Abstract

We report the measurement of the frequency noise power spectral density (PSD) of a Terahertz (THz) molecular laser (ML) pumped by a mid-infrared (MIR) quantum cascade laser (QCL), and emitting 1 mW at 1.1THz in continuous wave. This is achieved by beating the ML frequency with the 1080th harmonic of the repetition rate of a 1560 nm frequency comb (FC). We find a frequency noise PSD < 10Hz2/Hz (-95dBc/Hz) at 100kHz from the carrier. To demonstrate the effect of the stability of the pump laser on the spectral purity of the THz emission we also measure the frequency noise PSD of a CO2-laser-pumped 2.5THz ML, reaching 0.1Hz2/Hz (-105dBc/Hz) at 40kHz from the carrier, limited by the frequency noise of the FC harmonic. Finally, we show that it is possible to actively phase-lock the QCL-pumped molecular laser to the FC repetition rate harmonic by controlling the QCL current, demonstrating a sub-Hz linewidth.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

2018 (5)

M. Micica, S. Eliet, M. Vanwolleghem, R. Motiyenko, A. Pienkina, L. Margulès, K. Postava, J. Pištora, and J.-F. Lampin, “High-resolution THz gain measurements in optically pumped ammonia,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21242–21248 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, J. Lee, D. J. Phillips, S. G. Holliday, S.-L. Chua, J. Bravo-Abad, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, and H. O. Everitt, “A high-efficiency regime for gas-phase terahertz lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 115(26), 6614–6619 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014–1840029 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. V. Siles, K. B. Cooper, C. Ken, R. H. Lee, G. Lin, I. Chattopadhyay, and Mehdi, “A New Generation of Room-Temperature Frequency Multiplied Sources with up to 10x Higher Output Power in the 160 GHz -1.6 THz Range,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(6), 596–604 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Jung, Y. Jiang, J. H. Kim, A. Nakanishi, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Edamura, and M. A. Belkin, “Recent progress in terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser sources,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1795–1817 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

H. Ito and T. Ishibashi, “Photonic Terahertz-Wave Generation Using Slot-Antenna-Integrated Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 3800907 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. Pagies, G. Ducournau, and J.-F. Lampin, “Low-threshold terahertz molecular laser optically pumped by a quantum cascade laser,” APL Photonics 1(3), 031302 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz local oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Mejri, P. L. T. Sow, O. Kozlova, C. Ayari, S. K. Tokunaga, C. Chardonnet, S. Briaudeau, B. Darquié, F. Rohart, and C. Daussy, “Measuring the Boltzmann constant by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy of ammonia,” Metrologia 52(5), S314–S323 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. A. Danylov, A. R. Light, J. Waldman, and N. Erickson, “Frequency stabilization of an optically pumped far-infrared laser to the harmonic of a microwave synthesizer,” Appl. Opt. 54(35), 10494–10497 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, “A widely tunable 10-µm quantum cascade laser phase-locked to a state-of-the-art mid-infrared reference for precision molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 264101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, and B. Darquié, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the Intrinsic Linewidth of a Quantum-Cascade Laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Di Domenico, S. Schilt, and P. Thomann, “Simple approach to the relation between laser frequency noise and laser line shape,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), 4801–4807 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Phase locking of a 2.7THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked Er-fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. Yasui, R. Nakamura, K. Kawamoto, A. Ihara, Y. Fujimoto, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Araki, “Real-time monitoring of continuous-wave terahertz radiation using a fiber-based, terahertz-comb-referenced spectrum analyzer,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17034–17043 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lancome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Predoi-Cross, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, “Three dimensional fully polarimetric W-band ISAR imagery of scale-model tactical targets using a 1.56 THz compact range,” Proc. SPIE 5095, 66–74 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

E. Michael, F. Lewen, R. Gendriesch, J. Stutzki, and G. Winnewisser, “Frequency lock of an optically pumped FIR ring laser at 803 and 1626 GHz,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 20(6), 1073–1083 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. D. Rovera, “Low frequency noise optically pumped FIR laser with frequency stabilized pump,” Opt. Commun. 143(4-6), 247–251 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

T. Hori and N. Hiromoto, “Power increase and absolute frequency- stabilization of an optically-pumped far infrared laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 1, No. 12A), 5552–5557 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

S. Jacobsson, “Optically pumped far infrared lasers,” Infrared Phys. 29(5), 853–874 (1989).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

B. Dahmani and A. Clairon, “Frequency stability limitations of optically pumped lasers, due to pump laser instability through dispersion effect,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5(7), 1053–1068 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

A. Vass, B. W. Davis, W. J. Firth, and C. R. Pidgeon, “Dispersion in an optically pumped FIR laser,” Appl. Phys. B 29(2), 131–134 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J.-M. Lourtioz, J. Pontnau, M. Morillon-Chapey, and J.-C. Dercoche, “Submillimeter laser action of CW optically pumped CF2CL2,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 2(1), 49–63 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (3)

E. J. Danielewicz, T. A. Galantowicz, F. B. Foote, R. D. Reel, and D. T. Hodges, “High performance at new FIR wavelengths from optically pumped CH2F2,” Opt. Lett. 4(9), 280–282 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. Inguscio, A. Moretti, and F. Strumia, “IR-FIR Transferred Lamb-dip spectroscopy in optically pumped molecular lasers,” Opt. Commun. 30(3), 355–360 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Borde and C. J. Borde, “Intensities of hyperfine components in saturation spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 78(3), 353–378 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

G. A. Koepf and K. Smith, “The CW-496(m Methylfluoride Laser: Review and Theoretical Predictions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 333–338 (1978).
[Crossref]

A. Godone, C. O. Weiss, and G. Kramer, “FM noise measurements on an optically pumped FIR laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 339–342 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

D. Seligson, M. Ducloy, J. R. R. Leite, A. Sanchez, and M. S. Feld, “Quantum mechanical treatment of optically pumped CW FIR Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 468–472 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

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B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, and B. Darquié, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
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Akikusa, N.

Aladro, R.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014–1840029 (2018).
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P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, “A widely tunable 10-µm quantum cascade laser phase-locked to a state-of-the-art mid-infrared reference for precision molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 264101 (2014).
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P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, “A widely tunable 10-µm quantum cascade laser phase-locked to a state-of-the-art mid-infrared reference for precision molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 264101 (2014).
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B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, and B. Darquié, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
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P. Chevalier, A. Armizhan, F. Wang, M. Piccardo, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and H. O. Everitt, “Widely tunable compact terahertz gas lasers,” Science 366(6467), 856–860 (2019).
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B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, and B. Darquié, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
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S. Mejri, P. L. T. Sow, O. Kozlova, C. Ayari, S. K. Tokunaga, C. Chardonnet, S. Briaudeau, B. Darquié, F. Rohart, and C. Daussy, “Measuring the Boltzmann constant by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy of ammonia,” Metrologia 52(5), S314–S323 (2015).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lancome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Predoi-Cross, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Phase locking of a 2.7THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked Er-fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
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Bartalini, S.

M.S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum limited frequency fluctuations in a THz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
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S. Bartalini, S. Borri, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, T. Edamura, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, “Measuring frequency noise and intrinsic linewidth of a room-temperature DFB quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17996–18003 (2011).
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S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the Intrinsic Linewidth of a Quantum-Cascade Laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
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Beere, H. E.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Phase locking of a 2.7THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked Er-fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
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K. Fujita, S. Jung, Y. Jiang, J. H. Kim, A. Nakanishi, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Edamura, and M. A. Belkin, “Recent progress in terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser sources,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1795–1817 (2018).
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C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014–1840029 (2018).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lancome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Predoi-Cross, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz local oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 539–545 (2015).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lancome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Predoi-Cross, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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S. Bartalini, S. Borri, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, T. Edamura, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, “Measuring frequency noise and intrinsic linewidth of a room-temperature DFB quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17996–18003 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the Intrinsic Linewidth of a Quantum-Cascade Laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
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X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lancome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Predoi-Cross, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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F. Wang, J. Lee, D. J. Phillips, S. G. Holliday, S.-L. Chua, J. Bravo-Abad, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, and H. O. Everitt, “A high-efficiency regime for gas-phase terahertz lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 115(26), 6614–6619 (2018).
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Briaudeau, S.

S. Mejri, P. L. T. Sow, O. Kozlova, C. Ayari, S. K. Tokunaga, C. Chardonnet, S. Briaudeau, B. Darquié, F. Rohart, and C. Daussy, “Measuring the Boltzmann constant by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy of ammonia,” Metrologia 52(5), S314–S323 (2015).
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Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lancome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Predoi-Cross, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Buchanan, Z. S.

Buchbender, C.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014–1840029 (2018).
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Büchel, D.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014–1840029 (2018).
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Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lancome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Predoi-Cross, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Cancio, P.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the Intrinsic Linewidth of a Quantum-Cascade Laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

P. Chevalier, A. Armizhan, F. Wang, M. Piccardo, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and H. O. Everitt, “Widely tunable compact terahertz gas lasers,” Science 366(6467), 856–860 (2019).
[Crossref]

Castrillo, A.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the Intrinsic Linewidth of a Quantum-Cascade Laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
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Champion, J. -P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lancome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Predoi-Cross, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lancome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Predoi-Cross, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chanteau, B.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, and B. Darquié, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chardonnet, C.

S. Mejri, P. L. T. Sow, O. Kozlova, C. Ayari, S. K. Tokunaga, C. Chardonnet, S. Briaudeau, B. Darquié, F. Rohart, and C. Daussy, “Measuring the Boltzmann constant by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy of ammonia,” Metrologia 52(5), S314–S323 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, “A widely tunable 10-µm quantum cascade laser phase-locked to a state-of-the-art mid-infrared reference for precision molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 264101 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, and B. Darquié, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chattopadhyay, I.

J. V. Siles, K. B. Cooper, C. Ken, R. H. Lee, G. Lin, I. Chattopadhyay, and Mehdi, “A New Generation of Room-Temperature Frequency Multiplied Sources with up to 10x Higher Output Power in the 160 GHz -1.6 THz Range,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(6), 596–604 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chevalier, P.

P. Chevalier, A. Armizhan, F. Wang, M. Piccardo, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and H. O. Everitt, “Widely tunable compact terahertz gas lasers,” Science 366(6467), 856–860 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lancome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Predoi-Cross, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

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F. Wang, J. Lee, D. J. Phillips, S. G. Holliday, S.-L. Chua, J. Bravo-Abad, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, and H. O. Everitt, “A high-efficiency regime for gas-phase terahertz lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 115(26), 6614–6619 (2018).
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S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Phase locking of a 2.7THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked Er-fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

Consolino, L.

M.S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum limited frequency fluctuations in a THz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cooper, K. B.

J. V. Siles, K. B. Cooper, C. Ken, R. H. Lee, G. Lin, I. Chattopadhyay, and Mehdi, “A New Generation of Room-Temperature Frequency Multiplied Sources with up to 10x Higher Output Power in the 160 GHz -1.6 THz Range,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(6), 596–604 (2018).
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https://scdn.rohde-schwarz.com/ur/pws/dl_downloads/dl_common_library/dl_brochures_and_datasheets/pdf_1/SMA100B_bro_en_5215-1018-12_v0602.pdf

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Energy diagram of the levels relevant for laser operation. (b) Schematic of the QCL-pumped ML. The laser cavity is closed at one end (left) by an output coupler, obtained by depositing a metallic grid on a Silicon substrate, and on the other end (right) by a plane metallic mirror, with a 1.2 mm hole drilled in its center. An isolator (∼30 dB isolation, and ∼60% transmission) is used to reduce the optical feedback on the DFB QCL. (c) THz ouput power vs MIR pump power, measured without the optical isolator displayed in panel (b). Inset: intensity plot of the optical beam collected with a microbolometer camera positioned at about 4 cm from the laser output coupler.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the experimental setup used for the measurement of the frequency- noise PSD and of the phase-locking of the QCL-pumped ML (see main text). The beam from the FC is first attenuated through a variable attenuator (VOA) and then focused on a fast photodiode (PD). The down-converted BN at 145 MHz is finally used to measure the frequency noise PSD of the ML (red frame) or for its phase-locking to the FC (blue frame).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Beatnote spectra of the free-running QCL-pumped ML. The spectra were recorded with the Spectrum Analyser shown in Fig. 2, and are offset by ∼145 MHz. (a) Single shot spectrum recorded with a RBW of 10kHz and a sweep rate of 78 MHz/s. (b) BN spectrum recorded with the spectrum analyzer in Max Hold mode, and a RBW of 100kHz (see main text). We attribute the slight asymmetry of the spectrum to the fact that the cavity Fabry-Perot mode was not perfectly centered on the molecular transition. The blue and pink dots indicate approximately the points of minimum and maximum MIR → THz MT, and correspond approximately to the points where the frequency noise PSD spectra of the QCL-pumped ML were recorded (blue and pink traces in Fig. 4).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Frequency noise PSD spectra. The blue and pink traces are the frequency noise PSDs of the QCL-pumped, 1.073THz ML, measured with the setup of Fig. 2. They were recorded in correspondence to the blue and pink dots in Fig. 3(b). The orange spectrum is the estimated noise contribution from the QCL current driver assuming a MT =  $\frac{{{\upsilon _{THz}}}}{{{\upsilon _{MIR}}}}$ . The black trace is the frequency noise PSD of the 2.5THz line of a commercial CO2-pumped methanol laser. The red spectrum corresponds to the frequency noise PSD of 2500 x frep (see the Appendix, Section 7.1 and Fig. 7 for more details). The purple spectrum is the frequency noise PSD of the VCO shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Power spectra of the BN frequency with the QCL-pumped ML phase-locked to the 1080th harmonic of frep. The spectra were measured with the Spectrum Analyzer of Fig. 2. a) RBW = 10kHz. The noise bumps on the both sides of the central line indicate a servo bandwidth of ∼600kHz. b) RBW = 1Hz.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Frequency noise PSD spectrum of fbeat and fCEO (at 195THz). The frequency noise PSD spectrum of fbeat was obtained by beating the FC with a cavity stabilized fiber laser at λ  = 1542nm (194.5THz). The frequency noise PSD spectrum of fCEO was measured using a standard f-2f interferometric technique.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Frequency noise PSD of the CO2-pumped 2.5THz laser (black line) and frequency noise PSDs of 2500 x frep obtained from Eq. (3) for different correlation coefficients (see legend). The spectrum corresponding to $\rho ={-} 0.7$ is the one reported in Fig. 4.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Phase noise PSD of frep = 1 GHz (red line) compared to that of a state-of-the-art signal generator (black dots). The phase noise PSD spectrum of frep is obtained from the measured frequency noise PSD spectra of fbeat and fCEO using Eq. (4) with $\rho ={-} 0.7$ . The phase noise PSD of the R&S SMA100B-B711N was taken from the instrument specifications data [38].
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Experimental setup for the frequency noise measurement of the CO2-pumped ML (see text). The beatnote frequency fBN is filtered and demodulated using the same technique, based on a VCO, used for the QCL-pumped ML and described in the main text.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Frequency noise PSD spectra of (i) the QCL-pumped, 1.073THz ML (blue – same as Fig. 4), (ii) the CO2-pumped 2.5THz ML (black), and (iii) the 2.5THz QCL of [31], operating at T = 20 K (purple). The red and green stars are the values of the frequency noise of the R&S SMA100B-B711N at 1GHz (see Fig. 8), extrapolated at 2.5THz and 1THz (100kHz from carrier).

Equations (4)

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f b e a t = | f L n × f r e p f C E O | ,
δ f r e p = ( δ f b e a t + δ f C E O ) / n .
S ν f r e p ( f ) = [ S ν f b e a t ( f ) + S ν f C E O ( f ) + 2 ρ ( S ν f C E O ( f ) × S ν f b e a t ( f ) ) 1 / 2 ] / n 2 ,
I s = 8 π h ν 3 c 2 1 4 T 1 T 2 × A b a g b [ 1 9 A i X g ± ] ,

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