Abstract

We propose a post-fabrication trimming method for the silicon-on-insulator photonic platform based on localised laser annealing of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) cladding. The technique is fast, does not degrade the device performance, does not require additional fabrication steps, and can therefore be implemented at minimal cost. Here we experimentally demonstrated how the spectrum of a ring resonator can be shifted by over 1 nm by annealing a section of the device as short as 30 µm, corresponding to a change in the effective refractive index of ∼10−2. Modifications of both the HSQ refractive index and its chemical structure as a function of the annealing temperature are also discussed. Trimming of multi-ring resonators indicate that this technique can be effectively used for post-fabrication reconfiguration of complex photonic circuits or to compensate for the fabrication tolerances of a typical CMOS process.

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  31. “*,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5525/gla.researchdata.990 .

2018 (3)

J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. M. Milosevic, X. Chen, W. Cao, A. F. J. Runge, Y. Franz, C. G. Littlejohns, S. Mailis, A. C. Peacock, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Ion Implantation in Silicon for Trimming the Operating Wavelength of Ring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. G. Mohammed, E. Cazzanelli, A. Fasanella, and M. Castriota, “Silicon Nanocrystals on the Surface of Standard Si Wafers: A Micro-Raman Investigation,” J. Mater. Sci. Chem. Eng. 6(7), 104–116 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. M. Urbas, Z. Jacob, L. Dal, D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, and T. Komljenovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Spector, J. M. Knecht, and P. W. Juodawlkis, “Localized in situ cladding annealing for post-fabrication trimming of silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5996 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2010 (3)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), F59 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, G. Li, J. Yao, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Highly-efficient thermally-tuned resonant optical filters,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19055–19063 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer Linewidth Uniformity in Silicon Nanophotonic Waveguide Devices Using CMOS Fabrication Technology,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

D. Dai, L. Yang, and S. He, “Ultrasmall thermally tunable microring resonator with a submicrometer heater on Si nanowires,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(6), 704–709 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. P. Bange, L. S. Patil, and D. K. Gautam, “Growth and characterization of SiO2 films deposited by flame hydrolysis deposition system for photonic device application,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. M 3, 165–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Samarelli, D. S. Macintyre, M. J. Strain, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and S. Thoms, “Optical characterization of a hydrogen silsesquioxane lithography process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 26(6), 2290–2294 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction and strain,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3738 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, M. J. Word, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Comparative study of thermally cured and electron-beam-exposed hydrogen silsesquioxane resists,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 26(5), 1654 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. W. Holzwarth, T. Barwicz, and H. I. Smith, “Optimization of hydrogen silsesquioxane for photonic applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 25(6), 2658 (2007).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro- ring silicon modulators,”Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. A. Kumbhar, S. K. Singh, and R. O. Dusane, “Enhancement of moisture resistance of spin-on low-k HSQ films by hot wire generated atomic hydrogen treatment,” Thin Solid Films 501(1-2), 329–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C.-C. Yang and W.-C. Chen, “The structures and properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) films produced by thermal curing,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(4), 1138–1141 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. K. Siew, G. Sarkar, X. Hu, J. Hui, A. See, and C. T. Chua, “Thermal Curing of Hydrogen Silsesquioxane,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(1), 335 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

H.-C. Liou and J. Pretzer, “Effect of curing temperature on the mechanical properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane thin films,” Thin Solid Films 335(1-2), 186–191 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Loboda, C. Grove, R. Schneider, and D. C. Corporation, “Properties of a‐SiO x: H Thin Films Deposited from Hydrogen Silsesquioxane Resins,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145(8), 2861–2866 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. H. Burke and I. P. Herman, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Ge1-xSixalloys,” Phys. Rev. B 48(20), 15016–15024 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

C. T. Kirk, “Quantitative analysis of the effect of disorder-induced mode coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 38(2), 1255–1273 (1988).
[Crossref]

Acín, A.

J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adesida, I.

S. Choi, M. J. Word, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Comparative study of thermally cured and electron-beam-exposed hydrogen silsesquioxane resists,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 26(5), 1654 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adibi, A.

A. H. Atabaki, M. Askari, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “Accurate Post-Fabrication Trimming of Silicon Resonators,” 9th Int. Conf. Gr. IV Photonics6, 42–44 (2012).

Agarwal, A.

Al Qubaisi, K.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, A. Khilo, and V. Christopher, “for the Next Generation of Systems on a Chip,” (2018).

Alloatti, L.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, A. Khilo, and V. Christopher, “for the Next Generation of Systems on a Chip,” (2018).

Askari, M.

A. H. Atabaki, M. Askari, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “Accurate Post-Fabrication Trimming of Silicon Resonators,” 9th Int. Conf. Gr. IV Photonics6, 42–44 (2012).

Atabaki, A. H.

A. H. Atabaki, M. Askari, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “Accurate Post-Fabrication Trimming of Silicon Resonators,” 9th Int. Conf. Gr. IV Photonics6, 42–44 (2012).

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, A. Khilo, and V. Christopher, “for the Next Generation of Systems on a Chip,” (2018).

Augusiak, R.

J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bacco, D.

J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bachman, D.

Baets, R.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer Linewidth Uniformity in Silicon Nanophotonic Waveguide Devices Using CMOS Fabrication Technology,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction and strain,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3738 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bange, J. P.

J. P. Bange, L. S. Patil, and D. K. Gautam, “Growth and characterization of SiO2 films deposited by flame hydrolysis deposition system for photonic device application,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. M 3, 165–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

C. W. Holzwarth, T. Barwicz, and H. I. Smith, “Optimization of hydrogen silsesquioxane for photonic applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 25(6), 2658 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer Linewidth Uniformity in Silicon Nanophotonic Waveguide Devices Using CMOS Fabrication Technology,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bonneau, D.

J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

A. M. Urbas, Z. Jacob, L. Dal, D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, and T. Komljenovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brien, J. L. O.

J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

Burke, H. H.

H. H. Burke and I. P. Herman, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Ge1-xSixalloys,” Phys. Rev. B 48(20), 15016–15024 (1993).
[Crossref]

Canciamilla, A.

Cao, W.

M. M. Milosevic, X. Chen, W. Cao, A. F. J. Runge, Y. Franz, C. G. Littlejohns, S. Mailis, A. C. Peacock, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Ion Implantation in Silicon for Trimming the Operating Wavelength of Ring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Castriota, M.

M. S. G. Mohammed, E. Cazzanelli, A. Fasanella, and M. Castriota, “Silicon Nanocrystals on the Surface of Standard Si Wafers: A Micro-Raman Investigation,” J. Mater. Sci. Chem. Eng. 6(7), 104–116 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cazzanelli, E.

M. S. G. Mohammed, E. Cazzanelli, A. Fasanella, and M. Castriota, “Silicon Nanocrystals on the Surface of Standard Si Wafers: A Micro-Raman Investigation,” J. Mater. Sci. Chem. Eng. 6(7), 104–116 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, M.

S. Jeng, K. Taylor, T. Seha, M. Chang, J. Fattaruso, and R. H. Havemann, “Highly Porous Interlayer Dielectric For Interconnect Capacitance Reduction,” 1995 Symposium on VLSI Technology. Digest of Technical Papers, 61–62 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-C.

C.-C. Yang and W.-C. Chen, “The structures and properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) films produced by thermal curing,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(4), 1138–1141 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

M. M. Milosevic, X. Chen, W. Cao, A. F. J. Runge, Y. Franz, C. G. Littlejohns, S. Mailis, A. C. Peacock, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Ion Implantation in Silicon for Trimming the Operating Wavelength of Ring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Cheung, K. C.

L. Detection, E. Luan, H. Shoman, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon Photonic Biosensors Using Label-Free Detection,” 1–42 (2018).

Choi, S.

S. Choi, M. J. Word, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Comparative study of thermally cured and electron-beam-exposed hydrogen silsesquioxane resists,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 26(5), 1654 (2008).
[Crossref]

Christopher, V.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, A. Khilo, and V. Christopher, “for the Next Generation of Systems on a Chip,” (2018).

Chrostowski, L.

L. Detection, E. Luan, H. Shoman, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon Photonic Biosensors Using Label-Free Detection,” 1–42 (2018).

Chua, C. T.

Y. K. Siew, G. Sarkar, X. Hu, J. Hui, A. See, and C. T. Chua, “Thermal Curing of Hydrogen Silsesquioxane,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(1), 335 (2000).
[Crossref]

Corporation, D. C.

M. Loboda, C. Grove, R. Schneider, and D. C. Corporation, “Properties of a‐SiO x: H Thin Films Deposited from Hydrogen Silsesquioxane Resins,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145(8), 2861–2866 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dai, D.

Dal, L.

A. M. Urbas, Z. Jacob, L. Dal, D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, and T. Komljenovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R. M.

A. Samarelli, D. S. Macintyre, M. J. Strain, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and S. Thoms, “Optical characterization of a hydrogen silsesquioxane lithography process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 26(6), 2290–2294 (2008).
[Crossref]

Detection, L.

L. Detection, E. Luan, H. Shoman, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon Photonic Biosensors Using Label-Free Detection,” 1–42 (2018).

Ding, Y.

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Milosevic, M. M.

M. M. Milosevic, X. Chen, W. Cao, A. F. J. Runge, Y. Franz, C. G. Littlejohns, S. Mailis, A. C. Peacock, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Ion Implantation in Silicon for Trimming the Operating Wavelength of Ring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–7 (2018).
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A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, A. Khilo, and V. Christopher, “for the Next Generation of Systems on a Chip,” (2018).

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J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
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M. M. Milosevic, X. Chen, W. Cao, A. F. J. Runge, Y. Franz, C. G. Littlejohns, S. Mailis, A. C. Peacock, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Ion Implantation in Silicon for Trimming the Operating Wavelength of Ring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–7 (2018).
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A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, A. Khilo, and V. Christopher, “for the Next Generation of Systems on a Chip,” (2018).

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H.-C. Liou and J. Pretzer, “Effect of curing temperature on the mechanical properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane thin films,” Thin Solid Films 335(1-2), 186–191 (1998).
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Raj, K.

Ram, R. J.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, A. Khilo, and V. Christopher, “for the Next Generation of Systems on a Chip,” (2018).

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L. Detection, E. Luan, H. Shoman, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon Photonic Biosensors Using Label-Free Detection,” 1–42 (2018).

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M. M. Milosevic, X. Chen, W. Cao, A. F. J. Runge, Y. Franz, C. G. Littlejohns, S. Mailis, A. C. Peacock, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Ion Implantation in Silicon for Trimming the Operating Wavelength of Ring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–7 (2018).
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J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
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M. M. Milosevic, X. Chen, W. Cao, A. F. J. Runge, Y. Franz, C. G. Littlejohns, S. Mailis, A. C. Peacock, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Ion Implantation in Silicon for Trimming the Operating Wavelength of Ring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–7 (2018).
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J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
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A. Samarelli, D. S. Macintyre, M. J. Strain, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and S. Thoms, “Optical characterization of a hydrogen silsesquioxane lithography process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 26(6), 2290–2294 (2008).
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J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
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Y. K. Siew, G. Sarkar, X. Hu, J. Hui, A. See, and C. T. Chua, “Thermal Curing of Hydrogen Silsesquioxane,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(1), 335 (2000).
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Schneider, R.

M. Loboda, C. Grove, R. Schneider, and D. C. Corporation, “Properties of a‐SiO x: H Thin Films Deposited from Hydrogen Silsesquioxane Resins,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145(8), 2861–2866 (1998).
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Schrauwen, J.

See, A.

Y. K. Siew, G. Sarkar, X. Hu, J. Hui, A. See, and C. T. Chua, “Thermal Curing of Hydrogen Silsesquioxane,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(1), 335 (2000).
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S. Jeng, K. Taylor, T. Seha, M. Chang, J. Fattaruso, and R. H. Havemann, “Highly Porous Interlayer Dielectric For Interconnect Capacitance Reduction,” 1995 Symposium on VLSI Technology. Digest of Technical Papers, 61–62 (1995).
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S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer Linewidth Uniformity in Silicon Nanophotonic Waveguide Devices Using CMOS Fabrication Technology,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 16(1), 316–324 (2010).
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Shakya, J.

Shoman, H.

L. Detection, E. Luan, H. Shoman, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon Photonic Biosensors Using Label-Free Detection,” 1–42 (2018).

Shubin, I.

Siew, Y. K.

Y. K. Siew, G. Sarkar, X. Hu, J. Hui, A. See, and C. T. Chua, “Thermal Curing of Hydrogen Silsesquioxane,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(1), 335 (2000).
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Silverstone, J. W.

J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
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A. A. Kumbhar, S. K. Singh, and R. O. Dusane, “Enhancement of moisture resistance of spin-on low-k HSQ films by hot wire generated atomic hydrogen treatment,” Thin Solid Films 501(1-2), 329–331 (2006).
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Singh, V.

Skrzypczyk, P.

J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
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Smith, H. I.

C. W. Holzwarth, T. Barwicz, and H. I. Smith, “Optimization of hydrogen silsesquioxane for photonic applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 25(6), 2658 (2007).
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Sorel, M.

A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15807–17 (2012).
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A. Samarelli, D. S. Macintyre, M. J. Strain, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and S. Thoms, “Optical characterization of a hydrogen silsesquioxane lithography process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 26(6), 2290–2294 (2008).
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Spector, S.

Stojanovic, V. M.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, A. Khilo, and V. Christopher, “for the Next Generation of Systems on a Chip,” (2018).

Strain, M. J.

A. Samarelli, D. S. Macintyre, M. J. Strain, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and S. Thoms, “Optical characterization of a hydrogen silsesquioxane lithography process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 26(6), 2290–2294 (2008).
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A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, A. Khilo, and V. Christopher, “for the Next Generation of Systems on a Chip,” (2018).

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S. Jeng, K. Taylor, T. Seha, M. Chang, J. Fattaruso, and R. H. Havemann, “Highly Porous Interlayer Dielectric For Interconnect Capacitance Reduction,” 1995 Symposium on VLSI Technology. Digest of Technical Papers, 61–62 (1995).
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Thacker, H.

Thompson, M. G.

J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Man, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O. Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large - scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
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Thoms, S.

A. Samarelli, D. S. Macintyre, M. J. Strain, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and S. Thoms, “Optical characterization of a hydrogen silsesquioxane lithography process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 26(6), 2290–2294 (2008).
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Thomson, D.

A. M. Urbas, Z. Jacob, L. Dal, D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, and T. Komljenovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
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“*,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5525/gla.researchdata.990 .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) FTIR spectrum of HSQ films at different annealing temperatures; (b) An extract from the FTIR spectrum in the range 600 to 1400 cm−1 showing the cage to network transition of HSQ; (c) refractive index of HSQ (at 1550 nm) as a function of curing temperature.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. a) Schematic view of HSQ clad silicon waveguide; b) Optical image of fabricated racetrack ring resonator.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. a) Simplified schematic of the Witec alpha 300 tool used to perform the trimming, b) Schematic view of the trimming process.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Shift in resonant wavelength as a function of laser power (b) Spectrum of a ring-resonator before and after trimming at 22 mW.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Raman spectrum of a silicon waveguide at low laser power (4 mW). (b) Raman spectrum of the same silicon waveguide during laser annealing at 22 mW, individual peaks have been fitted using a combination of Gaussian/Lorentzian functions.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. a) Spectrum and infrared images showing scattered light from two nominally identical ring resonators before trimming, b) Spectrum and infrared images of the same two rings after trimming.

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