Abstract

We present an integrated hybrid semiconductor-dielectric (InP-Si3N4) waveguide laser that generates frequency combs at a wavelength around 1.5 μm with a record-low intrinsic optical linewidth of 34 kHz. This is achieved by extending the cavity photon lifetime using a low-loss dielectric waveguide circuit. In our experimental demonstration, the on-chip, effective optical path length of the laser cavity is extended to 6 cm. The resulting linewidth narrowing shows the high potential of on-chip, highly coherent frequency combs with direct electrical pumping, based on hybrid and heterogeneous integrated circuits making use of low-loss dielectric waveguides.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562, 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Davenport, S. Liu, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated heterogeneous silicon/III–V mode-locked lasers,” Photonics Res. 6, 468–478 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 4400321 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Dong, S. T. Cundiff, and H. G. Winful, “Physics of frequency-modulated comb generation in quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053822 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

P. Bardella, L. L. Columbo, and M. Gioannini, “Self-generation of optical frequency comb in single section quantum dot Fabry-Perot lasers: a theoretical study,” Opt. Express 25, 26234–26252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, R. E. M. Lammerink, J. Mak, R. M. Oldenbeuving, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Spectral linewidth analysis of semiconductor hybrid lasers with feedback from an external waveguide resonator circuit,” Opt. Express 25, 32767–32782 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Kuyken, F. Leo, S. Clemmen, U. Dave, R. Van Laer, T. Ideguchi, H. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Safioui, S. Coen, S. P. Gorza, S. K. Selvaraja, S. Massar, R. M. Osgood, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, R. Baets, W. M. J. Green, and G. Roelkens, “Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides,” Nanophotonics 6, 377–392 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, K. Van Gasse, V. Moskalenko, S. Latkowski, E. Bente, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “A III–V-on-Si ultra-dense comb laser,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6, e16260 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3, 414–426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, R. Dekker, R. G. Heideman, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Optically integrated InP-Si3N4 hybrid laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1505111 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Von Bandel, M. Myara, M. Sellahi, T. Souici, R. Dardaillon, and P. Signoret, “Time-dependent laser linewidth: beat-note digital acquisition and numerical analysis,” Opt. Express 24, 27961–27978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

Y. Vilenchik, C. T. Santis, S. T. Steger, N. Satyan, and A. Yariv, “Theory and observation on non-linear effects limiting the coherence properties of high-Q hybrid Si/III–V lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9382, 93820N (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wörhoff, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “TriPleX: a versatile dielectric photonic platform,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 189–207 (2015).

T. Komljenovic, S. Srinivasan, E. Norberg, M. Davenport, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable narrow-linewidth monolithically integrated external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1501909 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Calò, V. Vujicic, R. Watts, C. Browning, K. Merghem, V. Panapakkam, F. Lelarge, A. Martinez, B.-E. Benkelfat, A. Ramdane, and L. P. Barry, “Single-section quantum well mode-locked laser for 400 Gb/s SSB-OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 23, 26442–26449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, E. Norberg, T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon colliding-pulse mode-locked lasers with on-chip stabilization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1101106 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Keyvaninia, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, X. Fu, S. Latkowski, J. Mariën, L. Thomassen, F. Lelarge, G. Duan, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, E. Bente, and G. Roelkens, “Narrow-linewidth short-pulse III–V-on-silicon mode-locked lasers based on a linear and ring cavity geometry,” Opt. Express 23, 3221–3229 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Keyvaninia, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, Z. Wang, X. Fu, S. Latkowski, J. Marien, L. Thomassen, F. Lelarge, G. Duan, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, E. Bente, and G. Roelkens, “III–V-on-silicon anti-colliding pulse-type mode-locked laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3057–3060 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, D. T. Spencer, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low loss waveguide platform and its integration with silicon photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 667–686 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. T. Santis, S. T. Steger, Y. Vilenchik, A. Vasilyev, and A. Yariv, “High-coherence semiconductor lasers based on integral high-Q resonators in hybrid Si/III–V platforms,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 2879–2884 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Srinivasan, M. Davenport, M. J. R. Heck, J. Hutchinson, E. Norberg, G. Fish, and J. Bowers, “Low phase noise hybrid silicon mode-locked lasers,” Front. Optoelectron. 7, 265–276 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kita, K. Nemoto, and H. Yamada, “Silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8201806 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, C. Taddei, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, P. W. L. van Dijk, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, and K.-J. Boller, “Silicon nitride microwave photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 21, 22937–22961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, H. L. Offerhaus, C. J. Lee, H. Song, and K.-J. Boller, “25 kHz narrow spectral bandwidth of a wavelength tunable diode laser with a short waveguide-based external cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 015804 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

S. Cheung, J.-H. Baek, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, F. M. Soares, X. Zhou, D. M. Baney, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “1-GHz monolithically integrated hybrid mode-locked InP Laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 1793–1795 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Numata, J. Camp, M. A. Krainak, and L. Stolpner, “Performance of planar-waveguide external cavity laser for precision measurements,” Opt. Express 18, 22781–22788 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry-Pérot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

W. Yang, N. J. Sauer, P. G. Bernasconi, and L. Zhang, “Self-mode-locked single-section Fabry-Perot semiconductor lasers at 1.56 μm,” Appl. Opt. 46, 113–116 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Renaudier, G.-H. Duan, P. Landais, and P. Gallion, “Phase correlation and linewidth reduction of 40 GHz self-pulsation in distributed Bragg reflector semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 147–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. Paschotta, A. Schlatter, S. C. Zeller, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Optical phase noise and carrier-envelope offset noise of mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 265–273 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

D. G. Rabus, Z. Bian, and A. Shakouri, “A GaInAsP-InP double-ring resonator coupled laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1770–1772 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Chung, D.-G. Kim, and N. Dagli, “Widely tunable coupled-ring reflector laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1773–1775 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. Sato, “Optical pulse generation using Fabry-Perot lasers under continuous wave operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1288–1293 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 600–602 (2002).
[Crossref]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive microring-resonator-coupled lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3561–3563 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. L. Huffaker, G. Park, Z. Zou, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “1.3 μm room-temperature GaAs-based quantum-dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2564–2566 (1998).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

P.-T. Ho, “Phase and amplitude fluctuations in a mode-locked laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1806–1813 (1985).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

C. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259–264 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, “Spectral characteristics of external-cavity controlled semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44–59 (1981).
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C. T. Santis, S. T. Steger, Y. Vilenchik, A. Vasilyev, and A. Yariv, “High-coherence semiconductor lasers based on integral high-Q resonators in hybrid Si/III–V platforms,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 2879–2884 (2014).
[Crossref]

Verheyen, P.

Vilenchik, Y.

Y. Vilenchik, C. T. Santis, S. T. Steger, N. Satyan, and A. Yariv, “Theory and observation on non-linear effects limiting the coherence properties of high-Q hybrid Si/III–V lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9382, 93820N (2015).
[Crossref]

C. T. Santis, S. T. Steger, Y. Vilenchik, A. Vasilyev, and A. Yariv, “High-coherence semiconductor lasers based on integral high-Q resonators in hybrid Si/III–V platforms,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 2879–2884 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Santis, Y. Vilenchik, A. Yariv, N. Satyan, and G. Rakuljic, “Sub-kHz quantum linewidth semiconductor laser on silicon chip,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper JTh5A.7.

Visscher, I.

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 4400321 (2018).
[Crossref]

Von Bandel, N.

Vujicic, V.

Wang, Z.

Watts, R.

Wegner, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wevers, L. S.

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 4400321 (2018).
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M. Dong, S. T. Cundiff, and H. G. Winful, “Physics of frequency-modulated comb generation in quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053822 (2018).
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C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 4400321 (2018).
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K. Wörhoff, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “TriPleX: a versatile dielectric photonic platform,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 189–207 (2015).

Xie, C.

H. Debregeas, C. Ferrari, M. A. Cappuzzo, F. Klemens, R. Keller, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, C. Xie, and M. P. Earnshaw, “2kHz linewidth C-band tunable laser by hybrid integration of reflective SOA and SiO2 PLC external cavity,” in 2014 International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 50–51.

Yamada, H.

T. Kita, K. Nemoto, and H. Yamada, “Silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8201806 (2014).
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Yang, W.

Yariv, A.

Y. Vilenchik, C. T. Santis, S. T. Steger, N. Satyan, and A. Yariv, “Theory and observation on non-linear effects limiting the coherence properties of high-Q hybrid Si/III–V lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9382, 93820N (2015).
[Crossref]

C. T. Santis, S. T. Steger, Y. Vilenchik, A. Vasilyev, and A. Yariv, “High-coherence semiconductor lasers based on integral high-Q resonators in hybrid Si/III–V platforms,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 2879–2884 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Santis, Y. Vilenchik, A. Yariv, N. Satyan, and G. Rakuljic, “Sub-kHz quantum linewidth semiconductor laser on silicon chip,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper JTh5A.7.

Yu, Y.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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S. Cheung, J.-H. Baek, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, F. M. Soares, X. Zhou, D. M. Baney, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “1-GHz monolithically integrated hybrid mode-locked InP Laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 1793–1795 (2010).
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K. Wörhoff, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “TriPleX: a versatile dielectric photonic platform,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 189–207 (2015).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Paschotta, A. Schlatter, S. C. Zeller, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Optical phase noise and carrier-envelope offset noise of mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 265–273 (2006).
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S. Srinivasan, E. Norberg, T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon colliding-pulse mode-locked lasers with on-chip stabilization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1101106 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

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[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Vilenchik, C. T. Santis, S. T. Steger, N. Satyan, and A. Yariv, “Theory and observation on non-linear effects limiting the coherence properties of high-Q hybrid Si/III–V lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9382, 93820N (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

H. Debregeas, C. Ferrari, M. A. Cappuzzo, F. Klemens, R. Keller, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, C. Xie, and M. P. Earnshaw, “2kHz linewidth C-band tunable laser by hybrid integration of reflective SOA and SiO2 PLC external cavity,” in 2014 International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 50–51.

C. Santis, Y. Vilenchik, A. Yariv, N. Satyan, and G. Rakuljic, “Sub-kHz quantum linewidth semiconductor laser on silicon chip,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper JTh5A.7.

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, D. Geskus, R. G. Heideman, and K.-J. Boller, “290 Hz intrinsic linewidth from an integrated optical chip-based widely tunable InP-Si3N4 hybrid laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JTh5C.9.

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VPItransmissionMaker Optical Systems, www.vpiphotonics.com .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the hybrid waveguide laser (not to scale). The RSOA is equipped on its left-hand facet with an HR coating that has a power reflectivity R1. The Si3N4 circuit contains a phase section and a feedback mirror (blue tinted area) which has an effective power reflectivity R2. This mirror comprises two sequential (Vernier) microring resonators (MRRs), denoted by MRR 1 and MRR 2, with radii ρ1 and ρ2. The power coupling between each of the rings and the corresponding straight waveguides is denoted by κ2. The phase section and the MRRs can be tuned using resistive electric heaters, which are indicated in yellow.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated spectral shape of the Vernier filter’s transmission peak (solid blue line) and the spectral positions of the longitudinal laser cavity modes (gray lines). Positioning the laser modes as shown, with two central modes (labeled 1 and 2) receiving an equal amount of feedback (horizontal dashed line), is found to result in the generation of a frequency comb spectrum.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured frequency comb spectrum, using a pump current of 198 mA. The corresponding total output power is 2 mW.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured RF beat spectrum using a pump current of 190 mA. The inset shows a close-up of the fundamental RF beat tone. A Voigt fit analysis of the spectrum shown at the inset yielded a Gaussian component with a 1.8 MHz linewidth and a Lorentzian component with an 18 kHz linewidth.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured beat note spectra (data points) obtained by beating the hybrid laser with a narrowband reference laser. Shown are two representative examples of the spectra, one with a broader (circles) and one with a narrower (squares) Lorentzian width. The Lorentzian components, obtained via a Voigt fit, amount to a 58 kHz and 22 kHz linewidth, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters Used for Calculations

Equations (5)

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Δ ν = v g 2 h ν n sp g α m ( 1 + α 2 ) 8 π P 0 .
v g = c ( L 1 n 1 + L 2 n 2 L 1 + L 2 ) ,
α i = L 1 α 1 + L 2 α 2 + α c L 1 + L 2 ,
α m = 1 L 1 + L 2 . ln ( 1 R 1 R 2 ) .
α c = ln ( 1 β ) ,

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