Abstract

In this paper, we propose a stable orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode fiber laser with an all-polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) structure based on a combination of two linearly polarized modes. The mode intensity ratio between the two linearly polarized modes can be adjusted by adopting a double-pump structure. A pair of polarization-maintaining long-period fiber gratings (PM-LPFGs) are used as a mode converter. The number of topological charges of the OAM mode beam can be tuned between +1 and −1 by stretching the fiber. By adopting an all-PMF structure, we can build an OAM mode fiber laser without a polarization controller and that is resistant to environmental disturbances. The purity of the OAM mode was approximately 93.6%. This stable and compact OAM mode fiber laser can be used as a laser source in practical applications and scientific research.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2019 (4)

L. Rego, K. M. Dorney, N. J. Brooks, Q. L. Nguyen, C. T. Liao, J. S. Román, D. E. Couch, A. Liu, E. Pisanty, M. Lewenstein, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. Hernández-García, “Generation of extreme-ultraviolet beams with time-varying orbital angular momentum,” Science 364(6447), eaaw9486 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Shen, X. Wang, Z. Xie, C. Min, X. Fu, Q. Liu, M. Gong, and X. Yuan, “Optical vortices 30 years on: OAM manipulation from topological charge to multiple singularities,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 90 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Carlon Zambon, P. St-Jean, M. Milićević, A. Lemaître, A. Harouri, L. Le Gratiet, O. Bleu, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, I. Sagnes, S. Ravets, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Optically controlling the emission chirality of microlasers,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 283–288 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Li, R. Zhang, P. Liao, Y. Cao, H. Song, Y. Zhao, J. Du, Z. Zhao, C. Liu, K. Pang, H. Song, A. Almaiman, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Mitigation for turbulence effects in a 40-Gbit/s orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed free-space optical link between a ground station and a retro-reflecting UAV using MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 44(21), 5181 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

Z. Xie, T. Lei, F. Li, H. Qiu, Z. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Min, L. Du, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Ultra-broadband on-chip twisted light emitter for optical communications,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(4), 18001 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. S. Chen, F. L. Sun, J. N. Yao, J. H. Wang, H. Ming, A. T. Wang, and Q. W. Zhan, “Mode-locked all-fiber laser generating optical vortex pulses with tunable repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(26), 261103 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, J. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Yao, H. Ming, and A. Wang, “Fiber-based mode converter for generating optical vortex beams,” Opto-Electronic Adv. 1(7), 18000301–18000307 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, T. Wang, C. Mou, Z. Yan, Y. Liu, and T. Wang, “All-Fiber Vortex Laser Generated with Few-Mode Long-Period Gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(8), 752–755 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

2016 (6)

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A Flat-Lensed Spiral Phase Plate Based on Phase-Shifting Surface for Generation of Millimeter-Wave OAM Beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Alperin, R. D. Niederriter, J. T. Gopinath, and M. E. S. Samuel, “Quantitative measurement of the average orbital angular momentum of light with a cylindrical lens,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5019–5022 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, Y. Li, Q. Mo, W. Li, Y. Tian, Z. Liu, and J. Wu, “Experimental Investigation of LP11 Mode to OAM Conversion in Few Mode-Polarization Maintaining Fiber and the Usage for All Fiber OAM Generator,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. D. Niederriter, M. E. Siemens, and J. T. Gopinath, “Simultaneous control of orbital angular momentum and beam profile in two-mode polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 41(24), 5736 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. D. Niederriter, M. E. Siemens, and J. T. Gopinath, “Continuously tunable orbital angular momentum generation using a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3213 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Jin, F. Pang, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Li, J. Wen, Z. Chen, M. Wang, and T. Wang, “Generation of the First-Order OAM Modes in Single-Ring Fibers by Offset Splicing Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1581–1584 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

2014 (1)

M. Gecevič Ius, R. Drevinskas, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231110 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Z. Fang, Y. Yao, K. Xia, M. Kang, K. I. Ueda, and J. Li, “Vector mode excitation in few-mode fiber by controlling incident polarization,” Opt. Commun. 294, 177–181 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Ramachandran and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fiber,” Nanophotonics 2(5-6), 455–474 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Ando, Y. Imai, and M. Imai, “Modal Birefringence Measurements of Polarization-Maintaining Single-Mode Fibers without and with Stretching by Optical Heterodyne Interferometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(4), 602–607 (1987).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

Almaiman, A.

Alperin, N.

Amo, A.

N. Carlon Zambon, P. St-Jean, M. Milićević, A. Lemaître, A. Harouri, L. Le Gratiet, O. Bleu, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, I. Sagnes, S. Ravets, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Optically controlling the emission chirality of microlasers,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 283–288 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ando, T.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Ando, Y. Imai, and M. Imai, “Modal Birefringence Measurements of Polarization-Maintaining Single-Mode Fibers without and with Stretching by Optical Heterodyne Interferometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(4), 602–607 (1987).
[Crossref]

Andrews, D. L.

D. L. Andrews and M. Babiker, “The angular momentum of light,” Cambridge University, 2012.

Anzolin, G.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Babazadeh, A.

A. Babazadeh, M. Erhard, F. Wang, M. Malik, R. Nouroozi, M. Krenn, and A. Zeilinger, “High-Dimensional Single-Photon Quantum Gates: Concepts and Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(18), 180510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Babiker, M.

D. L. Andrews and M. Babiker, “The angular momentum of light,” Cambridge University, 2012.

Barbieri, C.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beresna, M.

M. Gecevič Ius, R. Drevinskas, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bianchini, A.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bleu, O.

N. Carlon Zambon, P. St-Jean, M. Milićević, A. Lemaître, A. Harouri, L. Le Gratiet, O. Bleu, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, I. Sagnes, S. Ravets, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Optically controlling the emission chirality of microlasers,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 283–288 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bloch, J.

N. Carlon Zambon, P. St-Jean, M. Milićević, A. Lemaître, A. Harouri, L. Le Gratiet, O. Bleu, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, I. Sagnes, S. Ravets, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Optically controlling the emission chirality of microlasers,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 283–288 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bock, R.

Boyd, R.

Boyd, R. W.

Brooks, N. J.

L. Rego, K. M. Dorney, N. J. Brooks, Q. L. Nguyen, C. T. Liao, J. S. Román, D. E. Couch, A. Liu, E. Pisanty, M. Lewenstein, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. Hernández-García, “Generation of extreme-ultraviolet beams with time-varying orbital angular momentum,” Science 364(6447), eaaw9486 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Carlon Zambon, N.

N. Carlon Zambon, P. St-Jean, M. Milićević, A. Lemaître, A. Harouri, L. Le Gratiet, O. Bleu, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, I. Sagnes, S. Ravets, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Optically controlling the emission chirality of microlasers,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 283–288 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

R. Chen, J. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Yao, H. Ming, and A. Wang, “Fiber-based mode converter for generating optical vortex beams,” Opto-Electronic Adv. 1(7), 18000301–18000307 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. S.

R. S. Chen, F. L. Sun, J. N. Yao, J. H. Wang, H. Ming, A. T. Wang, and Q. W. Zhan, “Mode-locked all-fiber laser generating optical vortex pulses with tunable repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(26), 261103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A Flat-Lensed Spiral Phase Plate Based on Phase-Shifting Surface for Generation of Millimeter-Wave OAM Beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

X. Jin, F. Pang, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Li, J. Wen, Z. Chen, M. Wang, and T. Wang, “Generation of the First-Order OAM Modes in Single-Ring Fibers by Offset Splicing Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1581–1584 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chi, H.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A Flat-Lensed Spiral Phase Plate Based on Phase-Shifting Surface for Generation of Millimeter-Wave OAM Beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

Couch, D. E.

L. Rego, K. M. Dorney, N. J. Brooks, Q. L. Nguyen, C. T. Liao, J. S. Román, D. E. Couch, A. Liu, E. Pisanty, M. Lewenstein, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. Hernández-García, “Generation of extreme-ultraviolet beams with time-varying orbital angular momentum,” Science 364(6447), eaaw9486 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dorney, K. M.

L. Rego, K. M. Dorney, N. J. Brooks, Q. L. Nguyen, C. T. Liao, J. S. Román, D. E. Couch, A. Liu, E. Pisanty, M. Lewenstein, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. Hernández-García, “Generation of extreme-ultraviolet beams with time-varying orbital angular momentum,” Science 364(6447), eaaw9486 (2019).
[Crossref]

Drevinskas, R.

M. Gecevič Ius, R. Drevinskas, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

Du, L.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, F. Li, H. Qiu, Z. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Min, L. Du, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Ultra-broadband on-chip twisted light emitter for optical communications,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(4), 18001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Du, T.

Erhard, M.

A. Babazadeh, M. Erhard, F. Wang, M. Malik, R. Nouroozi, M. Krenn, and A. Zeilinger, “High-Dimensional Single-Photon Quantum Gates: Concepts and Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(18), 180510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, Y. Yao, K. Xia, M. Kang, K. I. Ueda, and J. Li, “Vector mode excitation in few-mode fiber by controlling incident polarization,” Opt. Commun. 294, 177–181 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fedosejevs, R.

Fu, X.

Y. Shen, X. Wang, Z. Xie, C. Min, X. Fu, Q. Liu, M. Gong, and X. Yuan, “Optical vortices 30 years on: OAM manipulation from topological charge to multiple singularities,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 90 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gecevic Ius, M.

M. Gecevič Ius, R. Drevinskas, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, M.

Y. Shen, X. Wang, Z. Xie, C. Min, X. Fu, Q. Liu, M. Gong, and X. Yuan, “Optical vortices 30 years on: OAM manipulation from topological charge to multiple singularities,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 90 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gopinath, J. T.

Gregg, P.

Guo, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Li, X. Wang, and S. Qu, “Manipulating ellipsoidal micro-particles by femtosecond vortex tweezers,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harouri, A.

N. Carlon Zambon, P. St-Jean, M. Milićević, A. Lemaître, A. Harouri, L. Le Gratiet, O. Bleu, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, I. Sagnes, S. Ravets, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Optically controlling the emission chirality of microlasers,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 283–288 (2019).
[Crossref]

Heffernan, B. M.

Hernández-García, C.

L. Rego, K. M. Dorney, N. J. Brooks, Q. L. Nguyen, C. T. Liao, J. S. Román, D. E. Couch, A. Liu, E. Pisanty, M. Lewenstein, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. Hernández-García, “Generation of extreme-ultraviolet beams with time-varying orbital angular momentum,” Science 364(6447), eaaw9486 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, V. G. Shvedov, N. Shostka, A. V. Rode, and W. Krolikowski, “Polarization-sensitive femtosecond laser ablation with tightly focused vortex pulses,” Opt. InfoBase Conf. Pap.37, 226–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Huang, S.

Hui, X.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A Flat-Lensed Spiral Phase Plate Based on Phase-Shifting Surface for Generation of Millimeter-Wave OAM Beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Imai, M.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Ando, Y. Imai, and M. Imai, “Modal Birefringence Measurements of Polarization-Maintaining Single-Mode Fibers without and with Stretching by Optical Heterodyne Interferometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(4), 602–607 (1987).
[Crossref]

Imai, Y.

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X. Jin, F. Pang, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Li, J. Wen, Z. Chen, M. Wang, and T. Wang, “Generation of the First-Order OAM Modes in Single-Ring Fibers by Offset Splicing Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1581–1584 (2016).
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Xia, K.

Z. Fang, Y. Yao, K. Xia, M. Kang, K. I. Ueda, and J. Li, “Vector mode excitation in few-mode fiber by controlling incident polarization,” Opt. Commun. 294, 177–181 (2013).
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Y. Shen, X. Wang, Z. Xie, C. Min, X. Fu, Q. Liu, M. Gong, and X. Yuan, “Optical vortices 30 years on: OAM manipulation from topological charge to multiple singularities,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 90 (2019).
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Yan, Z.

Y. Zhao, T. Wang, C. Mou, Z. Yan, Y. Liu, and T. Wang, “All-Fiber Vortex Laser Generated with Few-Mode Long-Period Gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(8), 752–755 (2018).
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R. Chen, J. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Yao, H. Ming, and A. Wang, “Fiber-based mode converter for generating optical vortex beams,” Opto-Electronic Adv. 1(7), 18000301–18000307 (2018).
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R. S. Chen, F. L. Sun, J. N. Yao, J. H. Wang, H. Ming, A. T. Wang, and Q. W. Zhan, “Mode-locked all-fiber laser generating optical vortex pulses with tunable repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(26), 261103 (2018).
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[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

Y. Shen, X. Wang, Z. Xie, C. Min, X. Fu, Q. Liu, M. Gong, and X. Yuan, “Optical vortices 30 years on: OAM manipulation from topological charge to multiple singularities,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 90 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Xie, T. Lei, F. Li, H. Qiu, Z. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Min, L. Du, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Ultra-broadband on-chip twisted light emitter for optical communications,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(4), 18001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Babazadeh, M. Erhard, F. Wang, M. Malik, R. Nouroozi, M. Krenn, and A. Zeilinger, “High-Dimensional Single-Photon Quantum Gates: Concepts and Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(18), 180510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

Zhan, Q. W.

R. S. Chen, F. L. Sun, J. N. Yao, J. H. Wang, H. Ming, A. T. Wang, and Q. W. Zhan, “Mode-locked all-fiber laser generating optical vortex pulses with tunable repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(26), 261103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

Zhang, X.

R. Chen, J. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Yao, H. Ming, and A. Wang, “Fiber-based mode converter for generating optical vortex beams,” Opto-Electronic Adv. 1(7), 18000301–18000307 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A Flat-Lensed Spiral Phase Plate Based on Phase-Shifting Surface for Generation of Millimeter-Wave OAM Beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
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[Crossref]

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Z. Xie, T. Lei, F. Li, H. Qiu, Z. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Min, L. Du, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Ultra-broadband on-chip twisted light emitter for optical communications,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(4), 18001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zhao, Z.

Zheng, S.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A Flat-Lensed Spiral Phase Plate Based on Phase-Shifting Surface for Generation of Millimeter-Wave OAM Beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

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R. S. Chen, F. L. Sun, J. N. Yao, J. H. Wang, H. Ming, A. T. Wang, and Q. W. Zhan, “Mode-locked all-fiber laser generating optical vortex pulses with tunable repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(26), 261103 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A Flat-Lensed Spiral Phase Plate Based on Phase-Shifting Surface for Generation of Millimeter-Wave OAM Beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X. Zeng, Y. Li, Q. Mo, W. Li, Y. Tian, Z. Liu, and J. Wu, “Experimental Investigation of LP11 Mode to OAM Conversion in Few Mode-Polarization Maintaining Fiber and the Usage for All Fiber OAM Generator,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 1–7 (2016).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Jin, F. Pang, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Li, J. Wen, Z. Chen, M. Wang, and T. Wang, “Generation of the First-Order OAM Modes in Single-Ring Fibers by Offset Splicing Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1581–1584 (2016).
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Z. Xie, T. Lei, F. Li, H. Qiu, Z. Zhang, H. Wang, C. Min, L. Du, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Ultra-broadband on-chip twisted light emitter for optical communications,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(4), 18001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Shen, X. Wang, Z. Xie, C. Min, X. Fu, Q. Liu, M. Gong, and X. Yuan, “Optical vortices 30 years on: OAM manipulation from topological charge to multiple singularities,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 90 (2019).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Fang, Y. Yao, K. Xia, M. Kang, K. I. Ueda, and J. Li, “Vector mode excitation in few-mode fiber by controlling incident polarization,” Opt. Commun. 294, 177–181 (2013).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Spatial distribution of the electric vector field for the LP11ax, LP11ay, LP11bx, and LP11by modes.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Relationship between the OAM±1x/y modes and the LP11 modes.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Modal effective index for LP11ax, LP11ay, LP11bx, and LP11by in PM1550. (b) Phase difference between the LP11ax and the LP11bx mode vs. the PM1550 length.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental setup of the proposed all-PMF Yb-doped OAM mode fiber laser. LD, 976-nm laser diode; PM-WDM, polarization-maintaining wavelength division multiplexer; PM-YDF, polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped fiber; PM-OC, polarization-maintaining 90:10 optical coupler; PM-LPFG, polarization-maintaining long-period fiber grating; HR-PM-FMFBG, high-reflectivity polarization-maintaining few-mode fiber Bragg grating; PM-FMOC, polarization-maintaining few-mode optical coupler; STRETCHER, fiber stretcher; NPBS, non-polarized beam splitter; COL, collimator; P, linear polarizer; CCD, CCD camera. The inset shows operating principle of PM-FMOC.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Transmission spectrum of the LPFGs. (b) Reflection spectrum of the HR-PM-FMFBG.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Spectrum of the output of the left arm. The red line is the output spectrum of LP01, and the blue line is the output spectrum of LP11. The inset shows the spatial distribution of LP11ax. (b) Spectrum of the output of the right arm. The red line is the output spectrum of LP01, and the blue line is the output spectrum of LP11. The inset shows the spatial distribution of LP11ay.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Output power characteristic of the fiber laser.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Mode field distributions. (a). OAM beam (b). Gaussian beam.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a-d) Evolution of the interference patterns between the OAM beam and the Gaussian beam.

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