Abstract

Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching is used to fabricate the monolithic beam splitter in silicon-on-insulator wafer. The near-field image shows that the symmetric 1×2 T-branch works well. The rms roughness of the corner mirror surfaces is measured by atomic force microscope, and the sidewall surface roughness of rib waveguide is evaluated by the corner mirror rms roughness. The scattering losses from the rough sidewall surfaces and the rough mirror surfaces are evaluated to be 0.5 dB/cm and 0.2 dB/mirror, respectively. And the fiber-waveguide insertion loss is measured approximately 5.0 dB.

©2004 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In recent years, small radii of curvature in optical communication systems are highly desired to reduce the total chip size of integrated optical circuits. Corner mirrors offer a solution to achieve the reduction of device size. To induce abrupt changes of direction of the propagating light in semiconductor waveguides, corner mirrors that exploit total internal reflection at an interface to air are commonly employed. Such corner mirrors have been investigated by different groups in various waveguide systems [1, 2, 3, and 4]. Corner mirrors realize several kinds of integrated optical devices, such as integrated beam splitters, modulators, amplifier arrays and ring lasers.

Recently, much research work has focused upon the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material system [5, 6, 7]. The top Si layer of the SOI substrate allows for the fabrication of high-index-contrast waveguide. Intel has fabricated an SOI-based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) optical modulator with a modulation bandwidth of 2.5 GHz around 1.55 μm, which was based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor [8]. And it illustrated the concept of hybrid optical integration [9]. In the art vision, the SOI material enables the monolithic integration of SOI-based optics and electronics on a single substrate.

A three-mask lithography process is used to fabricate the monolithic beam splitter in the SOI material system. Such a monolithic beam splitter realizes the integration of rib waveguide, corner mirrors and T-branches. Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICPRIE) is used to form self-alignment U-groove, rib waveguide and corner mirrors. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is carried out to demonstrate the corner mirror rms roughness [10, 11]. The scattering losses induced from the corner mirror surfaces and the sidewall rough surfaces are evaluated by using the rms roughness data. We measure the fiber-waveguide insertion losses as the ratio between the output and input powers.

2. Experiment

The monolithic beam splitters are realized in a separation by implanted oxygen (SIMOX) SOI wafer. The SIMOX process basically consists of two steps: first, a heavy dose of oxygen is implanted on a standard silicon substrate. Second, a thermal annealing is performed to obtain a buried SiO2 layer beneath a Si overlayer. Then the epitaxial growth is performed to attain single-crystal silicon with the desired height. The starting material in our work has a three-layer structure:_a typical 8.5 μm thickness single-crystal silicon layer on the top, a 375 nm thickness silicon dioxide layer in the middle, and a 520 μm thickness crystalline silicon substrate layer. The SOI wafer is cleaned and prepared for lithography using standard wafer preparation techniques. ICPRIE is a common processing technique for the fabrication of channel waveguides. A series of SOI waveguides with new fiber-waveguide endface are fabricated on a SOI wafer using a three-mask lithography process. The first lithography and timed ICPRIE steps define and form beam splitter structures. SOI rib waveguides are etched by using a SF6/O2/C4F8 gas mixture under the etching conditions of SF6/O2 130 sccm/13 sccm, the passivation condition of C4F8 85 sccm, 10 mTorr of working pressure, and 600 W inductive power. Upon a further wafer cleaning, a second lithography process and timed ICPRIE steps are performed to form corner mirrors. At the same time, the shallow U-groove channels for fiber alignment and the optical quality waveguide endface are achieved. Using the buffered oxide etch (BOE) cleaning, the buried silicon dioxide layer is removed. And a third lithography process and timed ICPRIE steps are used to form deep U-grooves. Large ribs also make possible low loss couplings to optical fibers as a result of the good fiber-waveguide fundamental modes overlapping. For our device, the rib width is 6 μm, the inner rib height is 8.5 μm, and the etching height is 3 μm, which conform to the single-mode condition [12].

3. Results and discussion

The micrograph in Fig. 1(a) shows a top view of the 1×3 monolithic beam splitter. The top-view of the symmetric T-branch is shown in Fig. 1(b). The dimensions of the T-branch are depicted directly on Fig. 1(b), and the branch length is approximately 125μm. The inset shows the near-field image of the single-mode 1×2 T-branch. It can be found that the T-branch works well though there exists distortion to some extent when the near-field image is transferred to computer from CCD monitor system. As shown in Fig. 1(c), a rectangle groove is etched to form the corner mirror.

 

Fig. 1. (a) Top view of 1×3 compact beam splitter; (b) Top-view of T-branch, and the inset is the near-field image of the 1×2 T-branch; (c) Top-view of corner mirror.

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The scattering losses from the rough sidewall surfaces and the rough mirror surfaces are the dominant scattering loss sources. The entire area of the corner mirror surface is approximately 8.5 μm×25 μm, and the area of rectangle is approximately 20 μm×35 μm. We saw the rectangle parallel to the corner mirror surface (as shown in Fig. 1(c)). The vertical mirror plane is about 90°±0.1°. Thus a special clamp fixes the corner mirror, so that the ultra sharp AFM tip can easily access the corner mirror surface of beam splitters perpendicular to the corner mirror surface. Under the same etch parameters, the sidewall surface roughness should be very similar to that of the corner mirror. And the sidewall surface roughness of SOI rib waveguide is evaluated by the corner mirror roughness.

A series of AFM measurements were carried out to demonstrate the rms roughness of the mirror surface. The rms roughness value was calculated according to the corresponding three-dimensional surface profile. The values for all the measurements are the average numbers and these results are reproducibility. A typical three-dimensional image of the mirror surface profile obtained by AFM is presented in Fig. 2(a). The entire scanned area is 2 μm×2 μm. Vertical striations on the corner mirror surface are clearly visible because of the characteristic of ICPRIE. Figure 2(b) shows the corner mirror profiles in the etching direction and X direction, respectively. X direction is perpendicular to the etching direction. The rms roughness in the etching direction is higher than that of the X direction. The rms roughness of the corner mirror surface is approximately 12.4±0.5 nm. The surface roughness can be improved with some processing techniques to reduce the scattering loss. Kevin K. Lee et al. have reduced the rms roughness of the sidewall surface by oxidation smoothing and anisotropic etching [13]. The two methods would change the configuration of the rib waveguide. In order not to change the shape of the rib waveguide, we have adopted hydrogen annealing to smooth the sidewall surface obtained by three-mask lithography. After hydrogen annealing, there is a significant drop in the rms roughness of the sidewall surface [14]. And the value of surface roughness can be reduced to 8 nm by the multiple-step HARSE process using an ICP system [15].

Roughness of the mirror surface increases the scattering losses, and the scattering losses are theoretically analyzed by different groups [1, 16, 17, 18]. Akira Himeno et al. analyzed the scattering loss using the plane-wave scattering loss theory [16]. And Shing Man Lee et al. have modeled the rough-surface effects in turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method [17]. In their model, the simulation region can be shrunk to a small area containing only the details of the rough mirror surface, and then they calculated the forward-reflected and back-reflected powers of a guided mode from a rough turning mirror. Their results are in good agreement with that of reference [16]. We estimate the scattering loss induced from corner mirror rms roughness using the analysis results of reference [17]. The scattering loss is approximately 0.2 dB/mirror for a corner mirror with the rms roughness of 12.4 nm.

Sidewall surface induced scattering is proportional to σ2 where σ is the rms roughness [19, 20]. Tien has derived a convenient closed-form expression for scattering loss due to sidewall surface roughness, based on the Rayleigh criterion [20]. We can take the rib as a symmetric waveguide. And the sidewall surfaces are the bottom Si/air interface and the top Si/air interface of the symmetric waveguide, respectively. Thus, the scattering loss induced by sidewall surface roughness can be evaluated using Tien’s theory. The scattering loss is evaluated to be approximately 0.5dB/cm with the rms roughness of 12.4 nm.

 

Fig. 2. (a) The three-dimensional AFM image of corner mirror surface profile; (b) AFM micrographs of the corner mirror in the etching direction and X direction (the direction perpendicular to etching direction), respectively;

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Figure 3 shows the monolithic fiber-wavguide endface etched by ICPRIE. The U-groove is used to locate the single-mode fiber in front of the rib waveguide. And the inset shows the cross-sectional morphology of anti-reflection coating on the rib waveguide endface. A special clamp fixes the SOI rib waveguide, and the waveguide endfaces are perpendicular to the deposition direction so that the anti-reflection coating can be easily deposited onto the waveguide endfaces.

 

Fig. 3. New fiber-waveguide endface etched by ICPRIE, and the inset shows anti-reflection

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We measured the fiber-waveguide insertion losses as the ratio between the output and input powers using Agilent 8164A lightwave measurement system. A laser beam from a Fabry-Perot laser with wavelength 1.55 μm is launched into the device without polarization, and the polarization sensitivity of the device is not measured in the present work. It is free-space coupling, and we use an Agilent 81624B InGaAs optical head to collect all the light at the output. The results at λ=1.55 μm are 5.0±0.5 dB and 5.2±0.5 dB, respectively, in the two output waveguides of the 1×2 single-mode T-branch The split ratio is nearly 52:48. In the measured 5.0 dB fiber-waveguide-fiber loss, 3 dB is due to the fact that the symmetric T-branch is designed to be 3dB at λ=1.55 μm, and the reflection loss is below 0.2 dB for both endfaces after the AR-coatings are deposited onto the both waveguide endfaces. The scattering losses induced from sidewall and corner mirror rms roughness are estimated to be 0.9 dB from the above analysis. The remaining 0.9 dB loss is the injection loss on the both endfaces. The resulting fiber-waveguide coupling efficiency is approximately η=0.91, which is close to the theoretical value [21].

4. Summary and conclusions

In conclusion, monolithic beam splitters are fabricated in the SOI wafer by ICPRIE. We focus on the symmetric 1×2 T-branch, and then the near-field image shows that the single-mode 1×2 T-branch works well. The rms roughness of the corner mirror surface is measured by AFM, and the sidewall surface roughness of the SOI rib waveguide is evaluated by the corner mirror roughness. The scattering losses from the rough sidewall surfaces and the rough mirror surfaces are 0.5 dB/cm and 0.2 dB/mirror, respectively. And the insertion loss for the 1×2 T-branch is measured approximately 5.0 dB as the ratio between the output and input powers.

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by the grant from the 863-programe of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2001AA312070). The authors would like to thank Ms. Yuan Jiang for her help and enlightening discussion.

References

1. Stefan Wiechmann, Hans Joachim Heider, and Jörg Müller, “Analysis and Design of Integrated Optical Mirrors in Planar Waveguide Technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1584–1591 (2003). [CrossRef]  

2. Eric Cassan, Laurent Vivien, and Suzanne Laval, “Polarization-independent 90°-turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83–88 (2004). [CrossRef]  

3. Y.Z. Tang, W.H. Wang, T. Li, and Y.L. Wang, “Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. 14, 68–70(2000). [CrossRef]  

4. R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood Jr., “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002). [CrossRef]  

5. Sorin Cristoloveanu, “Silicon on insulator technologies and devices: from present to future,” Solid State Electron. 45, 1402–1411 (2001). [CrossRef]  

6. Hei Wong, “Recent developments in silicon optoelectronic devices,” Microelectron Reliab 42, 317–326 (2002). [CrossRef]  

7. Sebania Libertino, Salvatore Coffa, and Mario Saggio, “Design and fabrication of integrated Si-based opoelectronic devices,” Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. 3, 375–381(2000). [CrossRef]  

8. Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. Pierre Herve and Shlomo Ovadia, “Optical Technologies for Enterprise Networks,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 73–82 (2004).

10. J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003). [CrossRef]  

11. Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000). [CrossRef]  

12. Richard A. Soref, Joachim Schmidtchen, and Klaus Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991). [CrossRef]  

13. Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001). [CrossRef]  

14. http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s00340-004-1648-6

15. M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000). [CrossRef]  

16. Akira Himeno, Hiroshi Terui, and Morio Kobayashi, “Loss measurement and analysis of high-silica reflection bending optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 41–46 (1988). [CrossRef]  

17. S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991). [CrossRef]  

18. R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997) [CrossRef]  

19. Dietrich Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics. Second Eidtion, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1982.

20. P.K. Tien, “Light waves in thin films and integrated optics,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2395–2413 (1971). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. W.K. Burns and G.B. Hocker, “End fire coupling between optical fibers and diffused channel waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2048 (1977). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. Stefan Wiechmann, Hans Joachim Heider, and Jörg Müller, “Analysis and Design of Integrated Optical Mirrors in Planar Waveguide Technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1584–1591 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. Eric Cassan, Laurent Vivien, and Suzanne Laval, “Polarization-independent 90°-turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83–88 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y.Z. Tang, W.H. Wang, T. Li, and Y.L. Wang, “Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. 14, 68–70(2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. Sorin Cristoloveanu, “Silicon on insulator technologies and devices: from present to future,” Solid State Electron. 45, 1402–1411 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. Hei Wong, “Recent developments in silicon optoelectronic devices,” Microelectron Reliab 42, 317–326 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. Sebania Libertino, Salvatore Coffa, and Mario Saggio, “Design and fabrication of integrated Si-based opoelectronic devices,” Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. 3, 375–381(2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Pierre Herve and Shlomo Ovadia, “Optical Technologies for Enterprise Networks,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 73–82 (2004).
  10. J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. Richard A. Soref, Joachim Schmidtchen, and Klaus Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  13. Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  14. http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s00340-004-1648-6
  15. M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  16. Akira Himeno, Hiroshi Terui, and Morio Kobayashi, “Loss measurement and analysis of high-silica reflection bending optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 41–46 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  17. S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  18. R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
    [Crossref]
  19. Dietrich Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics. Second Eidtion, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1982.
  20. P.K. Tien, “Light waves in thin films and integrated optics,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2395–2413 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. W.K. Burns and G.B. Hocker, “End fire coupling between optical fibers and diffused channel waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2048 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

Eric Cassan, Laurent Vivien, and Suzanne Laval, “Polarization-independent 90°-turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83–88 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierre Herve and Shlomo Ovadia, “Optical Technologies for Enterprise Networks,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 73–82 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stefan Wiechmann, Hans Joachim Heider, and Jörg Müller, “Analysis and Design of Integrated Optical Mirrors in Planar Waveguide Technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1584–1591 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

Hei Wong, “Recent developments in silicon optoelectronic devices,” Microelectron Reliab 42, 317–326 (2002).
[Crossref]

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

Sorin Cristoloveanu, “Silicon on insulator technologies and devices: from present to future,” Solid State Electron. 45, 1402–1411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sebania Libertino, Salvatore Coffa, and Mario Saggio, “Design and fabrication of integrated Si-based opoelectronic devices,” Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. 3, 375–381(2000).
[Crossref]

Y.Z. Tang, W.H. Wang, T. Li, and Y.L. Wang, “Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. 14, 68–70(2000).
[Crossref]

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Richard A. Soref, Joachim Schmidtchen, and Klaus Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Akira Himeno, Hiroshi Terui, and Morio Kobayashi, “Loss measurement and analysis of high-silica reflection bending optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 41–46 (1988).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1971 (1)

Abeles, J. H.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adesida, I.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, Anuradha

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, R.U.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bae, J. W.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Balestra, C.L.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Burns, W.K.

Camarda, G.S.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cassan, Eric

Eric Cassan, Laurent Vivien, and Suzanne Laval, “Polarization-independent 90°-turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83–88 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chabloz, M.

M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chew, W.C.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S.-L.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Coffa, Salvatore

Sebania Libertino, Salvatore Coffa, and Mario Saggio, “Design and fabrication of integrated Si-based opoelectronic devices,” Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. 3, 375–381(2000).
[Crossref]

Cohen, Oded

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cristoloveanu, Sorin

Sorin Cristoloveanu, “Silicon on insulator technologies and devices: from present to future,” Solid State Electron. 45, 1402–1411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Espinola, R.L.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Foresi, James

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heider, Hans Joachim

Herrick, R.W.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Herve, Pierre

Pierre Herve and Shlomo Ovadia, “Optical Technologies for Enterprise Networks,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 73–82 (2004).

Himeno, Akira

Akira Himeno, Hiroshi Terui, and Morio Kobayashi, “Loss measurement and analysis of high-silica reflection bending optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 41–46 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hocker, G.B.

Jang, J. H.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jones, Richard

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimerling, Lionel C.

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, Morio

Akira Himeno, Hiroshi Terui, and Morio Kobayashi, “Loss measurement and analysis of high-silica reflection bending optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 41–46 (1988).
[Crossref]

Koster, Alain

R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
[Crossref]

Kwakernaak, M.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Laval, Suzanne

Eric Cassan, Laurent Vivien, and Suzanne Laval, “Polarization-independent 90°-turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83–88 (2004).
[Crossref]

R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
[Crossref]

Lee, Kevin K.

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.M.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lepore, A.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Y.Z. Tang, W.H. Wang, T. Li, and Y.L. Wang, “Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. 14, 68–70(2000).
[Crossref]

Liao, Ling

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Libertino, Sebania

Sebania Libertino, Salvatore Coffa, and Mario Saggio, “Design and fabrication of integrated Si-based opoelectronic devices,” Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. 3, 375–381(2000).
[Crossref]

Lim, Desmond R.

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, Ansheng

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luan, Hsin-Chiao

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marcuse, Dietrich

Dietrich Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics. Second Eidtion, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1982.

Matsuura, T.

M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moghaddam, M.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Müller, Jörg

Nasir, M.A.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nicolaescu, Remus

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orobtchouk, R’egis

R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
[Crossref]

Osgood, R.M.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ovadia, Shlomo

Pierre Herve and Shlomo Ovadia, “Optical Technologies for Enterprise Networks,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 73–82 (2004).

Paniccia, Mario

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pascal, Daniel

R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
[Crossref]

Petermann, Klaus

Richard A. Soref, Joachim Schmidtchen, and Klaus Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pizzuto, F.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rao, H.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rommel, S. L.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rubin, Doron

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saggio, Mario

Sebania Libertino, Salvatore Coffa, and Mario Saggio, “Design and fabrication of integrated Si-based opoelectronic devices,” Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. 3, 375–381(2000).
[Crossref]

Sakai, Y.

M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000).
[Crossref]

Samara-Rubio, Dean

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidtchen, Joachim

Richard A. Soref, Joachim Schmidtchen, and Klaus Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[Crossref]

Selvanathan, D.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Soref, Richard A.

Richard A. Soref, Joachim Schmidtchen, and Klaus Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.Z.

Y.Z. Tang, W.H. Wang, T. Li, and Y.L. Wang, “Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. 14, 68–70(2000).
[Crossref]

Terui, Hiroshi

Akira Himeno, Hiroshi Terui, and Morio Kobayashi, “Loss measurement and analysis of high-silica reflection bending optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 41–46 (1988).
[Crossref]

Tien, P.K.

Tsutsumi, K.

M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vivien, Laurent

Eric Cassan, Laurent Vivien, and Suzanne Laval, “Polarization-independent 90°-turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83–88 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.H.

Y.Z. Tang, W.H. Wang, T. Li, and Y.L. Wang, “Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. 14, 68–70(2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.L.

Y.Z. Tang, W.H. Wang, T. Li, and Y.L. Wang, “Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. 14, 68–70(2000).
[Crossref]

Wiechmann, Stefan

Wong, Hei

Hei Wong, “Recent developments in silicon optoelectronic devices,” Microelectron Reliab 42, 317–326 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J.Quantum Electron. (1)

Richard A. Soref, Joachim Schmidtchen, and Klaus Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. (1)

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. (1)

Y.Z. Tang, W.H. Wang, T. Li, and Y.L. Wang, “Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. 14, 68–70(2000).
[Crossref]

Intel Technol. J. (1)

Pierre Herve and Shlomo Ovadia, “Optical Technologies for Enterprise Networks,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 73–82 (2004).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Stefan Wiechmann, Hans Joachim Heider, and Jörg Müller, “Analysis and Design of Integrated Optical Mirrors in Planar Waveguide Technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1584–1591 (2003).
[Crossref]

Akira Himeno, Hiroshi Terui, and Morio Kobayashi, “Loss measurement and analysis of high-silica reflection bending optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 41–46 (1988).
[Crossref]

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
[Crossref]

Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. (1)

Sebania Libertino, Salvatore Coffa, and Mario Saggio, “Design and fabrication of integrated Si-based opoelectronic devices,” Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. 3, 375–381(2000).
[Crossref]

Microelectron Reliab (1)

Hei Wong, “Recent developments in silicon optoelectronic devices,” Microelectron Reliab 42, 317–326 (2002).
[Crossref]

Microsystem Technol. (1)

M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Eric Cassan, Laurent Vivien, and Suzanne Laval, “Polarization-independent 90°-turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83–88 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Solid State Electron. (1)

Sorin Cristoloveanu, “Silicon on insulator technologies and devices: from present to future,” Solid State Electron. 45, 1402–1411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s00340-004-1648-6

Dietrich Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics. Second Eidtion, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1982.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Top view of 1×3 compact beam splitter; (b) Top-view of T-branch, and the inset is the near-field image of the 1×2 T-branch; (c) Top-view of corner mirror.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The three-dimensional AFM image of corner mirror surface profile; (b) AFM micrographs of the corner mirror in the etching direction and X direction (the direction perpendicular to etching direction), respectively;
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. New fiber-waveguide endface etched by ICPRIE, and the inset shows anti-reflection

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