Abstract

An absolute phase synchronization method based on phase-conjugation scheme is demonstrated. A repeatable phase difference regardless of restart operation and fiber route changing between the phase standard at local site and the recovered signal at the intermediate-access node is achieved. This indicates that absolute phase synchronization to arbitrary nodes along the fiber link is feasible. At the intermediate-access node, this phase difference is highly stable with a fluctuation of ±0.014 rad over 10000s. And this phase difference shows consistency within 2% of the full cycle under different situations such as restart operation and fiber route changing.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

S. M. Brewer, J. S. Chen, A. M. Hankin, E. R. Clements, C. W. Chou, D. J. Wineland, D. B. Hume, and D. R. Leibrandt, “27Al+ quantum-logic clock with a systematic uncertainty below 10−18,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(3), 033201 (2019).
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E. Oelker, R. B. Hutson, C. J. Kennedy, L. Sonderhouse, T. Bothwell, A. Goban, D. Kedar, C. Sanner, J. M. Robinson, G. E. Marti, D. G. Matei, T. Legero, M. Giunta, R. Holzworth, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Demonstration of 4.8 × 10−17 stability at 1 s for two independent optical clocks,” Nat. Photonics 13(10), 714–719 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

2017 (3)

S. W. Schediwy, D. R. Gozzard, S. Stobie, J. A. Malan, and K. Grainge, “Stabilized microwave-frequency transfer using optical phase sensing and actuation,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1648–1651 (2017).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, C. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. D. Deschenes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newburry, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6(2), 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Deng, J. Liu, D. D. Jiao, J. Gao, Q. Zang, G. J. Xu, R. F. Dong, T. Liu, and S. G. Zhang, “Coherent transfer of optical frequency over 112 km with instability at the 10−20 level,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 33(11), 114202 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Pan, J. Wei, and F. Zhang, “Passive phase correction for stable radio frequency transfer via optical fiber,” Photonic Netw. Commun. 31(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

B. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Gao, Y. Bai, J. W. Dong, and L. J. Wang, “Square Kilometre Array Telescope—Precision reference frequency synchronisation via 1f-2f dissemination,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13851 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzworth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Gao, B. Wang, W. L. Chen, Y. Bai, J. Miao, X. Zhu, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Fiber-based multiple-access ultrastable frequency dissemination,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4690–4692 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. Yang and R. S. Blum, “Phase synchronization for coherent MIMO radar: algorithms and their analysis,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 59(11), 5538–5557 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. P. Ng, J. P. Lie, M. H. Er, and A. Feng, “A practical simple geometry and gain/phase calibration technique for antenna array processing,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57(7), 1963–1972 (2009).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

B. D. Steinberg, “Phase synchronizing a nonrigid, distributed, transmit-receiver radar antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-18(5), 609–620 (1982).
[Crossref]

Aben, G.

Abgrall, M.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alachkar, B.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Al-Masoudi, A.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alnis, J.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzworth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amy, S.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Amy-Klein, A.

W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ashby, N.

T. P. Heavner, E. A. Donley, F. Levi, G. Costanzo, T. E. Parker, J. H. Shirley, N. Ashby, S. Barlow, and S. R. Jefferts, “First accuracy evaluation of NIST-F2,” Metrologia 51(3), 174–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

B. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Gao, Y. Bai, J. W. Dong, and L. J. Wang, “Square Kilometre Array Telescope—Precision reference frequency synchronisation via 1f-2f dissemination,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13851 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Gao, B. Wang, W. L. Chen, Y. Bai, J. Miao, X. Zhu, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Fiber-based multiple-access ultrastable frequency dissemination,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4690–4692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baldwin, K. G. H.

Barbosa, D.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barlow, S.

T. P. Heavner, E. A. Donley, F. Levi, G. Costanzo, T. E. Parker, J. H. Shirley, N. Ashby, S. Barlow, and S. R. Jefferts, “First accuracy evaluation of NIST-F2,” Metrologia 51(3), 174–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

J. D. Deschenes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newburry, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6(2), 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bercy, A.

W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bergeron, H.

J. D. Deschenes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newburry, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6(2), 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bilicki, S.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blum, R. S.

Y. Yang and R. S. Blum, “Phase synchronization for coherent MIMO radar: algorithms and their analysis,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 59(11), 5538–5557 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bommineni, M.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bookjans, E.

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Camisard, E.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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Chardonnet, C.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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Chen, J. S.

S. M. Brewer, J. S. Chen, A. M. Hankin, E. R. Clements, C. W. Chou, D. J. Wineland, D. B. Hume, and D. R. Leibrandt, “27Al+ quantum-logic clock with a systematic uncertainty below 10−18,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(3), 033201 (2019).
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Chen, W. L.

C. Gao, B. Wang, W. L. Chen, Y. Bai, J. Miao, X. Zhu, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Fiber-based multiple-access ultrastable frequency dissemination,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4690–4692 (2012).
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B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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S. M. Brewer, J. S. Chen, A. M. Hankin, E. R. Clements, C. W. Chou, D. J. Wineland, D. B. Hume, and D. R. Leibrandt, “27Al+ quantum-logic clock with a systematic uncertainty below 10−18,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(3), 033201 (2019).
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S. M. Brewer, J. S. Chen, A. M. Hankin, E. R. Clements, C. W. Chou, D. J. Wineland, D. B. Hume, and D. R. Leibrandt, “27Al+ quantum-logic clock with a systematic uncertainty below 10−18,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(3), 033201 (2019).
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Coddington, I.

J. D. Deschenes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newburry, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6(2), 021016 (2016).
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F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
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Dai, Y. T.

Davis, J.

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B. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Gao, Y. Bai, J. W. Dong, and L. J. Wang, “Square Kilometre Array Telescope—Precision reference frequency synchronisation via 1f-2f dissemination,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13851 (2015).
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X. Deng, J. Liu, D. D. Jiao, J. Gao, Q. Zang, G. J. Xu, R. F. Dong, T. Liu, and S. G. Zhang, “Coherent transfer of optical frequency over 112 km with instability at the 10−20 level,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 33(11), 114202 (2016).
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T. P. Heavner, E. A. Donley, F. Levi, G. Costanzo, T. E. Parker, J. H. Shirley, N. Ashby, S. Barlow, and S. R. Jefferts, “First accuracy evaluation of NIST-F2,” Metrologia 51(3), 174–182 (2014).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
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K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
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K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
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Gamatham, R.

X. Zhu, B. Wang, Y. Guo, Y. Yuan, R. Gamatham, B. Wallace, K. Grainge, and L. J. Wang, “Robust fiber-based frequency synchronization system immune to strong temperature fluctuation,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(1), 010605 (2018).
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K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
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Gao, C.

B. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Gao, Y. Bai, J. W. Dong, and L. J. Wang, “Square Kilometre Array Telescope—Precision reference frequency synchronisation via 1f-2f dissemination,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13851 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Gao, B. Wang, W. L. Chen, Y. Bai, J. Miao, X. Zhu, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Fiber-based multiple-access ultrastable frequency dissemination,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4690–4692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

X. Deng, J. Liu, D. D. Jiao, J. Gao, Q. Zang, G. J. Xu, R. F. Dong, T. Liu, and S. G. Zhang, “Coherent transfer of optical frequency over 112 km with instability at the 10−20 level,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 33(11), 114202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Garrington, S.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
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Gibbon, T.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
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Giorgetta, F. R.

J. D. Deschenes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newburry, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6(2), 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
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Giunta, M.

E. Oelker, R. B. Hutson, C. J. Kennedy, L. Sonderhouse, T. Bothwell, A. Goban, D. Kedar, C. Sanner, J. M. Robinson, G. E. Marti, D. G. Matei, T. Legero, M. Giunta, R. Holzworth, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Demonstration of 4.8 × 10−17 stability at 1 s for two independent optical clocks,” Nat. Photonics 13(10), 714–719 (2019).
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Goban, A.

E. Oelker, R. B. Hutson, C. J. Kennedy, L. Sonderhouse, T. Bothwell, A. Goban, D. Kedar, C. Sanner, J. M. Robinson, G. E. Marti, D. G. Matei, T. Legero, M. Giunta, R. Holzworth, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Demonstration of 4.8 × 10−17 stability at 1 s for two independent optical clocks,” Nat. Photonics 13(10), 714–719 (2019).
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Gozzard, D.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
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Gozzard, D. R.

Grainge, K.

X. Zhu, B. Wang, Y. Guo, Y. Yuan, R. Gamatham, B. Wallace, K. Grainge, and L. J. Wang, “Robust fiber-based frequency synchronization system immune to strong temperature fluctuation,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(1), 010605 (2018).
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S. W. Schediwy, D. R. Gozzard, S. Stobie, J. A. Malan, and K. Grainge, “Stabilized microwave-frequency transfer using optical phase sensing and actuation,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1648–1651 (2017).
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Grebing, C.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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Gregory, S.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grosche, G.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzworth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.

G. Guo, D. Hou, F. Sun, K. Liu, Y. Xiao, and H. Wang, “Laser-based atmospheric radio-frequency transfer with sub-picosecond timing fluctuation using single phase compensator,” Opt. Commun. 426, 526–530 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

X. Zhu, B. Wang, Y. Guo, Y. Yuan, R. Gamatham, B. Wallace, K. Grainge, and L. J. Wang, “Robust fiber-based frequency synchronization system immune to strong temperature fluctuation,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(1), 010605 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gupta, Y.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Häfner, S.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hammond, J.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hankin, A. M.

S. M. Brewer, J. S. Chen, A. M. Hankin, E. R. Clements, C. W. Chou, D. J. Wineland, D. B. Hume, and D. R. Leibrandt, “27Al+ quantum-logic clock with a systematic uncertainty below 10−18,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(3), 033201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzworth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

He, Y. B.

Heavner, T. P.

T. P. Heavner, E. A. Donley, F. Levi, G. Costanzo, T. E. Parker, J. H. Shirley, N. Ashby, S. Barlow, and S. R. Jefferts, “First accuracy evaluation of NIST-F2,” Metrologia 51(3), 174–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hindley, D.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Holzworth, R.

E. Oelker, R. B. Hutson, C. J. Kennedy, L. Sonderhouse, T. Bothwell, A. Goban, D. Kedar, C. Sanner, J. M. Robinson, G. E. Marti, D. G. Matei, T. Legero, M. Giunta, R. Holzworth, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Demonstration of 4.8 × 10−17 stability at 1 s for two independent optical clocks,” Nat. Photonics 13(10), 714–719 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzworth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Horn, U.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hou, D.

G. Guo, D. Hou, F. Sun, K. Liu, Y. Xiao, and H. Wang, “Laser-based atmospheric radio-frequency transfer with sub-picosecond timing fluctuation using single phase compensator,” Opt. Commun. 426, 526–530 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Li, D. Hou, E. Hu, and J. Zhao, “Phase conjugation frequency dissemination based on harmonics of optical comb at 10−17 instability level,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5058–5061 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, E.

Hu, L.

Hughes-Jones, R.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hume, D. B.

S. M. Brewer, J. S. Chen, A. M. Hankin, E. R. Clements, C. W. Chou, D. J. Wineland, D. B. Hume, and D. R. Leibrandt, “27Al+ quantum-logic clock with a systematic uncertainty below 10−18,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(3), 033201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Huntemann, N.

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, C. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hussey, M.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hutson, R. B.

E. Oelker, R. B. Hutson, C. J. Kennedy, L. Sonderhouse, T. Bothwell, A. Goban, D. Kedar, C. Sanner, J. M. Robinson, G. E. Marti, D. G. Matei, T. Legero, M. Giunta, R. Holzworth, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Demonstration of 4.8 × 10−17 stability at 1 s for two independent optical clocks,” Nat. Photonics 13(10), 714–719 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jefferts, S. R.

T. P. Heavner, E. A. Donley, F. Levi, G. Costanzo, T. E. Parker, J. H. Shirley, N. Ashby, S. Barlow, and S. R. Jefferts, “First accuracy evaluation of NIST-F2,” Metrologia 51(3), 174–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiao, D. D.

X. Deng, J. Liu, D. D. Jiao, J. Gao, Q. Zang, G. J. Xu, R. F. Dong, T. Liu, and S. G. Zhang, “Coherent transfer of optical frequency over 112 km with instability at the 10−20 level,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 33(11), 114202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kedar, D.

E. Oelker, R. B. Hutson, C. J. Kennedy, L. Sonderhouse, T. Bothwell, A. Goban, D. Kedar, C. Sanner, J. M. Robinson, G. E. Marti, D. G. Matei, T. Legero, M. Giunta, R. Holzworth, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Demonstration of 4.8 × 10−17 stability at 1 s for two independent optical clocks,” Nat. Photonics 13(10), 714–719 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kennedy, C. J.

E. Oelker, R. B. Hutson, C. J. Kennedy, L. Sonderhouse, T. Bothwell, A. Goban, D. Kedar, C. Sanner, J. M. Robinson, G. E. Marti, D. G. Matei, T. Legero, M. Giunta, R. Holzworth, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Demonstration of 4.8 × 10−17 stability at 1 s for two independent optical clocks,” Nat. Photonics 13(10), 714–719 (2019).
[Crossref]

Koczwara, A.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koke, S.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kuhl, A.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Le Coq, Y.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Le Targat, R.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-K.

W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Legero, T.

E. Oelker, R. B. Hutson, C. J. Kennedy, L. Sonderhouse, T. Bothwell, A. Goban, D. Kedar, C. Sanner, J. M. Robinson, G. E. Marti, D. G. Matei, T. Legero, M. Giunta, R. Holzworth, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Demonstration of 4.8 × 10−17 stability at 1 s for two independent optical clocks,” Nat. Photonics 13(10), 714–719 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Legero, Th.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzworth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leibrandt, D. R.

S. M. Brewer, J. S. Chen, A. M. Hankin, E. R. Clements, C. W. Chou, D. J. Wineland, D. B. Hume, and D. R. Leibrandt, “27Al+ quantum-logic clock with a systematic uncertainty below 10−18,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(3), 033201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lennon, B.

Levi, F.

T. P. Heavner, E. A. Donley, F. Levi, G. Costanzo, T. E. Parker, J. H. Shirley, N. Ashby, S. Barlow, and S. R. Jefferts, “First accuracy evaluation of NIST-F2,” Metrologia 51(3), 174–182 (2014).
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Li, D.

Li, J.

Li, J. Q.

Li, T. C.

C. Gao, B. Wang, W. L. Chen, Y. Bai, J. Miao, X. Zhu, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Fiber-based multiple-access ultrastable frequency dissemination,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4690–4692 (2012).
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B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
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Lie, J. P.

B. P. Ng, J. P. Lie, M. H. Er, and A. Feng, “A practical simple geometry and gain/phase calibration technique for antenna array processing,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57(7), 1963–1972 (2009).
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Lin, J.

Lin, J. T.

Lipphardt, B.

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, C. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lisdat, C.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

X. Deng, J. Liu, D. D. Jiao, J. Gao, Q. Zang, G. J. Xu, R. F. Dong, T. Liu, and S. G. Zhang, “Coherent transfer of optical frequency over 112 km with instability at the 10−20 level,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 33(11), 114202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

G. Guo, D. Hou, F. Sun, K. Liu, Y. Xiao, and H. Wang, “Laser-based atmospheric radio-frequency transfer with sub-picosecond timing fluctuation using single phase compensator,” Opt. Commun. 426, 526–530 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.

X. Deng, J. Liu, D. D. Jiao, J. Gao, Q. Zang, G. J. Xu, R. F. Dong, T. Liu, and S. G. Zhang, “Coherent transfer of optical frequency over 112 km with instability at the 10−20 level,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 33(11), 114202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lloyd, S.

K. Grainge, B. Alachkar, S. Amy, D. Barbosa, M. Bommineni, P. Boven, R. Braddock, J. Davis, P. Diwakar, V. Francis, R. Gabrielczyk, R. Gamatham, S. Garrington, T. Gibbon, D. Gozzard, S. Gregory, Y. Guo, Y. Gupta, J. Hammond, D. Hindley, U. Horn, R. Hughes-Jones, M. Hussey, S. Lloyd, S. Mammen, S. Miteff, V. Mohile, J. Muller, S. Natarajan, J. Nicholls, R. Oberland, M. Pearson, T. Rayner, S. Schediwy, R. Schilizzi, S. Sharma, S. Stobie, M. Tearle, B. Wang, B. Wallace, L. Wang, R. Warange, R. Whitaker, A. Wilkinson, and N. Wingfield, “Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century,” Astron. Rep. 61(4), 288–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lodewyck, J.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lopez, O.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The principle of the proposed absolute phase synchronization method.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a)Experimental setup of the absolute phase synchronization system. The local and remote sites locate at the same place. (b) Detailed setup of ANEPC mixing operation. (c) Detailed setup of ANE up-conversion mixing operation at the access node. ANE, anti-nonlinear-effect; ANEPC, anti-nonlinear-effect phase-conjugation; BPF, band-pass filter; PD, photodiode.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The red line shows the phase difference of monitor item ${\phi _1}$ and the black line shows the phase difference of detection item ${\phi _2}$. The embedded graph in each figure shows enlarged details of the experiment results. (a) and (b): the temperature of the 25 km fiber spool changes rapidly; (c) and (d): under room temperature.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The red line shows the phase difference of monitor item and the black line shows the phase difference of detection item. The embedded graph in each figure shows enlarged details of the experiment results. (a) and (b): The 100 MHz frequency standard is switched off 3 times. Every switch-off operation lasts 30 seconds; (c) and (d): The assistance signal 1 is switched off 3 times. Every switch-off operation lasts 30 seconds; (e) and (f): The power of whole system is shut down and restarted after 30 minutes. “Warm-up” of the system can be observed from the phase differences.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The red line shows the phase difference of monitor item and the black line shows the phase difference of detection item. The embedded graph in each figure shows enlarged details of the experiment results. (a) and (b): A 10m-long fiber is removed from the fiber link; (c) and (d): The 2km-long fiber spool is removed from the fiber link; (e) and (f): The access node is moved to point B in Fig. 2.

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