Abstract

We theoretically study the interference of photoelectrons released from atomic p± orbitals in co-rotating and counter-rotating circularly polarized two-color laser pulses consisting of a strong 400-nm field and a weak 800-nm field. We find that in co-rotating fields the interference fringes in the photoelectron momentum distributions are nearly the same for p± orbitals, while in counter-rotating fields the interference fringes for p+ and p orbitals oscillate out of phase with respect to the electron emission angle. The simulations based on the strong-field approximation show a good agreement with the numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We find that different phase distributions of the electron wave packets emitted from p+ and p orbitals can be easily revealed by the counter-rotating circularly polarized two-color laser fields. We further show that the photoelectron interference patterns in the circularly polarized two-color laser fields record the time differences of the electron wave packets released within an optical cycle.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (16)

J. Li, Q. Zhang, L. Li, X. Zhu, T. Huang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Orientation dependence of high-order harmonic generation in nanowire,” Phys. Rev. A 99(3), 033421 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Li, P. Lan, X. Zhu, T. Huang, Q. Zhang, M. Lein, and P. Lu, “Reciprocal-Space-Trajectory Perspective on High-Harmonic Generation in Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(19), 193901 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. He, L. He, P. Lan, B. Wang, L. Li, X. Zhu, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Direct imaging of molecular rotation with high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 99(5), 053419 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, L. He, Y. He, Y. Zhang, R. Shao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “All-optical measurement of high-order fractional molecular echoes by high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 27(21), 30172–30181 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. Zhou, M. He, Q. Ke, J. Liang, Y. Li, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Time-resolving tunneling ionization via strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. A 99(3), 033402 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron Holographic Interferometry to Probe the Longitudinal Momentum Offset at the Tunnel Exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(18), 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Ke, Y. Zhou, J. Tan, M. He, J. Liang, Y. Zhao, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Two-dimensional photoelectron holography in strong-field tunneling ionization by counter rotating two-color circularly polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Express 27(22), 32193–32209 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Liang, Y. Zhou, J. Tan, M. He, Q. Ke, Y. Zhao, M. Li, W. Jiang, and P. Lu, “Low-energy photoelectron interference structure in attosecond streaking,” Opt. Express 27(26), 37736–37752 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, M. Li, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Timing the release of the correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Opt. Express 27(3), 1825–1837 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Tong, Q. Li, X. Ma, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Internal collision induced strong-field nonsequential double ionization in molecules,” Opt. Express 27(5), 6415–6425 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Ge, M. Han, Y. Deng, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Universal Description of the Attoclock with Two-Color Corotating Circular Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Feng, M. Li, S. Luo, K. Liu, B. Du, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Semiclassical analysis of photoelectron interference in a synthesized two-color laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 100(6), 063411 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Luo, M. Li, W. Xie, K. Liu, Y. Feng, B. Du, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Exit momentum and instantaneous ionization rate of nonadiabatic tunneling ionization in elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 99(5), 053422 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Y. Zhou, J. Liang, Z. Zeng, Q. Ke, Y. Liu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Frustrated tunneling ionization in the elliptically polarized strong laser fields,” Opt. Express 27(15), 21689–21700 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, M. He, K. Liu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Nonadiabaticity-induced ionization time shift in strong-field tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 100(2), 023414 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, Q. Zhang, S. Xu, X. Fu, X. Han, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Coulomb focusing in retrapped ionization with near-circularly polarized laser field,” Opt. Express 27(26), 38116–38124 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

M. Han, P. Ge, Y. Shao, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Attoclock Photoelectron Interferometry with Two-Color Corotating Circular Fields to Probe the Phase and the Amplitude of Emitting Wave Packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(7), 073202 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, I. Ivanov, M. Richter, K. Fehre, A. Hartung, J. Rist, K. Henrichs, D. Trabert, N. Schlott, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. S. Schöffler, A. Kheifets, and R. Dörner, “Subcycle interference upon tunnel ionization by counter-rotating two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 041402 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, M. Richter, A. Hartung, J. Rist, F. Trinter, K. Fehre, N. Schlott, K. Henrichs, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Schöffler, K. Liu, I. Barth, J. Kaushal, F. Morales, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Ultrafast preparation and detection of ring currents in single atoms,” Nat. Phys. 14(7), 701–704 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, H. Ni, K. Renziehausen, J. M. Rost, and I. Barth, “Deformation of Atomic p± Orbitals in Strong Elliptically Polarized Laser Fields: Ionization Time Drifts and Spatial Photoelectron Separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(20), 203201 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. M. Liu, Y. Shao, M. Han, P. Ge, Y. Deng, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Energy- and Momentum-Resolved Photoelectron Spin Polarization in Multiphoton Ionization of Xe by Circularly Polarized Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(4), 043201 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Trabert, A. Hartung, S. Eckart, F. Trinter, A. Kalinin, M. Schöffler, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Kunitski, and R. Dörner, “Spin and Angular Momentum in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(4), 043202 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. Zhou, M. He, Y. Chen, Q. Ke, J. Liang, X. Zhu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Determination of the Ionization Time Using Attosecond Photoelectron Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(25), 253203 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

K. Liu, K. Renziehausen, and I. Barth, “Producing spin-polarized photoelectrons by using the momentum gate in strong-field ionization experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 95(6), 063410 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, G. Basnayake, A. Winney, Y. F. Lin, D. Debrah, S. K. Lee, and W. Li, “Orbital-resolved nonadiabatic tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 96(2), 023422 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Wang and F. He, “Tunneling ionization of neon atoms carrying different orbital angular momenta in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 95(4), 043420 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

K. Liu and I. Barth, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization of current-carrying orbitals of prealigned linear molecules in strong circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 94(4), 043402 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Hartung, F. Morales, M. Kunitski, K. Henrichs, A. Laucke, M. Richter, T. Jahnke, A. Kalinin, M. Schöffler, L. P. H. Schmidt, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Electron spin polarization in strong-field ionization of xenon atoms,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 526–528 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. Kaushal, F. Morales, and O. Smirnova, “Opportunities for detecting ring currents using an attoclock setup,” Phys. Rev. A 92(6), 063405 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, O. Kfir, X.-M. Tong, F. Dollar, D. Zusin, M. Gopalakrishnan, C. Gentry, E. Turgut, J. L. Ellis, M.-C. Chen, A. Fleischer, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Strong-field ionization with two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91(3), 031402 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Medišauskas, J. Wragg, H. V. D. Hart, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Generating Isolated Elliptically Polarized Attosecond Pulses Using Bichromatic Counterrotating Circularly Polarized Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(15), 153001 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. L. He, N. Takemoto, and F. He, “Photoelectron momentum distributions of atomic and molecular systems in strong circularly or elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 063413 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. Li, J. W. Geng, H. Liu, Y. Deng, C. Wu, L.-Y. Peng, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Classical-Quantum Correspondence for Above-Threshold Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113002 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Barth and M. Lein, “Numerical verification of the theory of nonadiabatic tunnel ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204016 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

I. Barth and O. Smirnova, “Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields. II. Derivation of formulas,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013433 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

T. Herath, L. Yan, S. K. Lee, and W. Li, “Strong-Field Ionization Rate Depends on the Sign of the Magnetic Quantum Number,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(4), 043004 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

I. Barth and O. Smirnova, “Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields: Physical picture and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-Induced Electron Tunneling and Diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Ionization and Tunneling Delay Time Measurements in Helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(14), R203–R262 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. K. Kjeldsen and L. B. Madsen, “Strong-field ionization of atoms and molecules: The two-term saddle-point method,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023407 (2006).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. F. Gribakin and M. Y. Kuchiev, “Multiphoton detachment of electrons from negative ions,” Phys. Rev. A 55(5), 3760–3771 (1997).
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1996 (1)

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259(3-4), 313–320 (1996).
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1994 (2)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(9), 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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1986 (1)

R. Kosloff and D. Kosloff, “Absorbing boundaries for wave propagation problems,” J. Comput. Phys. 63(2), 363–376 (1986).
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Agostini, P.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(9), 1227–1230 (1994).
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Bakker, J. M.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
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Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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Bandrauk, A. D.

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259(3-4), 313–320 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bandulet, H. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-Induced Electron Tunneling and Diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
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Barth, I.

K. Liu, H. Ni, K. Renziehausen, J. M. Rost, and I. Barth, “Deformation of Atomic p± Orbitals in Strong Elliptically Polarized Laser Fields: Ionization Time Drifts and Spatial Photoelectron Separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(20), 203201 (2018).
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S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, M. Richter, A. Hartung, J. Rist, F. Trinter, K. Fehre, N. Schlott, K. Henrichs, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Schöffler, K. Liu, I. Barth, J. Kaushal, F. Morales, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Ultrafast preparation and detection of ring currents in single atoms,” Nat. Phys. 14(7), 701–704 (2018).
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K. Liu, K. Renziehausen, and I. Barth, “Producing spin-polarized photoelectrons by using the momentum gate in strong-field ionization experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 95(6), 063410 (2017).
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K. Liu and I. Barth, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization of current-carrying orbitals of prealigned linear molecules in strong circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 94(4), 043402 (2016).
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I. Barth and M. Lein, “Numerical verification of the theory of nonadiabatic tunnel ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47(20), 204016 (2014).
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I. Barth and O. Smirnova, “Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields. II. Derivation of formulas,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013433 (2013).
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I. Barth and O. Smirnova, “Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields: Physical picture and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063415 (2011).
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Basnayake, G.

Q. Zhang, G. Basnayake, A. Winney, Y. F. Lin, D. Debrah, S. K. Lee, and W. Li, “Orbital-resolved nonadiabatic tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 96(2), 023422 (2017).
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Bauer, D.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
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D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(14), R203–R262 (2006).
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Becker, W.

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(14), R203–R262 (2006).
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Berden, G.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Büttiker, M.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Ionization and Tunneling Delay Time Measurements in Helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
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Cao, W.

Y. He, L. He, P. Lan, B. Wang, L. Li, X. Zhu, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Direct imaging of molecular rotation with high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 99(5), 053419 (2019).
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X. Huang, Q. Zhang, S. Xu, X. Fu, X. Han, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Coulomb focusing in retrapped ionization with near-circularly polarized laser field,” Opt. Express 27(26), 38116–38124 (2019).
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M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron Holographic Interferometry to Probe the Longitudinal Momentum Offset at the Tunnel Exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(18), 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Li, P. Lan, L. He, W. Cao, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Determination of Electron Band Structure using Temporal Interferometry,” arXiv:1908.07283.

Cauchy, C.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.-C.

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, O. Kfir, X.-M. Tong, F. Dollar, D. Zusin, M. Gopalakrishnan, C. Gentry, E. Turgut, J. L. Ellis, M.-C. Chen, A. Fleischer, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Strong-field ionization with two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91(3), 031402 (2015).
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Chen, Y.

X. Ma, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, M. Li, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Timing the release of the correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Opt. Express 27(3), 1825–1837 (2019).
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J. Tan, Y. Zhou, M. He, Y. Chen, Q. Ke, J. Liang, X. Zhu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Determination of the Ionization Time Using Attosecond Photoelectron Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(25), 253203 (2018).
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Cirelli, C.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Ionization and Tunneling Delay Time Measurements in Helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, O. Kfir, X.-M. Tong, F. Dollar, D. Zusin, M. Gopalakrishnan, C. Gentry, E. Turgut, J. L. Ellis, M.-C. Chen, A. Fleischer, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Strong-field ionization with two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91(3), 031402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Comtois, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-Induced Electron Tunneling and Diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-Induced Electron Tunneling and Diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259(3-4), 313–320 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref]

Debrah, D.

Q. Zhang, G. Basnayake, A. Winney, Y. F. Lin, D. Debrah, S. K. Lee, and W. Li, “Orbital-resolved nonadiabatic tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 96(2), 023422 (2017).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

P. Ge, M. Han, Y. Deng, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Universal Description of the Attoclock with Two-Color Corotating Circular Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013201 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. M. Liu, Y. Shao, M. Han, P. Ge, Y. Deng, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Energy- and Momentum-Resolved Photoelectron Spin Polarization in Multiphoton Ionization of Xe by Circularly Polarized Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(4), 043201 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Li, J. W. Geng, H. Liu, Y. Deng, C. Wu, L.-Y. Peng, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Classical-Quantum Correspondence for Above-Threshold Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113002 (2014).
[Crossref]

DiMauro, L. F.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(9), 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dollar, F.

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, O. Kfir, X.-M. Tong, F. Dollar, D. Zusin, M. Gopalakrishnan, C. Gentry, E. Turgut, J. L. Ellis, M.-C. Chen, A. Fleischer, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Strong-field ionization with two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91(3), 031402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dörner, R.

D. Trabert, A. Hartung, S. Eckart, F. Trinter, A. Kalinin, M. Schöffler, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Kunitski, and R. Dörner, “Spin and Angular Momentum in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(4), 043202 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, I. Ivanov, M. Richter, K. Fehre, A. Hartung, J. Rist, K. Henrichs, D. Trabert, N. Schlott, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. S. Schöffler, A. Kheifets, and R. Dörner, “Subcycle interference upon tunnel ionization by counter-rotating two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 041402 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, M. Richter, A. Hartung, J. Rist, F. Trinter, K. Fehre, N. Schlott, K. Henrichs, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Schöffler, K. Liu, I. Barth, J. Kaushal, F. Morales, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Ultrafast preparation and detection of ring currents in single atoms,” Nat. Phys. 14(7), 701–704 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Hartung, F. Morales, M. Kunitski, K. Henrichs, A. Laucke, M. Richter, T. Jahnke, A. Kalinin, M. Schöffler, L. P. H. Schmidt, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Electron spin polarization in strong-field ionization of xenon atoms,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 526–528 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Ionization and Tunneling Delay Time Measurements in Helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-Induced Electron Tunneling and Diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref]

Du, B.

Y. Feng, M. Li, S. Luo, K. Liu, B. Du, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Semiclassical analysis of photoelectron interference in a synthesized two-color laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 100(6), 063411 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Luo, M. Li, W. Xie, K. Liu, Y. Feng, B. Du, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Exit momentum and instantaneous ionization rate of nonadiabatic tunneling ionization in elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 99(5), 053422 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron Holographic Interferometry to Probe the Longitudinal Momentum Offset at the Tunnel Exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(18), 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Eckart, S.

D. Trabert, A. Hartung, S. Eckart, F. Trinter, A. Kalinin, M. Schöffler, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Kunitski, and R. Dörner, “Spin and Angular Momentum in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(4), 043202 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, M. Richter, A. Hartung, J. Rist, F. Trinter, K. Fehre, N. Schlott, K. Henrichs, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Schöffler, K. Liu, I. Barth, J. Kaushal, F. Morales, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Ultrafast preparation and detection of ring currents in single atoms,” Nat. Phys. 14(7), 701–704 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, I. Ivanov, M. Richter, K. Fehre, A. Hartung, J. Rist, K. Henrichs, D. Trabert, N. Schlott, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. S. Schöffler, A. Kheifets, and R. Dörner, “Subcycle interference upon tunnel ionization by counter-rotating two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 041402 (2018).
[Crossref]

Eckle, P.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Ionization and Tunneling Delay Time Measurements in Helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ellis, J. L.

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, O. Kfir, X.-M. Tong, F. Dollar, D. Zusin, M. Gopalakrishnan, C. Gentry, E. Turgut, J. L. Ellis, M.-C. Chen, A. Fleischer, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Strong-field ionization with two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91(3), 031402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fehre, K.

S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, M. Richter, A. Hartung, J. Rist, F. Trinter, K. Fehre, N. Schlott, K. Henrichs, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Schöffler, K. Liu, I. Barth, J. Kaushal, F. Morales, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Ultrafast preparation and detection of ring currents in single atoms,” Nat. Phys. 14(7), 701–704 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, I. Ivanov, M. Richter, K. Fehre, A. Hartung, J. Rist, K. Henrichs, D. Trabert, N. Schlott, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. S. Schöffler, A. Kheifets, and R. Dörner, “Subcycle interference upon tunnel ionization by counter-rotating two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 041402 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

S. Luo, M. Li, W. Xie, K. Liu, Y. Feng, B. Du, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Exit momentum and instantaneous ionization rate of nonadiabatic tunneling ionization in elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 99(5), 053422 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron Holographic Interferometry to Probe the Longitudinal Momentum Offset at the Tunnel Exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(18), 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Feng, M. Li, S. Luo, K. Liu, B. Du, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Semiclassical analysis of photoelectron interference in a synthesized two-color laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 100(6), 063411 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fleischer, A.

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, O. Kfir, X.-M. Tong, F. Dollar, D. Zusin, M. Gopalakrishnan, C. Gentry, E. Turgut, J. L. Ellis, M.-C. Chen, A. Fleischer, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Strong-field ionization with two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91(3), 031402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

Ge, P.

P. Ge, M. Han, Y. Deng, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Universal Description of the Attoclock with Two-Color Corotating Circular Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013201 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. M. Liu, Y. Shao, M. Han, P. Ge, Y. Deng, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Energy- and Momentum-Resolved Photoelectron Spin Polarization in Multiphoton Ionization of Xe by Circularly Polarized Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(4), 043201 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Han, P. Ge, Y. Shao, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Attoclock Photoelectron Interferometry with Two-Color Corotating Circular Fields to Probe the Phase and the Amplitude of Emitting Wave Packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(7), 073202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Geng, J. W.

M. Li, J. W. Geng, H. Liu, Y. Deng, C. Wu, L.-Y. Peng, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Classical-Quantum Correspondence for Above-Threshold Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gentry, C.

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, O. Kfir, X.-M. Tong, F. Dollar, D. Zusin, M. Gopalakrishnan, C. Gentry, E. Turgut, J. L. Ellis, M.-C. Chen, A. Fleischer, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Strong-field ionization with two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91(3), 031402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gijsbertsen, A.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

P. Ge, M. Han, Y. Deng, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Universal Description of the Attoclock with Two-Color Corotating Circular Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013201 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Han, P. Ge, Y. Shao, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Attoclock Photoelectron Interferometry with Two-Color Corotating Circular Fields to Probe the Phase and the Amplitude of Emitting Wave Packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(7), 073202 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. M. Liu, Y. Shao, M. Han, P. Ge, Y. Deng, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Energy- and Momentum-Resolved Photoelectron Spin Polarization in Multiphoton Ionization of Xe by Circularly Polarized Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(4), 043201 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Li, J. W. Geng, H. Liu, Y. Deng, C. Wu, L.-Y. Peng, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Classical-Quantum Correspondence for Above-Threshold Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gopalakrishnan, M.

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, O. Kfir, X.-M. Tong, F. Dollar, D. Zusin, M. Gopalakrishnan, C. Gentry, E. Turgut, J. L. Ellis, M.-C. Chen, A. Fleischer, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Strong-field ionization with two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91(3), 031402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gribakin, G. F.

G. F. Gribakin and M. Y. Kuchiev, “Multiphoton detachment of electrons from negative ions,” Phys. Rev. A 55(5), 3760–3771 (1997).
[Crossref]

Grychtol, P.

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, O. Kfir, X.-M. Tong, F. Dollar, D. Zusin, M. Gopalakrishnan, C. Gentry, E. Turgut, J. L. Ellis, M.-C. Chen, A. Fleischer, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Strong-field ionization with two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91(3), 031402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, M.

P. Ge, M. Han, Y. Deng, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Universal Description of the Attoclock with Two-Color Corotating Circular Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013201 (2019).
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J. Tan, Y. Zhou, M. He, Q. Ke, J. Liang, Y. Li, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Time-resolving tunneling ionization via strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. A 99(3), 033402 (2019).
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M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron Holographic Interferometry to Probe the Longitudinal Momentum Offset at the Tunnel Exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(18), 183202 (2019).
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X. Ma, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, M. Li, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Timing the release of the correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Opt. Express 27(3), 1825–1837 (2019).
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Q. Ke, Y. Zhou, J. Tan, M. He, J. Liang, Y. Zhao, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Two-dimensional photoelectron holography in strong-field tunneling ionization by counter rotating two-color circularly polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Express 27(22), 32193–32209 (2019).
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S. Luo, M. Li, W. Xie, K. Liu, Y. Feng, B. Du, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Exit momentum and instantaneous ionization rate of nonadiabatic tunneling ionization in elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 99(5), 053422 (2019).
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J. Liang, Y. Zhou, J. Tan, M. He, Q. Ke, Y. Zhao, M. Li, W. Jiang, and P. Lu, “Low-energy photoelectron interference structure in attosecond streaking,” Opt. Express 27(26), 37736–37752 (2019).
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J. Tan, Y. Zhou, M. He, Y. Chen, Q. Ke, J. Liang, X. Zhu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Determination of the Ionization Time Using Attosecond Photoelectron Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(25), 253203 (2018).
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X. Ma, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, M. Li, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Timing the release of the correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Opt. Express 27(3), 1825–1837 (2019).
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J. Tan, Y. Zhou, M. He, Q. Ke, J. Liang, Y. Li, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Time-resolving tunneling ionization via strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. A 99(3), 033402 (2019).
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K. Liu, H. Ni, K. Renziehausen, J. M. Rost, and I. Barth, “Deformation of Atomic p± Orbitals in Strong Elliptically Polarized Laser Fields: Ionization Time Drifts and Spatial Photoelectron Separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(20), 203201 (2018).
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K. Liu, K. Renziehausen, and I. Barth, “Producing spin-polarized photoelectrons by using the momentum gate in strong-field ionization experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 95(6), 063410 (2017).
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K. Liu and I. Barth, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization of current-carrying orbitals of prealigned linear molecules in strong circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 94(4), 043402 (2016).
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M. M. Liu, Y. Shao, M. Han, P. Ge, Y. Deng, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Energy- and Momentum-Resolved Photoelectron Spin Polarization in Multiphoton Ionization of Xe by Circularly Polarized Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(4), 043201 (2018).
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S. Luo, M. Li, W. Xie, K. Liu, Y. Feng, B. Du, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Exit momentum and instantaneous ionization rate of nonadiabatic tunneling ionization in elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 99(5), 053422 (2019).
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A. Tong, Q. Li, X. Ma, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Internal collision induced strong-field nonsequential double ionization in molecules,” Opt. Express 27(5), 6415–6425 (2019).
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J. Liang, Y. Zhou, J. Tan, M. He, Q. Ke, Y. Zhao, M. Li, W. Jiang, and P. Lu, “Low-energy photoelectron interference structure in attosecond streaking,” Opt. Express 27(26), 37736–37752 (2019).
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Y. Feng, M. Li, S. Luo, K. Liu, B. Du, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Semiclassical analysis of photoelectron interference in a synthesized two-color laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 100(6), 063411 (2019).
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B. Wang, L. He, Y. He, Y. Zhang, R. Shao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “All-optical measurement of high-order fractional molecular echoes by high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 27(21), 30172–30181 (2019).
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Y. Zhao, Y. Zhou, J. Liang, Z. Zeng, Q. Ke, Y. Liu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Frustrated tunneling ionization in the elliptically polarized strong laser fields,” Opt. Express 27(15), 21689–21700 (2019).
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Y. He, L. He, P. Lan, B. Wang, L. Li, X. Zhu, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Direct imaging of molecular rotation with high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 99(5), 053419 (2019).
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M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron Holographic Interferometry to Probe the Longitudinal Momentum Offset at the Tunnel Exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(18), 183202 (2019).
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J. Tan, Y. Zhou, M. He, Q. Ke, J. Liang, Y. Li, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Time-resolving tunneling ionization via strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. A 99(3), 033402 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, M. Li, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Timing the release of the correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Opt. Express 27(3), 1825–1837 (2019).
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J. Li, Q. Zhang, L. Li, X. Zhu, T. Huang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Orientation dependence of high-order harmonic generation in nanowire,” Phys. Rev. A 99(3), 033421 (2019).
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L. Li, P. Lan, X. Zhu, T. Huang, Q. Zhang, M. Lein, and P. Lu, “Reciprocal-Space-Trajectory Perspective on High-Harmonic Generation in Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(19), 193901 (2019).
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W. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, M. He, K. Liu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Nonadiabaticity-induced ionization time shift in strong-field tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 100(2), 023414 (2019).
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Q. Ke, Y. Zhou, J. Tan, M. He, J. Liang, Y. Zhao, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Two-dimensional photoelectron holography in strong-field tunneling ionization by counter rotating two-color circularly polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Express 27(22), 32193–32209 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. Zhou, M. He, Y. Chen, Q. Ke, J. Liang, X. Zhu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Determination of the Ionization Time Using Attosecond Photoelectron Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(25), 253203 (2018).
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M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron Holographic Interferometry to Probe the Longitudinal Momentum Offset at the Tunnel Exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(18), 183202 (2019).
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W. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, M. He, K. Liu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Nonadiabaticity-induced ionization time shift in strong-field tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 100(2), 023414 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Feng, M. Li, S. Luo, K. Liu, B. Du, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Semiclassical analysis of photoelectron interference in a synthesized two-color laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 100(6), 063411 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Luo, M. Li, W. Xie, K. Liu, Y. Feng, B. Du, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Exit momentum and instantaneous ionization rate of nonadiabatic tunneling ionization in elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 99(5), 053422 (2019).
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Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
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A. Hartung, F. Morales, M. Kunitski, K. Henrichs, A. Laucke, M. Richter, T. Jahnke, A. Kalinin, M. Schöffler, L. P. H. Schmidt, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Electron spin polarization in strong-field ionization of xenon atoms,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 526–528 (2016).
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Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
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K. Liu, H. Ni, K. Renziehausen, J. M. Rost, and I. Barth, “Deformation of Atomic p± Orbitals in Strong Elliptically Polarized Laser Fields: Ionization Time Drifts and Spatial Photoelectron Separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(20), 203201 (2018).
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D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(14), R203–R262 (2006).
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M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-Induced Electron Tunneling and Diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
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M. Li, J. W. Geng, H. Liu, Y. Deng, C. Wu, L.-Y. Peng, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Classical-Quantum Correspondence for Above-Threshold Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113002 (2014).
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Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
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Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
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K. Liu, H. Ni, K. Renziehausen, J. M. Rost, and I. Barth, “Deformation of Atomic p± Orbitals in Strong Elliptically Polarized Laser Fields: Ionization Time Drifts and Spatial Photoelectron Separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(20), 203201 (2018).
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S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, I. Ivanov, M. Richter, K. Fehre, A. Hartung, J. Rist, K. Henrichs, D. Trabert, N. Schlott, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. S. Schöffler, A. Kheifets, and R. Dörner, “Subcycle interference upon tunnel ionization by counter-rotating two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 041402 (2018).
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S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, I. Ivanov, M. Richter, K. Fehre, A. Hartung, J. Rist, K. Henrichs, D. Trabert, N. Schlott, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. S. Schöffler, A. Kheifets, and R. Dörner, “Subcycle interference upon tunnel ionization by counter-rotating two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 041402 (2018).
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S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, M. Richter, A. Hartung, J. Rist, F. Trinter, K. Fehre, N. Schlott, K. Henrichs, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Schöffler, K. Liu, I. Barth, J. Kaushal, F. Morales, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Ultrafast preparation and detection of ring currents in single atoms,” Nat. Phys. 14(7), 701–704 (2018).
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Rost, J. M.

K. Liu, H. Ni, K. Renziehausen, J. M. Rost, and I. Barth, “Deformation of Atomic p± Orbitals in Strong Elliptically Polarized Laser Fields: Ionization Time Drifts and Spatial Photoelectron Separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(20), 203201 (2018).
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Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
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Schafer, K. J.

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S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, I. Ivanov, M. Richter, K. Fehre, A. Hartung, J. Rist, K. Henrichs, D. Trabert, N. Schlott, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. S. Schöffler, A. Kheifets, and R. Dörner, “Subcycle interference upon tunnel ionization by counter-rotating two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 041402 (2018).
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Schmidt, L. P. H.

S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, I. Ivanov, M. Richter, K. Fehre, A. Hartung, J. Rist, K. Henrichs, D. Trabert, N. Schlott, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. S. Schöffler, A. Kheifets, and R. Dörner, “Subcycle interference upon tunnel ionization by counter-rotating two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 041402 (2018).
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D. Trabert, A. Hartung, S. Eckart, F. Trinter, A. Kalinin, M. Schöffler, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Kunitski, and R. Dörner, “Spin and Angular Momentum in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(4), 043202 (2018).
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S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, M. Richter, A. Hartung, J. Rist, F. Trinter, K. Fehre, N. Schlott, K. Henrichs, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Schöffler, K. Liu, I. Barth, J. Kaushal, F. Morales, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Ultrafast preparation and detection of ring currents in single atoms,” Nat. Phys. 14(7), 701–704 (2018).
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A. Hartung, F. Morales, M. Kunitski, K. Henrichs, A. Laucke, M. Richter, T. Jahnke, A. Kalinin, M. Schöffler, L. P. H. Schmidt, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Electron spin polarization in strong-field ionization of xenon atoms,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 526–528 (2016).
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D. Trabert, A. Hartung, S. Eckart, F. Trinter, A. Kalinin, M. Schöffler, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. Kunitski, and R. Dörner, “Spin and Angular Momentum in Strong-Field Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(4), 043202 (2018).
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A. Hartung, F. Morales, M. Kunitski, K. Henrichs, A. Laucke, M. Richter, T. Jahnke, A. Kalinin, M. Schöffler, L. P. H. Schmidt, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Electron spin polarization in strong-field ionization of xenon atoms,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 526–528 (2016).
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P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
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S. Eckart, M. Kunitski, I. Ivanov, M. Richter, K. Fehre, A. Hartung, J. Rist, K. Henrichs, D. Trabert, N. Schlott, L. P. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, M. S. Schöffler, A. Kheifets, and R. Dörner, “Subcycle interference upon tunnel ionization by counter-rotating two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 041402 (2018).
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Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. v. d. Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).
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J. Liang, Y. Zhou, J. Tan, M. He, Q. Ke, Y. Zhao, M. Li, W. Jiang, and P. Lu, “Low-energy photoelectron interference structure in attosecond streaking,” Opt. Express 27(26), 37736–37752 (2019).
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M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron Holographic Interferometry to Probe the Longitudinal Momentum Offset at the Tunnel Exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(18), 183202 (2019).
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Q. Ke, Y. Zhou, J. Tan, M. He, J. Liang, Y. Zhao, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Two-dimensional photoelectron holography in strong-field tunneling ionization by counter rotating two-color circularly polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Express 27(22), 32193–32209 (2019).
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J. Tan, Y. Zhou, M. He, Y. Chen, Q. Ke, J. Liang, X. Zhu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Determination of the Ionization Time Using Attosecond Photoelectron Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(25), 253203 (2018).
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Zhao, Y.

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J. Liang, Y. Zhou, J. Tan, M. He, Q. Ke, Y. Zhao, M. Li, W. Jiang, and P. Lu, “Low-energy photoelectron interference structure in attosecond streaking,” Opt. Express 27(26), 37736–37752 (2019).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The PMDs of Ne ionized by a right circularly polarized 400-nm laser field calculated by the TDSE for $p_{+}$ (a) and $p_{-}$ (b) orbitals, respectively. The intensity of the laser field is $3\times 10^{14} \rm {W/cm^2}$ . The maxima in the PMDs have been normalized to be unity.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The PMDs of Ne in co-rotating circularly polarized two-color laser fields for atomic $p_{\pm }$ orbitals calculated by the TDSE [(a)(b)] and the SFA [(c)(d)]. The left and right columns correspond to $p_{+}$ and $p_{-}$ orbitals, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The same as Fig. 2 but in counter-rotating circularly polarized two-color laser fields.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The lineouts taken from Figs. 2 and 3 at $p_r=0.85$ a.u. [marked by red dashed frames in Figs. 2(a) and 2(c)] for the TDSE results [(a)(b)] and the SFA results [(c)(d)]. The left (right) column corresponds to the co-rotating (counter-rotating) circularly polarized two-color laser pulses.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The intracycle interference patterns in the co-rotating [(a)(b)] and counter-rotating [(c)(d)] circularly polarized two-color laser fields calculated by the SFA. The left and right columns correspond to $p_{+}$ and $p_{-}$ orbitals, respectively. The maximum for each $p_r$ has been normalized to be unity.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The electric field $E(t)=\sqrt {E_x^2+E_y^2}$ of the co-rotating (a) and counter-rotating (b) circularly polarized two-color laser pulses. The black and red arrows indicate the time difference of the electron wave packets released within the same laser cycle for the emission angle of -0.75 $\pi$ (red arrows) and -0.15 $\pi$ (black arrows), respectively, with the final momentum of $p_r=0.75$ a.u. WP1 and WP2 indicate the first and second electron wave packets released within the same laser cycle, respectively.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The phase difference $\Delta \Phi _0$ for $p_+$ orbital [(a)(b)] and $\delta t_0$ [(c)(d)] between WP2 and WP1 with respect to the final momentum $p_r$ and the emission angle $\theta$ calculated by the SFA. The left (right) column corresponds to the co-rotating (counter-rotating) circularly polarized two-color laser pulse. $\Delta \Phi _0$ for $p_-$ orbital is the negative of that for $p_+$ orbital.

Equations (7)

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i t Ψ ± ( r ; t ) = [ 1 2 2 + V ( r ) + r E ( t ) ] Ψ ± ( r ; t ) ,
V ( r ) = Z ( r ) r 2 + a ,
E x ( t ) = f ( t ) 2 [ E 400 cos ( 2 ω t ) + E 800 cos ( ω t + Δ φ ) ] E y ( t ) = f ( t ) 2 [ E 400 sin ( 2 ω t ) ± E 800 sin ( ω t + Δ φ ) ] ,
M ( p ) = i ψ p | H ( t ) | ψ 0 d t ,
M ( p ) = d t p + A ( t ) | r E ( t ) | ψ 0 e i S ( p , t ) ,
M 2 p ± ( p ) = C κ s 3 8 π κ ( q s i κ ) l Y ± ( q s ) ( 2 i S s ) ( ν + 1 ) / 2 e i S s ,
Y ± ( q s ) [ p x ± i p y ] + E 400 2 ω [ sin ( 2 ω t s ) ± i cos ( 2 ω t s ) ] ,

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