order dispersion [14, 21]. The fiber loss is ignored, but the method presented below can be easily applied to the nonlinear optical systems with dispersion, nonlinearity and amplification managements. Finally, for the existence of dark similariton, and without loss of generality, we hereafter set β(z) to be positive (normal dispersion regime) with β(0) = 1 and γ=1.

2. Self-similar transformation

In this section, we revist the self-similar propagation of the background for the propagation of dark similaritons. Firstly, we assume that the width of the background is proportional to W(z), then its amplitude is proportional to 1/W(z),, since the pulse energy P = ∫-∞ u2 dt in Eq. (1) is conserved. Secondly, as the width changes, the background acquires a local expansion velocity Wzt/W for the self-similar evolution, which equals −β(u * utuut *)/2iu2 = −β ϕt, such that the pulse phase contains a quadratic term ϕ = −Wzt 2/2βW [13]. Finally, inspired by the fact that for exact similariton there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the nonautonomous NLSE and standard NLSE [9], we anticipate that a NLSE with a trapping potential could be derived due to the requirement of a finite-width background. Introducing the following self-similar transformation [2, 22, 23]:

u(z,t)=1WU(Z,T)exp(iWz2t2),

we cast Eq. (1) into the following NLSE with a harmonic trapping potential term:

iUz+v2UTTU2U=K2T2U,

by requiring that Z = −∫0 z/W(z′)dz′, T = t/W with W(0) = 1, and ν(z) = β(z)/W(z). Here K(> 0) is a constant, and W(z) is determined by the following second-order differential equation:

W2(Wzzβ2βWz)=.

Thus once the background function U(Z,T) and Wz(0) are known, the evolution of slowly-varying pulse envelope u(z,t) can be completely determined. It must be emphasized that the coefficient ν in Eq. (3) is generally not a constant, which is different from the self-similar transformations used in [2, 24] that reduce the nonautonomous NLSE into Eq. (3) with constant ν. Note that reducing the nonautonomous NLSE into Eq. (3) with constant ν, one certainly add constraints to the function form of the fiber parameters. Let us take Eq. (1) for an example. From the expression of ν and Eq. (4), we know that only when β(z) =exp[a(z+z 0)] and Wz =β(z)/ν with a and z 0 being arbitrary constant can we reduce Eq. (1) to the standard NLSE (the fact that ν is constant implies that β is proportional to W. Since β(0) = W(0) = 1, we have ν = 1). Similarly, if one reduce Eq. (1) to Eq. (3) with constant ν and constant K(≠ 0) [2, 24], from Eq. (4) it immediately follows that the GVD parameter must satisfy the following form

β(z)=cosh(δz)+Csinh(δz)/δ,

where δ=C2+K[2]. However, if we reduce Eq. (1) to Eq. (3) with varying ν and constant K, the constraint in the function form of GVD can be weakened. As shown below, we only require the GVD to be the decreasing function of the propagation distance for the generation of parabolic similaritons [14, 15]. Therefore, when considering the pulse propagating in fibers with dispersion, nonlinearity and amplification managements, the advantages of our method is obvious, because the strict balance between fiber control parameters can be weakened a lot, or even eliminated.

Now we consider the finite-width background function U(Z, T). Note that in Eq. (3), the pulse energy is still P. When it is small, the nonlinearity is negligible, and the dark solitons cannot be generated. On the contrary, when the pulse energy is high and ν is small, according to the Thomas-Fermi approximation, the finite-width background can be well described by the following compact parabolic function:

Ub(Z,T)=A2KT2/2exp(iA2Z),

at T2A2/K=Tmax,, and Ub = 0 otherwise, where the positive constant K is related to the energy and amplitude of the pulse as P=32A3/9K..

The requirement of small ν can be easily satisfied. Specifically, when the GVD takes the form described by Eq. (5), we have ν = 1; otherwise, ν is a function of z. In real experiments, in order to obtain the parabolic intensity profile, β is always a decreasing function of the propagation distance z [14, 15], hence W is an increasing function of z, such that ν is less than 1. Therefore, if we let the transformed propagation distance Z varies from 0 to negative (corresponding to z varying from 0 to positive), then the transformed GVD parameter ν is less than 1 in the framework of Eq. (3).

Note that the center of the compact parabolic background given by Eqs. (2) and (6) is quiescent, according to the Galilei transformation: tttc, uu exp[ib 0(ttc) − ib 0 2 D/2], where tc =tc(0) − b 0 D with b 0 and D being the arbitrary constant and ∫0 z β(z′)dz′, respectively, the moveable compact parabolic background can be obtained [6]. Also note that the compact parabolic background is linearly chirped, which can be incorporated with highly efficient pulse compression [11].

3. The approximate dark similaritons

Since the GVD and nonlinearity parameters are of different sign, dark solitons can be formed on the compact parabolic background. We firstly consider the propagation of dark solitons in the framework of Eq. (3), since the corresponding background (6) does not vary with respect to the transformed propagation distance Z. Then we will take into account the variable transformations used in the self-similar transformation (2) and the Galilei transformation, and discuss the propagation of dark similaritons in the original coordinates z and t.

We recall that, when ν is a constant, the approximate dark soliton solution of Eq. (3), which is embedded in the compact parabolic background (6), can be written as follows [24]:

U=Ub{cosϕtanh[Acosϕ(Tvq)]+isinϕ},

where Q = qν (< Tmax) and Aν sin ϕ are respectively the center-of-mass and velocity of the dark soliton. When the dark soliton does not initially rest on the coordinate origin or it has an initial velocity, i.e., Q(0) ≠ 0 or sin ϕ(0) ≠ 0, it will oscillate periodically, and the center-of-mass motion of the dark soliton can be approximately captured by Qzz + KvQ/2 = 0 and Qz = Aν sinϕ, when its oscillation amplitude is small (QTmax) and the pulse energy P is large enough [24, 25]. In this case, the dark soliton behaviors like a quasiparticle of mass 2/ν, oscillating harmonically in the trap, and its energy E = Qz 2/ν + KQ 2/2 is a conserved quantity. Note that here the energy is composed of the kinetic and potential energy of the quasiparticle, instead of the pulse energy P defined before. Also note that the oscillation frequency of the center-of-mass of the dark soliton is Kv/2;; as its center-of-mass oscillates, the dark soliton periodically changes its degree of darkness, and this periodic transformation of the black soliton (sinϕ = 0) to the gray one (sinϕ ≠ 0) and vice versa causes the oscillation frequency of dark soliton smaller than that of the linear oscillator described by the Schrödiger equation [26].

When ν varies smoothly and slowly, the dark soliton gradually sheds parts of its energy that appears in the form of dark solitons with larger speeds. When the emission of dark solitons (radiation) is not severe, it is reasonable to assume that the main dark solitons can be approximately described by Eq. (7), with the varying mass 2/ν and energy E = Qz 2/ν + KQ 2/2. Considering the fact that ν is a function of the transformed propagation distance Z, we obtain the following governing equation for the center-of-mass motion of the main dark soliton

Qzz+Kv2Q=vZ2vQZ,

after differentiating the energy with respect to Z; and the parameter ϕ, which is related to the darkness of dark solitons, can be determined through the equation Qz = Aν sin ϕ, as that for dark soliton when ν is constant.

We then estimate how slowly should ν be. From Eq. (7), we find that the coefficient of T is A sinϕ/ν, which is inversely proportional to the effective width of dark soliton. When ν is constant, as ϕ periodically changes, the dark soliton can maintain its dynamical stability, i.e., the dark soliton can change periodically from black to gray. In this case, the fastest change rate of its inverse width is proportional to K/2. When v varies with respect to Z, the change rate of the inverse width of the main dark soliton, which is caused by the variation of ν, is nearly proportional to ∣vz/2ν∣. Therefore, the main dark can maintain its stability when ∣vz/ν∣ ≤ 2K.. This is just the validity criteria for Eq. (8) to hold. From the expression for ν and the relation between z and Z, one could find that ∣vz/ν∣ = βzW/βWz. As demonstrated before, generally, we need the GVD to be a decreasing function of the propagation distance and hence W is a increasing function of z. Therefore, at the limit z → ∞, the right hand term of Eq. (4) can be ignored; and hence we find that Wz = β. Thus, for exponentially decreasing GVD, i.e., β = exp(−λz), we have ∣vz/ν∣ = βzW/βWz = λ. That is, Eq. (8) is valid when λ2K.. Similarly, we find numerically that as soon as βz/β2K,, the condition vZ/v2K is always satisfied.

Taking into account the self-similar and Galilei transformations, we find that the function form of the dark similariton of Eq. (1)can be written as follows:

u2=A2W(z)2{1[ttc(z)]2Tmax2W(z)2}{1cosϕ2sech2[Acosϕttc(z)tr(z)W(z)β(z)]}.

It is clear that the center-of-mass of the dark similariton is td = tc + tr, where tr = WQ is the relative displacement of the dark similariton to the center of the compact parabolic background tc. The second derivative of tr with respect to the propagation distance z reads:

trzz=(WzzWWz2W2+WzβWβz2βW2Wz2W3)tr+12(βzβ+WzW)trzF(tr,trz),

where tr(0) = Q(0) − tc(0). This equation shows that the dark similariton experiences a force F(tr,trz), which is not only related to its position and velocity, but also to the GVD parameter, the width of the compact parabolic background and their derivatives. Specifically, when the GVD takes the special form (5), the above equation can be greatly simplified, which reads

trzz=K2β2tr+βzβtrz.

Finally, according to the discussion in Eq. (8), we have

sinϕ=trWz/WtrzAβ/W.

Up to now, we have proposed an analytical expression to describe the propagation of single dark similariton on the finite-width self-similar background. We then consider the interaction of N-dark similaritons on the finite-width self-similar background. Similarly, we will firstly consider the interaction of N-dark solitons on the compact parabolic background (6) in the framework of Eq. (3).

When the neighbor dark solitons do not overlap, that is, ∣QiQ i±1∣ > 1/A, it is reasonable to assume that the multiplication of N single dark solitons

U=Ubi=1N{cosϕitanh[Avcosϕi(TQi)]+isinϕi}

is an approximate solution of Eq. (3). Under the small amplitude oscillation approximation of dark solitons, we have found that the repulsive interaction force between i-th and j-th dark soliton can be described by [27]:

Fij=2A3vsech2(AQij/v)tanh(AQij/v)

when ν is a constant, where Qij = QiQj is the relative separation between i-th and j-th dark solitons. The force increases as Qij decreases before the two dark solitons begin to overlap, and then decreases to zero as Qij approaches zero. The latter is not physical since the repulsive interaction force should be a monotone decreasing function of the the relative separation when the dark solitons are described by Eq. (12). However, in numerical simulations, we have found that the above expression could give a very good description of the dark solitons’ trajectories, provided that arbitrary two dark solitons are initially well separated. We have also compared our results with that given in Ref [28], a extreme good agreements were found.

 

Fig. 1. Interaction of two dark similaritons on the self-similar compact parabolic background. The initial parameters for the first dark soliton (left) are Q 1(0) = −5,ϕ 1(0) = 0, that of the second (right) are Q 2(0) =5,ϕ 2(0) =π/8. Other parameters are A=2, K = 0.01, C = −0.1, tc(0) = 1 and b = 0.1. Red and blue lines represents the theoretical predictions and numerical simulations, respectively.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 

Fig. 2. Evolution of three dark similaritons on the self-similar compact parabolic background (contour plot of ∣u2). The red, blue and green lines represent the trajectories of dark similaritons for Q 1 (0) = 5,ϕ 1(0) = π/8, Q 2(0) = 0,ϕ 2(0) = − π/8, and Q 3(0) = −5,ϕ 3(0) = 0, respectively. Other parameters are the same with that in Fig. 1. Inset: the comparison between the numerical/theoretical (blue/red lines) results.

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When ν varies smoothly and slowly, we assume that the interaction force between dark solitons can still be described by Eq. (13). Then, following the same procedure done for single dark similaritons, the center-of-mass of each dark similariton is tdi = tc + tri (i = 1,2, …, N is the index of dark similaritons) with tri = WQi, which is determined by

trizz=F(tri,triz)+j=1N2A3vWsech2(Δ)tanh(Δ),
 

Fig. 3. Evolution of the dark similaritons, which initially locate at t = −1, with ϕ(0) = 0 in (a) and ϕ(0) = −π/5 in (b). From tom to bottom, z =30, 27, 24, 21 and 18. The black and color lines are the results of theoretical predictions and numerical simulations, respectively. The parameters used are A = 2,Tmax = 30, Wz(0) = 0, tc(0) = b = 0, and β(z) = exp(−0.01z).

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Fig. 4. Evolution of two dark similaritons on the self-similar compact parabolic background (contour plot of ∣u2). The red and blue lines represent the trajectories of dark similaritons for t r1 (0) = 5,ϕ 1(0) = π/10 and t r2(0) = −5,ϕ 2(0) = −π/10, respectively. The background parameter are the same with that in Fig. 3, and β = 1 − 0.01z. Inset: the comparison between the numerical/theoretical(blue/red lines) results.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

where Δ = A(tritrj)/Wν, tri(0) = Qi(0) − Tc(0), and sinϕi, is determined by (tri Wz/Wtriz)/Aν. Then, Eq. (14), together with self-similar and Galilei transformations and Eq. (12), determines the interaction dynamics of dark similaritons on the finite-width, self-similar parabolic background.

4. Numerical simulations

The theoretical predictions have been compared to the direct numerical simulation results of Eq. (1), where good agreements, not only for the centers but also for the depths of each dark similaritons, are shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 for the interaction of multiple dark similaritons on the self-similar compact parabolic background. Note that the background itself is moveable. Also note that when the GVD takes the special form (5), the parameter ν in the reduced NLSE (3) is 1, therefore, there are almost no emission of dark solitons. However, when the GVD takes other forms, the emission of dark solitons (radiation) increase [see Fig. 3(a) for exponentially-decreasing GVD], which could even badly distort the parabolic profile of the background [29] [see Fig. 3(b)]. In this case, it is hard to exactly determine the center-of-mass motion of the dark similaritons, but we found that, through numerical simulations, the analytical expressions give a close estimation for the evolution of the dark similaritons.

Further numerical simulations show that the theoretical expressions give a good description for the evolution of dark similaritons when they are initially well separated [see Fig. 4 for linearly-decreasing GVD]. Note that the power profile at z = 8 does not agree with that of numerical simulations, this is because dark similaritons are too close such that the linear superposition (12) breaks down.

5. Conclusions

In summary, we have presented an analytical method to describe the interaction dynamics of multiple dark similaritons embedded on the finite-width, moveable, self-similar parabolic background. Two kind of interactions are considered. The first is the interaction between dark similariton and the finite-width and varying background, and the other is the interaction between dark similaritons. It was found that, if the nonautonomous NLSE can be casted into a standard NLSE with an additional harmonic trapping term, the evolution of dark similaritons on the parabolic background is stable and exactly predictable; otherwise, the propagation of dark similaritons is accompanied with dark wave emission, which will severely destroy the parabolic background when the velocity of dark similariton is large. However, even in this case, our analytic expressions could give a close predictions for the evolution of dark similaritons.

Since the generation of compact parabolic background in dispersion-decreasing fibers are feasible, we believed that the validity of our analytical expressions for the interaction of dark similaritons can be easily checked by the experiments. Further, we also believed that our method can be extended to study the propagation and interaction of dark similaritons in fibers with dispersion, nonlinearity and amplification managements. As mentioned in Section 2, our method can weaken the strict balance between the fiber control parameters such as dispersion, nonlinearity and amplification for the propagation of dark solitons, which will present an easy way for the dark soliton management.

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the NNSF of China (Grant No. 10672147), the Program for Innovative Research Team in Zhejiang Normal University, and PNSF of Shanxi (Grant No. 2007011007).

References and links

1. N. J. Zabusky and M. D. Kruskal, “Interaction of ‘solitons’ in a collisionless plasma and the recurrence of initial states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 240–243 (1965). [CrossRef]  

2. Shiva Kumar and A. Hasegawa, “Quasi-soliton propagation in dispersion-managed optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 372–374 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. V. N. Serkin and A. Hasegawa, “Novel soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation Model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4502–4505 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation of high-power parabolic pulses in optical fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 175–177 (2000). [CrossRef]  

5. V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, and J. D. Harvey, “Exact self-similar solutions of the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with distributed coefficients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113902–113905 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. S. Chen, L. Yi, D.-S. Guo, and P. Lu, “Self-similar evolutions of parabolic, Hermite-Gaussian, and hybrid optical pulses: Universality and diversity,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016622–016606 (2005). [CrossRef]  

7. Y. Ozeki and T. Inoue, “Stationary rescaled pulse in dispersion-decreasing fiber for pedestal-free pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1606–1608 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. V. N. Serkin, A. Hasegawa, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Nonautonomous solitons in external potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 074102–074105 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. S. A. Ponomarenko and G. P. Agrawal, “Interactions of chirped and chirp-free similaritons in optical fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 15, 2963–2973 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010–6013 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 597 (2007). [CrossRef]  

12. S. A. Ponomarenko and G. P. Agrawal, “Do Solitonlike Self-Similar Waves Exist in Nonlinear Optical Media?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013901–013904 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. L. Wu, L. Li, and J.-F. Zhang, “Controllable generation and propagation of asymptotic parabolic optical waves in graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013838 (2008). [CrossRef]  

14. C. Finot, B. Barviau, G. Millot, A. Guryanov, A. Sysoliatin, and S. Wabnitz, “Parabolic pulse generation with active or passive dispersion decreasing optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 15824–15835 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. T. Hirooka and M. Nakazawa, “Parabolic pulse generation by use of a dispersion-decreasing fiber with normal group-velocity dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 29, 498–500 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, Boston, 2001).

17. S. A. Ponomarenko and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear interaction of two or more similaritons in loss- and dispersion-managed fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 983–989 (2008). [CrossRef]  

18. V. A. Bogatyrevet al, “A single-mode fiber with chromatic dispersion varying along thelength,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 561 (1991). [CrossRef]  

19. S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, and R. Kashyap, “Comblike dispersion-profiled fiber for soliton pulse train generation,” Opt. Lett. 19, 539–541 (1994). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. B. Kibler, C. Billet, P. A. Lacourt, R. Ferriere, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Parabolic pulse generation in comblike profiled dispersion decreasing fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42, 965–966 (2006). [CrossRef]  

21. K. R. Tamura and M. Nakazawa, “54-fs, 10-GHz soliton generation from a polarization-maintaining dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreasing fiber pulse compressor,” Opt. Lett. 26, 762–764 (2001). [CrossRef]  

22. V. N. Serkin and A. Hasegawa, “Exactly integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equation models with varying dispersion, nonlinearity and gain: Application for soliton dispersion managements,” IEEE Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 418–432 (2002) [CrossRef]  

23. V. N. Serkin, M. Matsumoto, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Bright and dark solitary nonlinear Bloch waves in dispersion managed fiber systems and soliton lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 159–171 (2001). [CrossRef]  

24. L. Li, X. S. Zhao, and Z. Y. Xu, “Dark solitons on an intense parabolic background in nonlinear waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063833 (2008). [CrossRef]  

25. T. Busch and J. R. Anglin, “Motion of dark solitons in trapped bose-einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2298–2301 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. C. H. Tenorio, E. V. Vargas, V. N. Serkin, M. A. Granados, T. L. Belyaeva, R. P. Moreno, and L. M. Lara, “Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external harmonic potential: Part II. Dark solitons,” Quantum Electronics , 35, 929–937 (2005). [CrossRef]  

27. L. Wu, J. F. Zhang, L. Li, C. Finot, and K. Porsezian, “Similaritons interaction in nonlinear graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 053807 (2008). [CrossRef]  

28. Y. S. Kivshar and W. Krolikowski, “Lagrangian approach for dark solitons,” Opt. Commun. 114, 353–362 (1995). [CrossRef]  

29. It happens when the depth of the dark similariton is shallow, i.e., the velocity of dark similartion in large).

References

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  1. N. J. Zabusky and M. D. Kruskal, “Interaction of ‘solitons’ in a collisionless plasma and the recurrence of initial states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 240–243 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  2. Shiva Kumar and A. Hasegawa, “Quasi-soliton propagation in dispersion-managed optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 372–374 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. V. N. Serkin and A. Hasegawa, “Novel soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation Model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4502–4505 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation of high-power parabolic pulses in optical fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 175–177 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, and J. D. Harvey, “Exact self-similar solutions of the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with distributed coefficients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113902–113905 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Chen, L. Yi, D.-S. Guo, and P. Lu, “Self-similar evolutions of parabolic, Hermite-Gaussian, and hybrid optical pulses: Universality and diversity,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016622–016606 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Ozeki and T. Inoue, “Stationary rescaled pulse in dispersion-decreasing fiber for pedestal-free pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1606–1608 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. V. N. Serkin, A. Hasegawa, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Nonautonomous solitons in external potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 074102–074105 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. A. Ponomarenko and G. P. Agrawal, “Interactions of chirped and chirp-free similaritons in optical fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 15, 2963–2973 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010–6013 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 597 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. A. Ponomarenko and G. P. Agrawal, “Do Solitonlike Self-Similar Waves Exist in Nonlinear Optical Media?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013901–013904 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. L. Wu, L. Li, and J.-F. Zhang, “Controllable generation and propagation of asymptotic parabolic optical waves in graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013838 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Finot, B. Barviau, G. Millot, A. Guryanov, A. Sysoliatin, and S. Wabnitz, “Parabolic pulse generation with active or passive dispersion decreasing optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 15824–15835 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. T. Hirooka and M. Nakazawa, “Parabolic pulse generation by use of a dispersion-decreasing fiber with normal group-velocity dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 29, 498–500 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, Boston, 2001).
  17. S. A. Ponomarenko and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear interaction of two or more similaritons in loss- and dispersion-managed fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 983–989 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  18. V. A. Bogatyrevet al, “A single-mode fiber with chromatic dispersion varying along thelength,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 561 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, and R. Kashyap, “Comblike dispersion-profiled fiber for soliton pulse train generation,” Opt. Lett. 19, 539–541 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. B. Kibler, C. Billet, P. A. Lacourt, R. Ferriere, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Parabolic pulse generation in comblike profiled dispersion decreasing fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42, 965–966 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. R. Tamura and M. Nakazawa, “54-fs, 10-GHz soliton generation from a polarization-maintaining dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreasing fiber pulse compressor,” Opt. Lett. 26, 762–764 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  22. V. N. Serkin and A. Hasegawa, “Exactly integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equation models with varying dispersion, nonlinearity and gain: Application for soliton dispersion managements,” IEEE Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 418–432 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  23. V. N. Serkin, M. Matsumoto, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Bright and dark solitary nonlinear Bloch waves in dispersion managed fiber systems and soliton lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 159–171 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  24. L. Li, X. S. Zhao, and Z. Y. Xu, “Dark solitons on an intense parabolic background in nonlinear waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063833 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Busch and J. R. Anglin, “Motion of dark solitons in trapped bose-einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2298–2301 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. C. H. Tenorio, E. V. Vargas, V. N. Serkin, M. A. Granados, T. L. Belyaeva, R. P. Moreno, and L. M. Lara, “Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external harmonic potential: Part II. Dark solitons,” Quantum Electronics,  35, 929–937 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  27. L. Wu, J. F. Zhang, L. Li, C. Finot, and K. Porsezian, “Similaritons interaction in nonlinear graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 053807 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. Y. S. Kivshar and W. Krolikowski, “Lagrangian approach for dark solitons,” Opt. Commun. 114, 353–362 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  29. It happens when the depth of the dark similariton is shallow, i.e., the velocity of dark similartion in large).

2008 (4)

L. Wu, L. Li, and J.-F. Zhang, “Controllable generation and propagation of asymptotic parabolic optical waves in graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013838 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ponomarenko and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear interaction of two or more similaritons in loss- and dispersion-managed fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 983–989 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Li, X. S. Zhao, and Z. Y. Xu, “Dark solitons on an intense parabolic background in nonlinear waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063833 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, J. F. Zhang, L. Li, C. Finot, and K. Porsezian, “Similaritons interaction in nonlinear graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 053807 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

2006 (3)

S. A. Ponomarenko and G. P. Agrawal, “Do Solitonlike Self-Similar Waves Exist in Nonlinear Optical Media?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013901–013904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki and T. Inoue, “Stationary rescaled pulse in dispersion-decreasing fiber for pedestal-free pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1606–1608 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kibler, C. Billet, P. A. Lacourt, R. Ferriere, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Parabolic pulse generation in comblike profiled dispersion decreasing fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42, 965–966 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. H. Tenorio, E. V. Vargas, V. N. Serkin, M. A. Granados, T. L. Belyaeva, R. P. Moreno, and L. M. Lara, “Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external harmonic potential: Part II. Dark solitons,” Quantum Electronics,  35, 929–937 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, L. Yi, D.-S. Guo, and P. Lu, “Self-similar evolutions of parabolic, Hermite-Gaussian, and hybrid optical pulses: Universality and diversity,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016622–016606 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, and J. D. Harvey, “Exact self-similar solutions of the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with distributed coefficients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113902–113905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

V. N. Serkin and A. Hasegawa, “Exactly integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equation models with varying dispersion, nonlinearity and gain: Application for soliton dispersion managements,” IEEE Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 418–432 (2002)
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

V. N. Serkin, M. Matsumoto, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Bright and dark solitary nonlinear Bloch waves in dispersion managed fiber systems and soliton lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 159–171 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. R. Tamura and M. Nakazawa, “54-fs, 10-GHz soliton generation from a polarization-maintaining dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreasing fiber pulse compressor,” Opt. Lett. 26, 762–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

T. Busch and J. R. Anglin, “Motion of dark solitons in trapped bose-einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2298–2301 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. N. Serkin and A. Hasegawa, “Novel soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation Model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4502–4505 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation of high-power parabolic pulses in optical fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 175–177 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

Y. S. Kivshar and W. Krolikowski, “Lagrangian approach for dark solitons,” Opt. Commun. 114, 353–362 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

V. A. Bogatyrevet al, “A single-mode fiber with chromatic dispersion varying along thelength,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 561 (1991).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

N. J. Zabusky and M. D. Kruskal, “Interaction of ‘solitons’ in a collisionless plasma and the recurrence of initial states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 240–243 (1965).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

Anglin, J. R.

T. Busch and J. R. Anglin, “Motion of dark solitons in trapped bose-einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2298–2301 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barviau, B.

Belyaeva, T. L.

V. N. Serkin, A. Hasegawa, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Nonautonomous solitons in external potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 074102–074105 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Tenorio, E. V. Vargas, V. N. Serkin, M. A. Granados, T. L. Belyaeva, R. P. Moreno, and L. M. Lara, “Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external harmonic potential: Part II. Dark solitons,” Quantum Electronics,  35, 929–937 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. N. Serkin, M. Matsumoto, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Bright and dark solitary nonlinear Bloch waves in dispersion managed fiber systems and soliton lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 159–171 (2001).
[Crossref]

Billet, C.

B. Kibler, C. Billet, P. A. Lacourt, R. Ferriere, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Parabolic pulse generation in comblike profiled dispersion decreasing fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42, 965–966 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bogatyrev, V. A.

V. A. Bogatyrevet al, “A single-mode fiber with chromatic dispersion varying along thelength,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 561 (1991).
[Crossref]

Busch, T.

T. Busch and J. R. Anglin, “Motion of dark solitons in trapped bose-einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2298–2301 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, L. Yi, D.-S. Guo, and P. Lu, “Self-similar evolutions of parabolic, Hermite-Gaussian, and hybrid optical pulses: Universality and diversity,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016622–016606 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chernikov, S. V.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 597 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Kibler, C. Billet, P. A. Lacourt, R. Ferriere, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Parabolic pulse generation in comblike profiled dispersion decreasing fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42, 965–966 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation of high-power parabolic pulses in optical fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 175–177 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferriere, R.

B. Kibler, C. Billet, P. A. Lacourt, R. Ferriere, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Parabolic pulse generation in comblike profiled dispersion decreasing fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42, 965–966 (2006).
[Crossref]

Finot, C.

L. Wu, J. F. Zhang, L. Li, C. Finot, and K. Porsezian, “Similaritons interaction in nonlinear graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 053807 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Finot, B. Barviau, G. Millot, A. Guryanov, A. Sysoliatin, and S. Wabnitz, “Parabolic pulse generation with active or passive dispersion decreasing optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 15824–15835 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 597 (2007).
[Crossref]

Granados, M. A.

C. H. Tenorio, E. V. Vargas, V. N. Serkin, M. A. Granados, T. L. Belyaeva, R. P. Moreno, and L. M. Lara, “Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external harmonic potential: Part II. Dark solitons,” Quantum Electronics,  35, 929–937 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guo, D.-S.

S. Chen, L. Yi, D.-S. Guo, and P. Lu, “Self-similar evolutions of parabolic, Hermite-Gaussian, and hybrid optical pulses: Universality and diversity,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016622–016606 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guryanov, A.

Harvey, J. D.

V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, and J. D. Harvey, “Exact self-similar solutions of the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with distributed coefficients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113902–113905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation of high-power parabolic pulses in optical fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 175–177 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, A.

V. N. Serkin, A. Hasegawa, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Nonautonomous solitons in external potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 074102–074105 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. N. Serkin and A. Hasegawa, “Exactly integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equation models with varying dispersion, nonlinearity and gain: Application for soliton dispersion managements,” IEEE Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 418–432 (2002)
[Crossref]

V. N. Serkin and A. Hasegawa, “Novel soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation Model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4502–4505 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiva Kumar and A. Hasegawa, “Quasi-soliton propagation in dispersion-managed optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 372–374 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirooka, T.

Inoue, T.

Kashyap, R.

Kibler, B.

B. Kibler, C. Billet, P. A. Lacourt, R. Ferriere, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Parabolic pulse generation in comblike profiled dispersion decreasing fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42, 965–966 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Y. S. Kivshar and W. Krolikowski, “Lagrangian approach for dark solitons,” Opt. Commun. 114, 353–362 (1995).
[Crossref]

Krolikowski, W.

Y. S. Kivshar and W. Krolikowski, “Lagrangian approach for dark solitons,” Opt. Commun. 114, 353–362 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kruglov, V. I.

V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, and J. D. Harvey, “Exact self-similar solutions of the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with distributed coefficients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113902–113905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation of high-power parabolic pulses in optical fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 175–177 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kruskal, M. D.

N. J. Zabusky and M. D. Kruskal, “Interaction of ‘solitons’ in a collisionless plasma and the recurrence of initial states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 240–243 (1965).
[Crossref]

Kumar, Shiva

Lacourt, P. A.

B. Kibler, C. Billet, P. A. Lacourt, R. Ferriere, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Parabolic pulse generation in comblike profiled dispersion decreasing fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42, 965–966 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lara, L. M.

C. H. Tenorio, E. V. Vargas, V. N. Serkin, M. A. Granados, T. L. Belyaeva, R. P. Moreno, and L. M. Lara, “Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external harmonic potential: Part II. Dark solitons,” Quantum Electronics,  35, 929–937 (2005).
[Crossref]

Larger, L.

B. Kibler, C. Billet, P. A. Lacourt, R. Ferriere, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Parabolic pulse generation in comblike profiled dispersion decreasing fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42, 965–966 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, X. S. Zhao, and Z. Y. Xu, “Dark solitons on an intense parabolic background in nonlinear waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063833 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, L. Li, and J.-F. Zhang, “Controllable generation and propagation of asymptotic parabolic optical waves in graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013838 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, J. F. Zhang, L. Li, C. Finot, and K. Porsezian, “Similaritons interaction in nonlinear graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 053807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lu, P.

S. Chen, L. Yi, D.-S. Guo, and P. Lu, “Self-similar evolutions of parabolic, Hermite-Gaussian, and hybrid optical pulses: Universality and diversity,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016622–016606 (2005).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, M.

V. N. Serkin, M. Matsumoto, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Bright and dark solitary nonlinear Bloch waves in dispersion managed fiber systems and soliton lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 159–171 (2001).
[Crossref]

Millot, G.

Moreno, R. P.

C. H. Tenorio, E. V. Vargas, V. N. Serkin, M. A. Granados, T. L. Belyaeva, R. P. Moreno, and L. M. Lara, “Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external harmonic potential: Part II. Dark solitons,” Quantum Electronics,  35, 929–937 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nakazawa, M.

Ozeki, Y.

Peacock, A. C.

V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, and J. D. Harvey, “Exact self-similar solutions of the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with distributed coefficients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113902–113905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation of high-power parabolic pulses in optical fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 175–177 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ponomarenko, S. A.

Porsezian, K.

L. Wu, J. F. Zhang, L. Li, C. Finot, and K. Porsezian, “Similaritons interaction in nonlinear graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 053807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 597 (2007).
[Crossref]

Serkin, V. N.

V. N. Serkin, A. Hasegawa, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Nonautonomous solitons in external potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 074102–074105 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Tenorio, E. V. Vargas, V. N. Serkin, M. A. Granados, T. L. Belyaeva, R. P. Moreno, and L. M. Lara, “Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external harmonic potential: Part II. Dark solitons,” Quantum Electronics,  35, 929–937 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. N. Serkin and A. Hasegawa, “Exactly integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equation models with varying dispersion, nonlinearity and gain: Application for soliton dispersion managements,” IEEE Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 418–432 (2002)
[Crossref]

V. N. Serkin, M. Matsumoto, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Bright and dark solitary nonlinear Bloch waves in dispersion managed fiber systems and soliton lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 159–171 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. N. Serkin and A. Hasegawa, “Novel soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation Model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4502–4505 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sysoliatin, A.

Tamura, K. R.

Taylor, J. R.

Tenorio, C. H.

C. H. Tenorio, E. V. Vargas, V. N. Serkin, M. A. Granados, T. L. Belyaeva, R. P. Moreno, and L. M. Lara, “Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external harmonic potential: Part II. Dark solitons,” Quantum Electronics,  35, 929–937 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thomsen, B. C.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vargas, E. V.

C. H. Tenorio, E. V. Vargas, V. N. Serkin, M. A. Granados, T. L. Belyaeva, R. P. Moreno, and L. M. Lara, “Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external harmonic potential: Part II. Dark solitons,” Quantum Electronics,  35, 929–937 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wabnitz, S.

Wu, L.

L. Wu, L. Li, and J.-F. Zhang, “Controllable generation and propagation of asymptotic parabolic optical waves in graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013838 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, J. F. Zhang, L. Li, C. Finot, and K. Porsezian, “Similaritons interaction in nonlinear graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 053807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. Y.

L. Li, X. S. Zhao, and Z. Y. Xu, “Dark solitons on an intense parabolic background in nonlinear waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063833 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yi, L.

S. Chen, L. Yi, D.-S. Guo, and P. Lu, “Self-similar evolutions of parabolic, Hermite-Gaussian, and hybrid optical pulses: Universality and diversity,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016622–016606 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zabusky, N. J.

N. J. Zabusky and M. D. Kruskal, “Interaction of ‘solitons’ in a collisionless plasma and the recurrence of initial states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 240–243 (1965).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. F.

L. Wu, J. F. Zhang, L. Li, C. Finot, and K. Porsezian, “Similaritons interaction in nonlinear graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 053807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.-F.

L. Wu, L. Li, and J.-F. Zhang, “Controllable generation and propagation of asymptotic parabolic optical waves in graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013838 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. S.

L. Li, X. S. Zhao, and Z. Y. Xu, “Dark solitons on an intense parabolic background in nonlinear waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063833 (2008).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Kibler, C. Billet, P. A. Lacourt, R. Ferriere, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Parabolic pulse generation in comblike profiled dispersion decreasing fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42, 965–966 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

V. A. Bogatyrevet al, “A single-mode fiber with chromatic dispersion varying along thelength,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 561 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (1)

V. N. Serkin and A. Hasegawa, “Exactly integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equation models with varying dispersion, nonlinearity and gain: Application for soliton dispersion managements,” IEEE Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 418–432 (2002)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 597 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

V. N. Serkin, M. Matsumoto, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Bright and dark solitary nonlinear Bloch waves in dispersion managed fiber systems and soliton lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 159–171 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Kivshar and W. Krolikowski, “Lagrangian approach for dark solitons,” Opt. Commun. 114, 353–362 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

L. Li, X. S. Zhao, and Z. Y. Xu, “Dark solitons on an intense parabolic background in nonlinear waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063833 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, J. F. Zhang, L. Li, C. Finot, and K. Porsezian, “Similaritons interaction in nonlinear graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 053807 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, L. Li, and J.-F. Zhang, “Controllable generation and propagation of asymptotic parabolic optical waves in graded-index waveguide amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013838 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. Chen, L. Yi, D.-S. Guo, and P. Lu, “Self-similar evolutions of parabolic, Hermite-Gaussian, and hybrid optical pulses: Universality and diversity,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016622–016606 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

N. J. Zabusky and M. D. Kruskal, “Interaction of ‘solitons’ in a collisionless plasma and the recurrence of initial states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 240–243 (1965).
[Crossref]

V. N. Serkin, A. Hasegawa, and T. L. Belyaeva, “Nonautonomous solitons in external potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 074102–074105 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Quantum Electronics (1)

C. H. Tenorio, E. V. Vargas, V. N. Serkin, M. A. Granados, T. L. Belyaeva, R. P. Moreno, and L. M. Lara, “Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external harmonic potential: Part II. Dark solitons,” Quantum Electronics,  35, 929–937 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

It happens when the depth of the dark similariton is shallow, i.e., the velocity of dark similartion in large).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, Boston, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Interaction of two dark similaritons on the self-similar compact parabolic background. The initial parameters for the first dark soliton (left) are Q 1(0) = −5,ϕ 1(0) = 0, that of the second (right) are Q 2(0) =5,ϕ 2(0) =π/8. Other parameters are A=2, K = 0.01, C = −0.1, tc (0) = 1 and b = 0.1. Red and blue lines represents the theoretical predictions and numerical simulations, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Evolution of three dark similaritons on the self-similar compact parabolic background (contour plot of ∣u2). The red, blue and green lines represent the trajectories of dark similaritons for Q 1 (0) = 5,ϕ 1(0) = π/8, Q 2(0) = 0,ϕ 2(0) = − π/8, and Q 3(0) = −5,ϕ 3(0) = 0, respectively. Other parameters are the same with that in Fig. 1. Inset: the comparison between the numerical/theoretical (blue/red lines) results.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Evolution of the dark similaritons, which initially locate at t = −1, with ϕ(0) = 0 in (a) and ϕ(0) = −π/5 in (b). From tom to bottom, z =30, 27, 24, 21 and 18. The black and color lines are the results of theoretical predictions and numerical simulations, respectively. The parameters used are A = 2,Tmax = 30, Wz (0) = 0, tc (0) = b = 0, and β(z) = exp(−0.01z).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Evolution of two dark similaritons on the self-similar compact parabolic background (contour plot of ∣u2). The red and blue lines represent the trajectories of dark similaritons for t r1 (0) = 5,ϕ 1(0) = π/10 and t r2(0) = −5,ϕ 2(0) = −π/10, respectively. The background parameter are the same with that in Fig. 3, and β = 1 − 0.01z. Inset: the comparison between the numerical/theoretical(blue/red lines) results.

Equations (15)

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iuzβ(z)2utt+γ|u|2u=0.
u(z,t)=1WU(Z,T)exp(iWz2t2),
iUz+v2UTTU2U=K2T2U ,
W2(Wzzβ2βWz)=.
β(z)=cosh(δz)+Csinh(δz)/δ,
Ub(Z,T)=A2KT2/2exp(iA2Z),
U=Ub{cosϕtanh[Acosϕ(Tvq)]+isinϕ},
Qzz+Kv2Q=vZ2vQZ,
u2=A2W(z)2 {1[ttc(z)]2Tmax2W(z)2} {1cosϕ2sech2[Acosϕttc(z)tr(z)W(z)β(z)]} .
trzz=(WzzWWz2W2+WzβWβz2βW2Wz2W3)tr+12(βzβ+WzW)trzF(tr,trz),
trzz=K2β2tr+βzβtrz.
sinϕ=trWz/WtrzAβ/W.
U=Ubi=1N{cosϕitanh[Avcosϕi(TQi)]+isinϕi}
Fij=2A3vsech2(AQij/v)tanh(AQij/v)
trizz=F(tri,triz)+j=1N2A3vWsech2(Δ)tanh(Δ),

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