Abstract

Broadband nanowire-grid polarizers were designed and numerically simulated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Using a broadband stimulation source, optical properties of the polarizers were analyzed in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible-near infrared (NIR) regions. Specifically, the extinction ratios and optical transmittances of transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes were characterized for different metal materials and geometrical parameters including wire-grid periods, metal-wire fill ratios, and spacing between wire-grid layers. Based on the simulation results, an extra broadband polarizer with an average extinction ratio higher than 70 dB and transmission efficiency over 64% in the range of 0.3 to 5 µm was proposed.

©2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Polarizers are important devices for optical systems such as free-space optical switching networks, fiber-optic networks, read-write magneto-optic data storage systems, and polarization-based imaging systems [14]. Conventional polarizers have large sizes that limit their applications. Subwavelength metal wire grids are a potential candidate for making a high-quality integration-capable thin-film-type polarizer, since the structures are compact and planar and have high performance of high extinction ratio, transmittance, and reflectance with a wide incident angle and wavelength range [5]. Subwavelength metal wire-grid polarizers are widely used in the radio, microwave, and IR spectral regions [6]. With the development of nanolithographic technology, it is possible to apply this type of polarizers into the near infrared (NIR), visible, and UV regions [5, 710]. In 2005, Wang [2] and Zhou [11] fabricated nanowire-grid polarizers using UV nanoimprint lithography and e-beam lithography independently. The grid period was about 200 nm, suitable for working in NIR. In 2006, Ekinci [12] and Wang [13] succeeded in fabricating nanowire-grid polarizers with about 100 nm periods using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) interference lithography. The devices can work in the region from 300 to 900 nm. However, up to now, a broadband polarizer which can work in the region from 0.3 to 5 µm has not been proposed and studied.

In this study, the FDTD method was used to design the nanowire-grid polarizers in the UV-Visible-NIR regions. Several metal materials, including gold (Au), silver (Ag), chromium (Cr), and Al, were studied. It is found that Al has preferred optical performances in the region from 0.3 to 5µ m. Al wire-grid polarizers with a wide variety of geometrical parameters were simulated. Based on the analysis, a broadband Al nanowire-grid polarizer was proposed. The simulation results indicated that an average extinction ratio over 70 dB and a transmission efficiency over 64% could be achieved.

2. Simulation models

The optical properties of nanowire-grid polarizers with different metal materials and structures were analyzed using the FDTD method. Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a structure used in the simulation. Metal wire-grids are embedded in a silica substrate. The refractive index of the silica substrate is 1.46 and frequency independent. It is assumed that all the metal wire-grids are sufficiently long along the Y direction so that a two dimensional FDTD method can be used to simplify the simulation. A plane wave illuminated the nanowire-grid polarizer along the positive Z direction for TM (magnetic field parallel to the Y direction) and TE (electric field parallel to the Y direction) modes. In the calculation, the plane wave is a broadband Gaussian-modulated pulsed light source which can be expressed as:

T(t)=exp[12(ttefftw)]·sin(ωt),

where toff is the offset time, tw the half width of the pulse, and ω the central frequency of the source. Using this broadband excitation source, information about all the frequencies can be obtained in a single calculation. For the study of UV-Visible regions, the following parameters were used: ω=0.6×1015Hz, toff=1×10-14 s, and tw=1×10-15 s; for NIR region: ω=0.12×1015Hz, toff=1×10-14 s, and tw=0.8×10-15 s. Figures 2(a) and 2(b) show the UV-visible excitation source both in time and frequency domains, respectively. Four metals, Au, Ag, Cr, and Al, whose dielectric functions were described by the Lorentz-Drude model [14], were used in the calculations. The perfectly matched layers (PML) [15] were along the Z direction. The boundaries along the X direction were confined with the periodic boundary conditions (PBC) [16] due to the periodicity of the wire-grids. This simplification greatly reduced the computation time. To make the calculations more stable, the space and time steps were set to be 0.5 nm and 1×10-3 fs, respectively. Figures 3 and 4 show the TM and TE polarized sources passing through an Al nanowire-grid polarizer. w: Wire width p: Grid period Silica Metal wire

 

Fig. 1. The structure of the nanowire-grid polarizer used in simulation. t is the grid thickness; w is the wire width; and p is the grid period.

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Fig. 2. The function curves in time (a) and frequency (b) domains of the broadband simulation excitation source, which has the expression of Eq. (1).

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Fig. 3. (1.25 MB) Movie of TM mode light source passing through the Al nanowire-grid polarizer. [Media 1]

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Fig. 4. (0.8 MB). Movie of TE mode light source passing through the Al nanowire-grid polarizer. [Media 2]

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3. Simulation results and analyses

3.1 Nanowire grids with different metals

Nanowire-grid polarizers with different metals, Au, Ag, Cr, and Al, were simulated. The cross-section of the simulation structure is shown in Fig. 5. The polarizers consisted of one layer of metal wire-grid. The thickness and width of the metal wires were both 40 nm. The period was 80 nm. The optical transmittances of TM and TE modes and the extinction ratios of Au, Ag, Cr, and Al are shown in Figs. 6(a), 6(b), 6(c), and 6(d), respectively. From Fig. 6, it is found that the Al wire-grid polarizers have the best optical performance in the range from 0.3 to 5 µm. Especially in UV-Visible regions, the average transmission efficiency and extinction ratio of the Al nanowire-grid polarizer were 74% and 19.4. Those of Au, Ag, and Cr, however, were (41%, 1.09), (39%, 0.88), and (54%, 6.17), respectively. The difference between the optical performances of Al and other metals could be explained by the following equation:

R=(n1)2+κ2(n+1)2+κ2,

where R is the reflectivity between the metal and the air, n and κ are the refractive index and the extinction coefficient of the metal material, respectively. Al has the largest extinction coefficient and relatively small refractive index in the UV-visible-NIR regions [17]. Therefore, Al wire-grids have a higher reflection for the TE mode light in the regions than that of other metal materials. In the following simulations, Al was used as the metal material for the nanowire-grids.

3.2 Dependence on grid periods

With the development of nanolithography technology, the available feature size of patterns is becoming smaller and smaller. Fabrication of grids with about 100 nm periods has been realized by the EUV interference lithography [12, 13]. This capability provides more flexibility for designing wire-grid polarizers in the UV-visible-NIR regions.

 

Fig. 5. The cross-section of the nanowire-grid polarizer with different metal materials.

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Fig. 6. The simulation results (transmittances of TE and TM modes, and extinction ratios) of nanowire-grid polarizers with different metal materials.

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Structures with different periods (from 20 to 200 nm) were calculated, in which the wire thickness, and fill ratio were kept at 40 nm and 50%. The optical transmittances of TM and TE modes and extinction ratios are shown in Fig. 7. It could be seen that the smaller the period is, the higher the optical performance a polarizer has. When the period is larger than 120 nm, fluctuation in the transmission efficiency and the extinction ratio occurs. The reason is that when the period reaches the order of the light wavelength, the scattering loss becomes significant. However, smaller periods impose difficulty in fabrication processes. Therefore, a proper selection of periods for the polarizers is important. According to the present lithography capability, a 80 nm period is suitable for the extra broadband wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, the optical performance of the polarizers could be improved by other methods including increasing the number of layers, which will be addressed later.

 

Fig. 7. The simulation results of nanowire-grid polarizers with different grid periods. The transmittances of TE and TM modes, and extinction ratios are shown in (a), (b), and (c), respectively.

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3.3 Influence of different fill ratios

Al wire-grid polarizers with different fill ratios (25%, 50%, 62.5%, and 87.5%) were simulated. The wire-grid thickness and period were kept at 40 and 80 nm. The transmittances of TM, TE modes and extinction ratios are shown in Fig. 8. With the increase in the fill ratio, the extinction ratios are increased while the transmission efficiencies are decreased. To obtain a high extinction ratio and proper transmission efficiency, polarizers with fill ratios between 50% and 62.5% are desirable.

3.4 Polarizers with F-P like dual-layer wire-grids

In general, nanowire-grid polarizers with a single layer cannot reach high optical performances. Therefore, other methods should be applied to improve their performance, such as increasing the number of layers. In 2000, Chou [7] realized a planar polarizer with a subwavelength dual-layer metal grating experimentally. Figure 9 shows a schematic diagram of the F-P (Fabry-Perot) like dual-layer wire-grid polarizers. In order to study the optical response of light propagating in the dual-layer wire-grid polarizers, calculations with different spacing between the layers were conducted. In the calculations, the thickness of the Al wires was set to be 40 nm with a fill ratio of 50% and a grid period of 80 nm. The simulation results are shown in Fig. 10. The extinctions of the dual-layer polarizers were much better than those of the single-layer polarizers. Furthermore, it is found that the transmittances of both TM and TE modes are dominated by strong oscillations that are similar to an F-P interferometer. This phenomenon can be explained by fact that the light transmitted through the first wire-grid layer was partially reflected by the second grating and it traveled back and forth between the two layers, leading to constructive or destructive interference at certain separations. The transmittance of a typical F-P interferometer with two identical interfaces is given by the following equations [6]:

T=T021+R022R0cos(δ),
δ=m4πndλ+2φ,

where T0 is the transmittance of the interface, R0 the reflectance of the interface, λ the light wavelength, d the spacing between the interfaces, n the refractive index between the layers, and m an integer. As shown in both equations, when the wavelength is increased the oscillation period of the transmittance is increased, which can be found in the simulation results shown in Fig. 10. From the figures, it is also found that when the spacing is 20 nm the polarizer will have better optical performances in the region from 0.3 to 5 µm.

 

Fig. 8. The calculation results of nanowire-grid polarizers with different fill ratios.

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Fig. 9. The structures of a polarizer with F-P like dual-layer wire grids.

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Fig. 10. The simulation results of F-P like dual-layer wire-grid polarizers with different spacing. The optical responses at different wavelengths of 300, 500, 900, 1200, 2000, and 4000 nm are shown in (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f), respectively.

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3.5 A broadband nanowire-grid polarizer covering the UV, visible, and NIR regions

Based on the simulation results, a broadband nanowire-grid polarizer on a calcium fluoride (CaF2) substrate is proposed. Figure 11 shows the cross-section of the polarizer. On both surfaces of the substrate, there are dual-layer Al wire grids. The period of the grid is 80 nm with a fill ratio of 50%. The spacing between the two layers is 20 nm. The thickness is 40 nm. Since CaF2 is a transparent material in a broad band (from 0.25 to 7 µm) and has a very low refractive index (n=1.4), polarizers based on it will have a broad transparent spectrum and low reflection loss. The optical transmittances and extinction ratios calculated using the FDTD method are shown in Fig. 12(a). As seen in the results, the polarizer has an average extinction ratio higher than 70 dB and transmission efficiency over 64% in the wavelength range from 0.3 to 5 µm. In order to compare the difference between the F-P like dual-layer structure and the single-layer structure, we also performed the calculations of the single-layer structure on both surfaces of the substrate. The period of the grid is 80 nm with a fill ratio of 50% and a thickness of 40 nm. The calculation results are shown in Fig. 12(b). Although the transmission efficiency of the single-layer structure is higher than that of the F-P like dual-layer structure, the extinction ratio of the single-layer structure is much lower.

 

Fig. 11. The structure of a proposed broadband Al nanowire-grid polarizer, which has ideal optical performance in the UV, visible, and infrared regions.

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Fig. 12. The simulation results of the proposed broadband Al nanowire-grid polarizer in a wide region from 0.3 to 5 µ m, (a) F-P like dual-layer structure; (b) single-layer structure.

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4. Conclusions

The optical performances of nanowire-grid polariers in UV-visible-NIR regions were studied using the FDTD method. Comparing with several different metals, Al wire-grid polarizers have better optical performances in the regions from 0.3 to 5 µm. The geometrical parameters, such as the grid period, the fill ratio, and the spacing, can greatly affect the optical performances of the polarizers. In the UV-visible-NIR regions, small grid periods, appropriate fill ratios between 50% and 62.5%, and small spacing between layers are the key factors to improve the optical performances of the wire-grid polarizers.

Based on the simulation results, a broadband nano-wire-grid polarizer was designed and simulated. The proposed polarizer has an average extinction ratio over 70 dB and transmission efficiency over 64% in a wide range from 0.3 to 5 µm. In general, nanowire-grid polarizers have ideal optical performances in the infrared region, as long as the substrate materials are transparent in this region. For wire-grid polarizers, therefore, how to fabricate wire grids as small as possible is the most important issue. Although this work was not intended to optimize all design parameters, it is expected that with the development of nanotechnology wire-grid polarizers will be widely used in the UV, visible, and infrared regions.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Y.X. Han and M. Zhao for their assistance. This work is financially supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. ECS 0629280) and Air Force Science Foundation under (Grant No. FA9550-05-1-0453).

References and links

1. U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).

2. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431. [CrossRef]  

3. M. Ojima, A. Saito, T. Kaku, M. Ito, Y. Tsunoda, S. Takayama, and Y. Sugita, “Compact magneto-optical disk for coded data storage,” Appl. Opt. 25, 483 (1986), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-25-4-483. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. P. Kunstmann and H.-J. Spitschan, “General complex amplitude addition in a polarization interferometer in the detection of pattern differences,” Opt. Commun. 4, 166 (1971). [CrossRef]  

5. J. J. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Deng, J. Deng, F. Liu, P. Sciortino, and L. Chen, “High-performance nanowiregrid polarizers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 195 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-2-195. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. E. Hecht, Optics, (4th Edition, Addison Wesley, 2002), pp. 333.

7. Z. Yu, P. Deshpande, W. Wu, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chou, “Reflective polarizer based on a stacked doublelayer subwavelength metal grating structure fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 927 (2000). [CrossRef]  

8. H. Tamada, T. Doumiki, T. Yamaguchi, and S. Matsumoto, “Al wire-grid polarizer using the spolarization resonance effect at the 0.8-µm-wavelength band,” Opt. Lett. 22, 419 (1997), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-22-6-419. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. D. Kim, “Polarization characteristics of a wire-grid polarizer in a rotating platform,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1366 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-8-1366. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. B. Schnabel, E-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38, 220 (1999). [CrossRef]  

11. L. Zhou and W. Liu, “Broadband polarizing beam splitter with an embedded metal-wire nanograting,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1434 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-12-1434. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. David, and H. Sigg, “Bilayer Al wire-grids as broadband and high-performance polarizers,” Opt. Express 14, 2323 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. M. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. G. Deng, “High-performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 61104 (2007). [CrossRef]  

14. A. D. Rakic, A. B. Djurisic, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5271 (1998), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-22-5271. [CrossRef]  

15. J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. , 114, 185 (1994). [CrossRef]  

16. P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 42, 1317 (1994). [CrossRef]  

17. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic Press, 1985), pp. 275.

References

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  • |

  1. U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).
  2. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Ojima, A. Saito, T. Kaku, M. Ito, Y. Tsunoda, S. Takayama, and Y. Sugita, “Compact magneto-optical disk for coded data storage,” Appl. Opt. 25, 483 (1986), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-25-4-483.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. Kunstmann and H.-J. Spitschan, “General complex amplitude addition in a polarization interferometer in the detection of pattern differences,” Opt. Commun. 4, 166 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. J. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Deng, J. Deng, F. Liu, P. Sciortino, and L. Chen, “High-performance nanowiregrid polarizers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 195 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-2-195.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. Hecht, Optics, (4th Edition, Addison Wesley, 2002), pp. 333.
  7. Z. Yu, P. Deshpande, W. Wu, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chou, “Reflective polarizer based on a stacked doublelayer subwavelength metal grating structure fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 927 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Tamada, T. Doumiki, T. Yamaguchi, and S. Matsumoto, “Al wire-grid polarizer using the spolarization resonance effect at the 0.8-µm-wavelength band,” Opt. Lett. 22, 419 (1997), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-22-6-419.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Kim, “Polarization characteristics of a wire-grid polarizer in a rotating platform,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1366 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-8-1366.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. B. Schnabel, E-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38, 220 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. Zhou and W. Liu, “Broadband polarizing beam splitter with an embedded metal-wire nanograting,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1434 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-12-1434.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. David, and H. Sigg, “Bilayer Al wire-grids as broadband and high-performance polarizers,” Opt. Express 14, 2323 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. M. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. G. Deng, “High-performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 61104 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. D. Rakic, A. B. Djurisic, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5271 (1998), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-22-5271.
    [Crossref]
  15. J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys.,  114, 185 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 42, 1317 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic Press, 1985), pp. 275.

2007 (1)

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. M. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. G. Deng, “High-performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 61104 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).

2000 (1)

Z. Yu, P. Deshpande, W. Wu, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chou, “Reflective polarizer based on a stacked doublelayer subwavelength metal grating structure fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 927 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B. Schnabel, E-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38, 220 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1994 (2)

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys.,  114, 185 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 42, 1317 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1971 (1)

P. Kunstmann and H.-J. Spitschan, “General complex amplitude addition in a polarization interferometer in the detection of pattern differences,” Opt. Commun. 4, 166 (1971).
[Crossref]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys.,  114, 185 (1994).
[Crossref]

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).

Chen, L.

Chou, S. Y.

Z. Yu, P. Deshpande, W. Wu, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chou, “Reflective polarizer based on a stacked doublelayer subwavelength metal grating structure fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 927 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
[Crossref]

David, C.

Deng, J.

Deng, X.

Deng, X. G.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. M. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. G. Deng, “High-performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 61104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, P.

Z. Yu, P. Deshpande, W. Wu, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chou, “Reflective polarizer based on a stacked doublelayer subwavelength metal grating structure fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 927 (2000).
[Crossref]

Djurisic, A. B.

Doumiki, T.

Ekinci, Y.

Elazar, J. M.

Fainman, Y.

U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).

Harms, P.

P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 42, 1317 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, (4th Edition, Addison Wesley, 2002), pp. 333.

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
[Crossref]

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
[Crossref]

Ito, M.

Kaku, T.

Kim, D.

Kley, E-B.

B. Schnabel, E-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38, 220 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ko, W.

P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 42, 1317 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kunstmann, P.

P. Kunstmann and H.-J. Spitschan, “General complex amplitude addition in a polarization interferometer in the detection of pattern differences,” Opt. Commun. 4, 166 (1971).
[Crossref]

Lentine, A. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
[Crossref]

Levy, U.

U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).

Liu, F.

Liu, W.

Liu, X. M.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. M. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. G. Deng, “High-performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 61104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Majewski, M. L.

Matsumoto, S.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
[Crossref]

Mittra, R.

P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 42, 1317 (1994).
[Crossref]

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, W.

U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).

Nezhad, M.

U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).

Ojima, M.

Palik, D.

D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic Press, 1985), pp. 275.

Pang, L.

U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).

Rakic, A. D.

Saito, A.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
[Crossref]

Schnabel, B.

B. Schnabel, E-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38, 220 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sciortino, P.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. M. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. G. Deng, “High-performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 61104 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Deng, J. Deng, F. Liu, P. Sciortino, and L. Chen, “High-performance nanowiregrid polarizers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 195 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-2-195.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigg, H.

Solak, H. H.

Spitschan, H.-J.

P. Kunstmann and H.-J. Spitschan, “General complex amplitude addition in a polarization interferometer in the detection of pattern differences,” Opt. Commun. 4, 166 (1971).
[Crossref]

Sugita, Y.

Takayama, S.

Tamada, H.

Tetz, K.

U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
[Crossref]

Tsai, C.

U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).

Tsunoda, Y.

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, and J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-26-5431.
[Crossref]

Walters, F.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. M. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. G. Deng, “High-performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 61104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Z. Yu, P. Deshpande, W. Wu, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chou, “Reflective polarizer based on a stacked doublelayer subwavelength metal grating structure fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 927 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. J.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. M. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. G. Deng, “High-performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 61104 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Deng, J. Deng, F. Liu, P. Sciortino, and L. Chen, “High-performance nanowiregrid polarizers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 195 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-2-195.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

Z. Yu, P. Deshpande, W. Wu, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chou, “Reflective polarizer based on a stacked doublelayer subwavelength metal grating structure fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 927 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wyrowski, F.

B. Schnabel, E-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38, 220 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, T.

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, P. Deshpande, W. Wu, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chou, “Reflective polarizer based on a stacked doublelayer subwavelength metal grating structure fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 927 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhou, L.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. M. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. G. Deng, “High-performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 61104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, P. Deshpande, W. Wu, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chou, “Reflective polarizer based on a stacked doublelayer subwavelength metal grating structure fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 927 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. (1)

P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 42, 1317 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys.,  114, 185 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Kunstmann and H.-J. Spitschan, “General complex amplitude addition in a polarization interferometer in the detection of pattern differences,” Opt. Commun. 4, 166 (1971).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Schnabel, E-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38, 220 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE (1)

U. Levy, C. Tsai, M. Nezhad, W. Nakagawa, C. Chen, K. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Nanophotonics: materials and devices,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices, Proc. SPIE 5359, 126 (2004).

Other (2)

D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic Press, 1985), pp. 275.

E. Hecht, Optics, (4th Edition, Addison Wesley, 2002), pp. 333.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (2186 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (1134 KB)     

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The structure of the nanowire-grid polarizer used in simulation. t is the grid thickness; w is the wire width; and p is the grid period.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The function curves in time (a) and frequency (b) domains of the broadband simulation excitation source, which has the expression of Eq. (1).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (1.25 MB) Movie of TM mode light source passing through the Al nanowire-grid polarizer. [Media 1]
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (0.8 MB). Movie of TE mode light source passing through the Al nanowire-grid polarizer. [Media 2]
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The cross-section of the nanowire-grid polarizer with different metal materials.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The simulation results (transmittances of TE and TM modes, and extinction ratios) of nanowire-grid polarizers with different metal materials.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The simulation results of nanowire-grid polarizers with different grid periods. The transmittances of TE and TM modes, and extinction ratios are shown in (a), (b), and (c), respectively.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The calculation results of nanowire-grid polarizers with different fill ratios.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The structures of a polarizer with F-P like dual-layer wire grids.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. The simulation results of F-P like dual-layer wire-grid polarizers with different spacing. The optical responses at different wavelengths of 300, 500, 900, 1200, 2000, and 4000 nm are shown in (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f), respectively.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. The structure of a proposed broadband Al nanowire-grid polarizer, which has ideal optical performance in the UV, visible, and infrared regions.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. The simulation results of the proposed broadband Al nanowire-grid polarizer in a wide region from 0.3 to 5 µ m, (a) F-P like dual-layer structure; (b) single-layer structure.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( t ) = exp [ 1 2 ( t t eff t w ) ] · sin ( ω t ) ,
R = ( n 1 ) 2 + κ 2 ( n + 1 ) 2 + κ 2 ,
T = T 0 2 1 + R 0 2 2 R 0 cos ( δ ) ,
δ = m 4 π nd λ + 2 φ ,

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