Abstract

Nanophotonics holds great promise for integrated quantum technologies, but realizing all functionalities for processing quantum states of light in optical waveguides poses an outstanding challenge. Here we show that tantalum pentoxide-on-insulator offers significant advantages for such purpose and experimentally demonstrate crucial photonic integrated circuit components. Exploiting advanced nanophotonic design and state-of-the-art nanofabrication processes, we realize low-loss waveguiding with 1 dB/cm propagation loss, efficient optical fiber-chip interfaces with more than 100 nm bandwidth, micro-ring resonators with quality factors of 357,200 and tunable directional couplers. We further achieve active functionality with nano-electromechanical phase-shifters. Our work enables reconfigurable photonic circuit configurations in the Ta2O5 material system with highly favorable optical properties for integrated quantum photonics.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (5)

2018 (6)

S. Ferrari, C. Schuck, and W. Pernice, “Waveguide-integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1725–1758 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. Maraviglia, A. Neville, C. Harrold, J. Carolan, Y. N. Joglekar, T. Hashimoto, N. Matsuda, J. L. O’Brien, D. P. Tew, and A. Laing, “Simulating the vibrational quantum dynamics of molecules using photonics,” Nature 557(7707), 660–667 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Bunandar, A. Lentine, C. Lee, H. Cai, C. M. Long, N. Boynton, N. Martinez, C. Derose, C. Chen, M. Grein, D. Trotter, A. Starbuck, A. Pomerene, S. Hamilton, F. N. C. Wong, R. Camacho, P. Davids, J. Urayama, and D. Englund, “Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics,” Phys. Rev. X 8(2), 021009 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Haas, M. Schwartz, U. Rengstl, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, “Chem/bio sensing with non-classical light and integrated photonics,” Analyst 143(3), 593–605 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-J. Lu, M. Fanto, H. Choi, P. Thomas, J. Steidle, S. Mouradian, W. Kong, D. Zhu, H. Moon, K. Berggren, J. Kim, M. Soltani, S. Preble, and D. Englund, “Aluminum nitride integrated photonics platform for the ultraviolet to visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11147–11160 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

D. G. Matei, T. Legero, S. Häfner, C. Grebing, R. Weyrich, W. Zhang, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, J. Ye, F. Riehle, and U. Sterr, “1.5 µm Lasers with Sub-10 mHz Linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(26), 263202 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Belt, M. L. Davenport, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, “Ultra-low-loss Ta2O5-core/SiO2-clad planar waveguides on Si substrates,” Optica 4(5), 532–536 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(5), e16249 (2017).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Wu, C.-H. Hsieh, G.-R. Lin, W.-C. Chi, Y.-J. Chiu, Y.-Y. Lin, Y.-J. Hung, M.-H. Shih, A.-K. Chu, and C.-K. Lee, “Tens of GHz Tantalum pentoxide-based micro-ring all-optical modulator for Si photonics,” Ann. Phys. 529(3), 1600358 (2017).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Wu, J.-Y. Huang, D.-H. Ou, T.-W. Liao, Y.-J. Chiu, M.-H. Shih, Y.-Y. Lin, A.-K. Chu, and C.-K. Lee, “Efficient wavelength conversion with low operation power in a Ta2O5-based micro-ring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4804–4807 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, M. Yako, K. Ju, N. Kawai, P. Chaisakul, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Hikita, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, “A new material platform of Si photonics for implementing architecture of dense wavelength division multiplexing on Si bulk wafer,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 18(1), 283–293 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. F. A. Muttalib, R. Y. Chen, S. J. Pearce, and M. D. B. Charlton, “Optimization of reactive-ion etching (RIE) parameters for fabrication of tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) waveguide using Taguchi method,” EPJ Web Conf. 162, 01003 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

C. Schuck, X. Guo, L. Fan, X. Ma, M. Poot, and H. X. Tang, “Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10352 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-Y. Lin, C.-L. Wu, W.-C. Chi, Y.-J. Chiu, Y.-J. Hung, A.-K. Chu, and C.-K. Lee, “Self-phase modulation in highly confined submicron Ta2O5 channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21633–21641 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Poot, C. Schuck, X. Ma, X. Guo, and H. X. Tang, “Design and characterization of integrated components for SiN photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 24(7), 6843–6860 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Wu, B.-T. Chen, Y.-Y. Lin, W.-C. Tien, G.-R. Lin, Y.-J. Chiu, Y.-J. Hung, A.-K. Chu, and C.-K. Lee, “Low-loss and high-Q Ta2O5 based micro-ring resonator with inverse taper structure,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26268–26275 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Wu, Y.-J. Chiu, C.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Lin, A.-K. Chu, and C.-K. Lee, “Four-wave-mixing in the loss low submicrometer Ta2O5 channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4528–4531 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. L. Mouradian, T. Schröder, C. B. Poitras, L. Li, J. Goldstein, E. H. Chen, M. Walsh, J. Cardenas, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, M. Lipson, and D. Englund, “Scalable Integration of Long-Lived Quantum Memories into a Photonic Circuit,” Phys. Rev. X 5(3), 031009 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

P. Rabiei, J. Ma, S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Submicron optical waveguides and microring resonators fabricated by selective oxidation of tantalum,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6967–6972 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

P. J. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Exploitation of multiple incidences spectrometric measurements for thin film reverse engineering,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15734–15751 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. de Heyn, T. van Vaerenbergh, K. de Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

2009 (1)

B. S. Ahluwalia, A. Z. Subramanian, O. G. Hellso, N. M. B. Perney, N. P. Sessions, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Fabrication of Submicrometer High Refractive Index Tantalum Pentoxide Waveguides for Optical Propulsion of Microparticles,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(19), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. M. MacKowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Classical Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2000 (3)

E. Franke, C. L. Trimble, M. J. DeVries, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and F. Frost, “Dielectric function of amorphous tantalum oxide from the far infrared to the deep ultraviolet spectral region measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(9), 5166–5174 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. I. Kingon, J.-P. Maria, and S. K. Streiffer, “Alternative dielectrics to silicon dioxide for memory and logic devices,” Nature 406(6799), 1032–1038 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. P. Lee, K. B. Jung, R. K. Singh, S. J. Pearton, C. Hobbs, and P. Tobin, “Comparison of plasma chemistries for dry etching of Ta2O5,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 18(4), 1169–1172 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

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E. Franke, C. L. Trimble, M. J. DeVries, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and F. Frost, “Dielectric function of amorphous tantalum oxide from the far infrared to the deep ultraviolet spectral region measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(9), 5166–5174 (2000).
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D. G. Matei, T. Legero, S. Häfner, C. Grebing, R. Weyrich, W. Zhang, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, J. Ye, F. Riehle, and U. Sterr, “1.5 µm Lasers with Sub-10 mHz Linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(26), 263202 (2017).
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T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, X. Xu, and A. Otomo, “Fabrication of two-dimensional Ta2O5 photonic crystal slabs with ultra-low background emission toward highly sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1422–1440 (2011).
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C.-Y. Tai, J. S. Wilkinson, N. M. B. Perney, M. C. Netti, F. Cattaneo, C. E. Finlayson, and J. J. Baumberg, “Determination of nonlinear refractive index in a Ta2O5 rib waveguide using self-phase modulation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5110–5116 (2004).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. G. Matei, T. Legero, S. Häfner, C. Grebing, R. Weyrich, W. Zhang, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, J. Ye, F. Riehle, and U. Sterr, “1.5 µm Lasers with Sub-10 mHz Linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(26), 263202 (2017).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Waveguide design: (a) 2D FEM eigenmode simulation of a waveguide with fixed height and variable width at 1550 nm wavelength. For every width, an effective refractive index can be assigned to the waveguide modes. Here the three lowest order modes are presented (b) Mode dispersion in terms of the effective refractive index versus the wavelength for the TE00 and TM00 modes at a given geometry of 1200 nm width and 370 nm height. (c) Scanning electron micrograph sideview of a single mode Ta2O5 waveguide on SiO2 bottom cladding under 50° angle.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Grating coupler: (a) Scanning electron micrograph of a focusing, apodized grating coupler. (b) Transmission spectrum for a grating coupler with grating period Λ = 1.21 µm and fill factor $ff = 0.65$ in the telecommunication range. (c) Map of transmission through grating couplers at 1550 nm as a function of fill factor and grating period.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Ring resonator: (a) Scanning electron micrograph of a 200 µm diameter ring resonator evanescently coupled to a bus waveguide with 370 nm waveguide height, 1.2 µm width. (b) The transmission spectrum of the ring resonator presented in (a) shows periodic resonances with $\textrm{FSR} = ({1.84 \pm 0.01} )\; \textrm{nm}$. (c) Close-up view of a single resonance in the spectrum fitted with a Lorentzian function (red). From the FWHM of the fit a total quality factor of $Q_t = ({178.6 \pm 2.5} )$ k is deduced. (d) Total quality factor as a function of the wavelength extracted from the spectrum in (b) for annealed and un-annealed ring resonators.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Directional coupler: (a) Scanning electron micrograph of a four-port directional coupler with 370 nm x 1.2 µm individual waveguides. The power coupling is defined by the waveguide separation and interaction length. (b) 2D FEM eigenmode simulation of the symmetric (+) and antisymmetric (-) TE- (blue) and TM-like (green) supermodes in terms of the effective refractive index as a function of the waveguide separation. (c-e) Normalized power transmission measurement from input port Pin to P1 (blue) and P2 (green) for different waveguide separations (300 nm, 400 nm, 500 nm) as a function of the interaction length.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Nano-electromechanical phase shifter: (a) Optical micrograph of a phase shifter with three electrodes in the upper arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer for phase shift sensing relative to the central reference waveguide. Balanced multimode interference couplers split and combine the power equally between input and ouput modes. A schematic and scanning electron micrograph (false color) of the mechanical H-resonator show the nanostring, electrode and photonic crystal bridge. (b) Effective refractive index from 2D FEM eigenmode simulation of the waveguide (width = 900 nm) nanostring (500 nm) configuration for different separations. (c) Normalized transmission spectrum for the phase shifter in (a). A phase shift is observed for different applied voltages (0 V green, 25 V blue) across the electrodes and is extracted from a sinusoidal fit. (d) Relative phase shift for the phase shifter in (a) as a function of applied voltage.

Equations (3)

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L ( λ ) = 1 a Δ λ Δ λ 2 + ( λ λ 0 ) 2 ,
α = π n g λ Q total = ( 0.232 ± 0.003 )  c m 1 ,
I ( λ ) = 1 2 ( 1 + cos ( 2 π d λ + ϕ ( U ) ) ) ,

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