Abstract

Phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) realizes quantitative measurement of the dynamic strain employing phase demodulation. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure the large dynamic strain with the conventional Φ-OTDR due to the restriction of the unwrapping algorithm. In this work, an approach based on two-wavelength probe is proposed and demonstrated to improve the measurable range of the dynamic strain in Φ-OTDR. By utilizing the difference between the two phases acquiring with two different lasers, the large dynamic strain can be recovered. In experiments, dynamic strains with peak values from 10.32 to 24.08 are retrieved accurately, which cannot be recovered with the conventional Φ-OTDR. Moreover, the tunable sensitivity is also demonstrated through adjusting the wavelengths of the probe. With the increment of the wavelength interval from 9.06 nm to 23.06 nm, the normalized sensitivity increases from 0.4 to 1 accordingly. That agrees well with the theoretical prediction. Foreseeably, the proposed method will extend the scope of application fields for Φ-OTDR, which requires large dynamic strain recognition.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (2)

2018 (3)

H. Liu, F. Pang, L. Lv, X. Mei, Y. Song, J. Chen, and T. Wang, “True Phase Measurement of Distributed Vibration Sensors Based on Heterodyne φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Liehr, S. Münzenberger, and K. Krebber, “Wavelength-scanning coherent OTDR for dynamic high strain resolution sensing,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10573–10588 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (8)

Y. Dong, X. Chen, E. Liu, C. Fu, H. Zhang, and Z. Lu, “Quantitative measurement of dynamic nanostrain based on a phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer,” Appl. Opt. 55(28), 7810–7815 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, X. Fan, S. Wang, B. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Long-range distributed vibration sensing based on phase extraction from phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Tejedor, H. F. Martins, D. Piote, J. Macias-Guarasa, J. Pastor-Graells, S. Martin-Lopez, P. C. Guillen, F. De Smet, W. Postvoll, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Toward prevention of pipeline integrity threats using a smart fiber-optic surveillance system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(19), 4445–4453 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Single-shot distributed temperature and strain tracking using direct detection phase-sensitive OTDR with chirped pulses,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13121–13133 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Franciscangelis, W. Margulis, L. Kjellberg, I. Soderquist, and F. Fruett, “Real-time distributed fiber microphone based on phase-OTDR,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29597–29602 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, B. Luo, Z. Li, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Multiple vibrations measurement using phase-sensitive OTDR merged with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on frequency division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4842–4855 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Wang, N. Xue, F. Peng, M. Fan, W. Sun, X. Qian, J. Rao, and Y. Rao, “Coherent Φ-OTDR based on I/Q demodulation and homodyne detection,” Opt. Express 24(2), 853–858 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, B. Jin, Q. Bai, Y. Wang, D. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Distributed fiber-optic sensors for vibration detection,” Sensors 16(8), 1164 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

Z. Wang, Z. Pan, Z. Fang, Q. Ye, B. Lu, H. Cai, and R. Qu, “Ultra-broadband phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry with a temporally sequenced multi-frequency source,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5192–5195 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. S. Fang, T. W. Xu, S. W. Feng, and F. Li, “Phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer based on phase generated carrier algorithm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(13), 2811–2816 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed strain and vibration sensing system based on phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1887 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Tu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, F. Zhu, L. Xia, and B. Nakarmi, “The Development of an Φ-OTDR System for Quantitative Vibration Measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1349–1352 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

Z. Zhang and X. Bao, “Distributed optical fiber vibration sensor based on spectrum analysis of Polarization-OTDR system,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10240–10247 (2008).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1538–1544 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

J. Posey, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Strain sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering in an optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(20), 1688–1689 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

X. Fang, “A variable-loop Sagnac interferometer for distributed impact sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2250–2254 (1996).
[Crossref]

Aghayev, R.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bai, Q.

X. Liu, B. Jin, Q. Bai, Y. Wang, D. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Distributed fiber-optic sensors for vibration detection,” Sensors 16(8), 1164 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.

X. Bao and L. Chen, “Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors,” Sensors 12(7), 8601–8639 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Lu, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(22), 3243–3249 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang and X. Bao, “Distributed optical fiber vibration sensor based on spectrum analysis of Polarization-OTDR system,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10240–10247 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Unveiling delay-time-resolved phase noise dynamics of narrow-linewidth laser via coherent optical time domain reflectometry,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1906.02676, (2019).

Bhatta, H. D.

Blanck, H.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

Cao, S.

Chen, J.

H. Liu, F. Pang, L. Lv, X. Mei, Y. Song, J. Chen, and T. Wang, “True Phase Measurement of Distributed Vibration Sensors Based on Heterodyne φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

X. Bao and L. Chen, “Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors,” Sensors 12(7), 8601–8639 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Lu, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(22), 3243–3249 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Unveiling delay-time-resolved phase noise dynamics of narrow-linewidth laser via coherent optical time domain reflectometry,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1906.02676, (2019).

Chen, X.

Choi, K. N.

Clarke, A.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Costa, L.

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin and C. Lamb, “Distributed fibre optic sensor system,” U.S., Patent G B22 222 47A, 1990.

De Smet, F.

Diao, D.

Dong, Y.

Fan, M.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, G. Yang, S. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensing based on phase extraction from optical reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(16), 3281–3288 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, X. Fan, S. Wang, B. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Long-range distributed vibration sensing based on phase extraction from phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fang, G. S.

Fang, X.

X. Fang, “A variable-loop Sagnac interferometer for distributed impact sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2250–2254 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

Feng, S. W.

Fernandez-Ruiz, M. R.

Franciscangelis, C.

Fruett, F.

Fu, C.

Garcia-Ruiz, A.

Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

Gu, L.

Guillen, P. C.

Hayward, J. P. W.

S. J. Russell, J. P. W. Hayward, and A. B. B. Lewis, “Method and apparatus for acoustic sensing using multiple optical pulses,” U.S. Patent G B24 427 45B, 2008.

He, H.

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, H. Li, B. Luo, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “SNR Enhancement in Phase-Sensitive OTDR with Adaptive 2-D Bilateral Filtering Algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, B. Luo, Z. Li, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Multiple vibrations measurement using phase-sensitive OTDR merged with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on frequency division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4842–4855 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

He, X.

He, Z.

X. Fan, G. Yang, S. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensing based on phase extraction from optical reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(16), 3281–3288 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, X. Fan, S. Wang, B. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Long-range distributed vibration sensing based on phase extraction from phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Henninges, J.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hersir, G. P.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hogari, K.

Hua, J.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed strain and vibration sensing system based on phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Imahama, M.

Jin, B.

X. Liu, B. Jin, Q. Bai, Y. Wang, D. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Distributed fiber-optic sensors for vibration detection,” Sensors 16(8), 1164 (2016).
[Crossref]

Johnson, G. A.

J. Posey, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Strain sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering in an optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(20), 1688–1689 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jousset, P.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Juarez, J. C.

Kjellberg, L.

Koyamada, Y.

Krawczyk, C. M.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Krebber, K.

Kubota, K.

Lamb, C.

J. P. Dakin and C. Lamb, “Distributed fibre optic sensor system,” U.S., Patent G B22 222 47A, 1990.

Lewis, A. B. B.

S. J. Russell, J. P. W. Hayward, and A. B. B. Lewis, “Method and apparatus for acoustic sensing using multiple optical pulses,” U.S. Patent G B24 427 45B, 2008.

Li, F.

Li, H.

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, H. Li, B. Luo, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “SNR Enhancement in Phase-Sensitive OTDR with Adaptive 2-D Bilateral Filtering Algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Liehr, S.

Liu, D.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1538–1544 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, E.

Liu, F.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, F. Pang, L. Lv, X. Mei, Y. Song, J. Chen, and T. Wang, “True Phase Measurement of Distributed Vibration Sensors Based on Heterodyne φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1538–1544 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

X. Fan, G. Yang, S. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensing based on phase extraction from optical reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(16), 3281–3288 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, X. Fan, S. Wang, B. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Long-range distributed vibration sensing based on phase extraction from phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, B. Jin, Q. Bai, Y. Wang, D. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Distributed fiber-optic sensors for vibration detection,” Sensors 16(8), 1164 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Loayssa, A.

Lu, B.

Lu, Y.

Lu, Z.

Luo, B.

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, H. Li, B. Luo, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “SNR Enhancement in Phase-Sensitive OTDR with Adaptive 2-D Bilateral Filtering Algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, B. Luo, Z. Li, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Multiple vibrations measurement using phase-sensitive OTDR merged with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on frequency division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4842–4855 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lv, L.

H. Liu, F. Pang, L. Lv, X. Mei, Y. Song, J. Chen, and T. Wang, “True Phase Measurement of Distributed Vibration Sensors Based on Heterodyne φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Macias-Guarasa, J.

Maier, E. W.

Margulis, W.

Martin-Lopez, S.

Martins, H. F.

Mei, X.

H. Liu, F. Pang, L. Lv, X. Mei, Y. Song, J. Chen, and T. Wang, “True Phase Measurement of Distributed Vibration Sensors Based on Heterodyne φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Muanenda, Y. S.

Münzenberger, S.

Nakarmi, B.

G. Tu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, F. Zhu, L. Xia, and B. Nakarmi, “The Development of an Φ-OTDR System for Quantitative Vibration Measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1349–1352 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, W.

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, H. Li, B. Luo, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “SNR Enhancement in Phase-Sensitive OTDR with Adaptive 2-D Bilateral Filtering Algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, B. Luo, Z. Li, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Multiple vibrations measurement using phase-sensitive OTDR merged with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on frequency division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4842–4855 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed strain and vibration sensing system based on phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.

Pang, F.

H. Liu, F. Pang, L. Lv, X. Mei, Y. Song, J. Chen, and T. Wang, “True Phase Measurement of Distributed Vibration Sensors Based on Heterodyne φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pastor-Graells, J.

Peng, F.

Piote, D.

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[Crossref]

Postvoll, W.

Qian, X.

Qu, R.

Rao, J.

Rao, Y.

Reinsch, T.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Russell, S. J.

S. J. Russell, J. P. W. Hayward, and A. B. B. Lewis, “Method and apparatus for acoustic sensing using multiple optical pulses,” U.S. Patent G B24 427 45B, 2008.

Ryberg, T.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sagues, M.

Shao, L.-Y.

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, H. Li, B. Luo, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “SNR Enhancement in Phase-Sensitive OTDR with Adaptive 2-D Bilateral Filtering Algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, B. Luo, Z. Li, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Multiple vibrations measurement using phase-sensitive OTDR merged with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on frequency division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4842–4855 (2016).
[Crossref]

Soderquist, I.

Song, Y.

H. Liu, F. Pang, L. Lv, X. Mei, Y. Song, J. Chen, and T. Wang, “True Phase Measurement of Distributed Vibration Sensors Based on Heterodyne φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1538–1544 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

Sun, Z.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed strain and vibration sensing system based on phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Taylor, H. F.

Tejedor, J.

Tu, G.

G. Tu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, F. Zhu, L. Xia, and B. Nakarmi, “The Development of an Φ-OTDR System for Quantitative Vibration Measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1349–1352 (2015).
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Urricelqui, J.

Vohra, S. T.

J. Posey, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Strain sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering in an optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(20), 1688–1689 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

G. Yang, X. Fan, S. Wang, B. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Long-range distributed vibration sensing based on phase extraction from phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

X. Liu, B. Jin, Q. Bai, Y. Wang, D. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Distributed fiber-optic sensors for vibration detection,” Sensors 16(8), 1164 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Q. Yuan, F. Wang, T. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhong, and X. Zhang, “Compensating for influence of laser-frequency-drift in phase-sensitive OTDR with twice differential method,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3664–3671 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed strain and vibration sensing system based on phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1538–1544 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Wang, T.

H. Liu, F. Pang, L. Lv, X. Mei, Y. Song, J. Chen, and T. Wang, “True Phase Measurement of Distributed Vibration Sensors Based on Heterodyne φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed strain and vibration sensing system based on phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Liu, B. Jin, Q. Bai, Y. Wang, D. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Distributed fiber-optic sensors for vibration detection,” Sensors 16(8), 1164 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, B. Jin, Q. Bai, Y. Wang, D. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Distributed fiber-optic sensors for vibration detection,” Sensors 16(8), 1164 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Weber, M.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xia, L.

G. Tu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, F. Zhu, L. Xia, and B. Nakarmi, “The Development of an Φ-OTDR System for Quantitative Vibration Measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1349–1352 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

Xie, S.

Xu, T. W.

Xue, N.

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H. He, L.-Y. Shao, H. Li, B. Luo, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “SNR Enhancement in Phase-Sensitive OTDR with Adaptive 2-D Bilateral Filtering Algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, B. Luo, Z. Li, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Multiple vibrations measurement using phase-sensitive OTDR merged with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on frequency division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4842–4855 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Ye, Q.

Yuan, Q.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, L.

Z. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Wang, N. Xue, F. Peng, M. Fan, W. Sun, X. Qian, J. Rao, and Y. Rao, “Coherent Φ-OTDR based on I/Q demodulation and homodyne detection,” Opt. Express 24(2), 853–858 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Unveiling delay-time-resolved phase noise dynamics of narrow-linewidth laser via coherent optical time domain reflectometry,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1906.02676, (2019).

Zhang, M.

Zhang, X.

Q. Yuan, F. Wang, T. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhong, and X. Zhang, “Compensating for influence of laser-frequency-drift in phase-sensitive OTDR with twice differential method,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3664–3671 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed strain and vibration sensing system based on phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1887 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Tu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, F. Zhu, L. Xia, and B. Nakarmi, “The Development of an Φ-OTDR System for Quantitative Vibration Measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1349–1352 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Q. Yuan, F. Wang, T. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhong, and X. Zhang, “Compensating for influence of laser-frequency-drift in phase-sensitive OTDR with twice differential method,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3664–3671 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Tu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, F. Zhu, L. Xia, and B. Nakarmi, “The Development of an Φ-OTDR System for Quantitative Vibration Measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1349–1352 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zheng, X.

Zhong, Z.

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed strain and vibration sensing system based on phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1887 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, F.

G. Tu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, F. Zhu, L. Xia, and B. Nakarmi, “The Development of an Φ-OTDR System for Quantitative Vibration Measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1349–1352 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T.

Zornoza, A.

Zou, X.

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, H. Li, B. Luo, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “SNR Enhancement in Phase-Sensitive OTDR with Adaptive 2-D Bilateral Filtering Algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, B. Luo, Z. Li, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Multiple vibrations measurement using phase-sensitive OTDR merged with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on frequency division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4842–4855 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Posey, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Strain sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering in an optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(20), 1688–1689 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (3)

H. He, L.-Y. Shao, H. Li, B. Luo, X. Zou, Z. Zhang, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “SNR Enhancement in Phase-Sensitive OTDR with Adaptive 2-D Bilateral Filtering Algorithm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, F. Pang, L. Lv, X. Mei, Y. Song, J. Chen, and T. Wang, “True Phase Measurement of Distributed Vibration Sensors Based on Heterodyne φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, X. Fan, S. Wang, B. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Long-range distributed vibration sensing based on phase extraction from phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed strain and vibration sensing system based on phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1887 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Tu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, F. Zhu, L. Xia, and B. Nakarmi, “The Development of an Φ-OTDR System for Quantitative Vibration Measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1349–1352 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Nat. Commun. (1)

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, “Dynamic strain determination using fibre-optic cables allows imaging of seismological and structural features,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2509 (2018).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1538–1544 (2008).
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Opt. Express (9)

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Z. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Wang, N. Xue, F. Peng, M. Fan, W. Sun, X. Qian, J. Rao, and Y. Rao, “Coherent Φ-OTDR based on I/Q demodulation and homodyne detection,” Opt. Express 24(2), 853–858 (2016).
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Q. Yuan, F. Wang, T. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhong, and X. Zhang, “Compensating for influence of laser-frequency-drift in phase-sensitive OTDR with twice differential method,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3664–3671 (2019).
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X. Liu, B. Jin, Q. Bai, Y. Wang, D. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Distributed fiber-optic sensors for vibration detection,” Sensors 16(8), 1164 (2016).
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Other (3)

J. P. Dakin and C. Lamb, “Distributed fibre optic sensor system,” U.S., Patent G B22 222 47A, 1990.

S. J. Russell, J. P. W. Hayward, and A. B. B. Lewis, “Method and apparatus for acoustic sensing using multiple optical pulses,” U.S. Patent G B24 427 45B, 2008.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The schematic diagram of the differential operation; (b) the schematic of the unwrapping algorithm, the phase is retrieved exactly when all |Δ| are smaller than π (the upper illustration, actual phase: blue-dot line, demodulated phase: red line) otherwise it is distorted (the lower illustration).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The schematic diagram. (a) the actual phase change and the actual phase difference Δφ12; (b) the demodulated results with the conventional approach and the demodulated Δφ12 with the proposed method.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup. TLS: tunable laser source; OC: optical coupler; AOM: acoustic optical modulator; AFG: arbitrary function generator; EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier; Cir: optical circulator; FUT: fiber under test; WRPs: weak reflecting points; NLL: narrow linewidth laser; PC: polarization controller; BPD: balanced photodetector; OSC: oscilloscope; PR: phase retrieval.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic diagrams of the phase retrieval. (a) Hilbert transform and RF mixing; (b) digital IQ demodulation and phase difference.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) The phase drift measured with the auxiliary reflecting points; (b) the phase jitters adopting the two different lasers; (c) vibration measurement with both lasers; (d) the compensated results.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The measurement of the vibration response. (a) Time domain signals and (b) the corresponding frequency spectrums of the vibrations with different amplitudes by adopting λ1; (c) time domain signals and (d) the corresponding frequency spectrums of the vibrations with different amplitudes by adopting λ2; (e) the evolution of the peak power with the increment of the vibration amplitude.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The comparison between the conventional and the proposed methods. (a) The dynamic measurement with the conventional method; (b) the measurement with the proposed method; (c) the comparison of the phase jitters; (d) the power spectral density of the vibration signal.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The measurements of the frequency-chirped vibration. (a) The measured time domain signal and (b) the corresponding time-frequency spectrum.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Large dynamic strain driven by sinusoidal functions (from 10.32 to 24.08 ). (a) Time domain signals and (b) the corresponding frequency spectra; (c) the relationship between the peak power at 200 Hz and the vibration amplitude.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. The measurements of the tunable sensitivity with different wavelength intervals. (a) Measured time domain signals and (b) the corresponding frequency spectra driven by sine function; (c) measured time domain signals and (d) the corresponding frequency spectra driven by triangle function; (e) the evolution of the peak power (at 200 Hz) with the increment of the wavelength interval; (f) the comparison of the normalized sensor responses.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ φ 4 π n Δ z λ
Δ φ 12 = 4 π n Δ z λ 1 4 π n Δ z λ 2  =  4 π n Δ z ( λ 2 λ 1 ) λ 1 λ 2
Δ φ 12  =  λ 2 λ 1 λ 1 Δ φ

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