Abstract

The security of decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) highly depends on the accurate control of multiple intensity states. Although several theoretical studies on the QKD with loosely controlled source intensities have been proposed, there is still a large gap between the experimental realization and the theoretical analysis. In this paper, we adopt the gain-switching method to generate short optical pulses, and the corresponding intensity stabilities are quantitatively measured. The method via optical injection is proposed to make effective reductions of the intensity fluctuations from 6.47%∼1.59% to 1.95%∼1.15% at different optical powers. QKD performance adopting the experimental results is also analyzed and discussed. For a typical 40 dB high-attenuation QKD system, the relative increase on the secure key rates reaches 51.89% for the corresponding intensity fluctuations of 1.15% with optical injection and 1.59% without optical injection. The presented intensity-stable optical pulse source can find wide applications in different QKD protocols, such as BB84, DPS, COW, etc.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (4)

A. Boaron, G. Boso, D. Rusca, C. Vulliez, C. Autebert, M. Caloz, M. Perrenoud, G. Gras, F. Bussières, M.-J. Li, D. Nolan, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Secure quantum key distribution over 421 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 190502 (2018).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. L. Roberts, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, S. J. Savory, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “A direct GHz-clocked phase and intensity modulated transmitter applied to quantum key distribution,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 045010 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Roberts, M. Pittaluga, M. Minder, M. Lucamarini, J. Dynes, Z. Yuan, and A. Shields, “Patterning-effect mitigating intensity modulator for secure decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Lett. 43, 5110–5113 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

K. Nakata, A. Tomita, M. Fujiwara, K.-i. Yoshino, A. Tajima, A. Okamoto, and K. Ogawa, “Intensity fluctuation of a gain-switched semiconductor laser for quantum key distribution systems,” Opt. Express 25, 622–634 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

Y. Wang, W.-S. Bao, C. Zhou, M.-S. Jiang, and H.-W. Li, “Tight finite-key analysis of a practical decoy-state quantum key distribution with unstable sources,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 032335 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Comandar, M. Lucamarini, B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Near perfect mode overlap between independently seeded, gain-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 24, 17849 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Comandar, M. Lucamarini, B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, A. W. S. Sharpe, W.-B. Tam, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution without detector vulnerabilities using optically seeded lasers,” Nat. Photonics 10, 312–315 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Yuan, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, G. L. Roberts, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Directly phase-modulated light source,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031044 (2016).

2015 (1)

B. Korzh, C. C. W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9, 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 560, 7–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kobayashi, A. Tomita, and A. Okamoto, “Evaluation of the phase randomness of a light source in quantum-key-distribution systems with an attenuated laser,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 032320 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

X.-C. Ma, S.-H. Sun, M.-S. Jiang, and L.-M. Liang, “Local oscillator fluctuation opens a loophole for eve in practical continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 022339 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H.-H. Chi, Z.-W. Yu, and X.-B. Wang, “Decoy-state method of quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistics fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 042307 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Y.-M. Chi, B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, H.-K. Lo, S.-H. Youn, A. I. Lvovsky, and L. Tian, “A balanced homodyne detector for high-rate Gaussian-modulated coherent-state quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 13, 013003 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

X.-B. Wang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations,” New J. Phys. 11, 075006 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. Nonaka, H. Mizuno, H. Song, N. Kitaoka, and A. Otani, “Low-time-jitter short-pulse generator using compact gain-switching laser diode module With optical feedback fiber line,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6754–6756 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

X.-B. Wang, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with large random errors of light intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 052301 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1–3 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Experimental quantum cryptography: the dawn of a new era for quantum cryptography: the experimental prototype is working,” ACM Sigact News 20, 78–80 (1989).
[Crossref]

Anzolin, G.

Autebert, C.

A. Boaron, G. Boso, D. Rusca, C. Vulliez, C. Autebert, M. Caloz, M. Perrenoud, G. Gras, F. Bussières, M.-J. Li, D. Nolan, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Secure quantum key distribution over 421 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 190502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bao, W.-S.

Y. Wang, W.-S. Bao, C. Zhou, M.-S. Jiang, and H.-W. Li, “Tight finite-key analysis of a practical decoy-state quantum key distribution with unstable sources,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 032335 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 560, 7–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Experimental quantum cryptography: the dawn of a new era for quantum cryptography: the experimental prototype is working,” ACM Sigact News 20, 78–80 (1989).
[Crossref]

Boaron, A.

A. Boaron, G. Boso, D. Rusca, C. Vulliez, C. Autebert, M. Caloz, M. Perrenoud, G. Gras, F. Bussières, M.-J. Li, D. Nolan, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Secure quantum key distribution over 421 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 190502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boso, G.

A. Boaron, G. Boso, D. Rusca, C. Vulliez, C. Autebert, M. Caloz, M. Perrenoud, G. Gras, F. Bussières, M.-J. Li, D. Nolan, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Secure quantum key distribution over 421 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 190502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 560, 7–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Experimental quantum cryptography: the dawn of a new era for quantum cryptography: the experimental prototype is working,” ACM Sigact News 20, 78–80 (1989).
[Crossref]

Brunner, N.

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1–3 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bussières, F.

A. Boaron, G. Boso, D. Rusca, C. Vulliez, C. Autebert, M. Caloz, M. Perrenoud, G. Gras, F. Bussières, M.-J. Li, D. Nolan, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Secure quantum key distribution over 421 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 190502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.-Q.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, W.-Q. Cai, X. Wan, L.-K. Chen, J.-H. Wang, S.-B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km,” Opt. Express 18, 8587–8594 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caloz, M.

A. Boaron, G. Boso, D. Rusca, C. Vulliez, C. Autebert, M. Caloz, M. Perrenoud, G. Gras, F. Bussières, M.-J. Li, D. Nolan, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Secure quantum key distribution over 421 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 190502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Chen, L.-K.

Chen, T.-Y.

Chen, X.-W.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-A.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
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B. Korzh, C. C. W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9, 163–168 (2015).
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Liu, Y.

Lo, H.-K.

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
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H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
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X.-B. Wang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations,” New J. Phys. 11, 075006 (2009).
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L. C. Comandar, M. Lucamarini, B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, A. W. S. Sharpe, W.-B. Tam, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution without detector vulnerabilities using optically seeded lasers,” Nat. Photonics 10, 312–315 (2016).
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R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
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Pruneri, V.

Qi, B.

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
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Y.-M. Chi, B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, H.-K. Lo, S.-H. Youn, A. I. Lvovsky, and L. Tian, “A balanced homodyne detector for high-rate Gaussian-modulated coherent-state quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 13, 013003 (2011).
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Qian, L.

Y.-M. Chi, B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, H.-K. Lo, S.-H. Youn, A. I. Lvovsky, and L. Tian, “A balanced homodyne detector for high-rate Gaussian-modulated coherent-state quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 13, 013003 (2011).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
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Rauch, D.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
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Roberts, G.

Roberts, G. L.

G. L. Roberts, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, S. J. Savory, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “A direct GHz-clocked phase and intensity modulated transmitter applied to quantum key distribution,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 045010 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Yuan, B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, G. L. Roberts, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Directly phase-modulated light source,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031044 (2016).

Rusca, D.

A. Boaron, G. Boso, D. Rusca, C. Vulliez, C. Autebert, M. Caloz, M. Perrenoud, G. Gras, F. Bussières, M.-J. Li, D. Nolan, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Secure quantum key distribution over 421 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 190502 (2018).
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Sanguinetti, B.

B. Korzh, C. C. W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9, 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Savory, S. J.

G. L. Roberts, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, S. J. Savory, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “A direct GHz-clocked phase and intensity modulated transmitter applied to quantum key distribution,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 045010 (2018).
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D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1–3 (2005).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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Sharpe, A. W. S.

L. C. Comandar, M. Lucamarini, B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, A. W. S. Sharpe, W.-B. Tam, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution without detector vulnerabilities using optically seeded lasers,” Nat. Photonics 10, 312–315 (2016).
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K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
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Yuan, Z. L.

G. L. Roberts, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, S. J. Savory, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “A direct GHz-clocked phase and intensity modulated transmitter applied to quantum key distribution,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 045010 (2018).
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L. C. Comandar, M. Lucamarini, B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Near perfect mode overlap between independently seeded, gain-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 24, 17849 (2016).
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A. Boaron, G. Boso, D. Rusca, C. Vulliez, C. Autebert, M. Caloz, M. Perrenoud, G. Gras, F. Bussières, M.-J. Li, D. Nolan, A. Martin, and H. Zbinden, “Secure quantum key distribution over 421 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 190502 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 030501 (2018).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for quantifying the intensity fluctuations of the optical pulse source. PG, pulse generator; LD, laser diode; ATT, attenuator; PD, photo-detector; SYN, synchronization. The synchronous signal is generated from the PG board and fed into the oscilloscope for triggering.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Typical optical pulse waveforms without optical injection (a) and with optical injection (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Typical distribution of measured optical pulse intensities. These two curves are normalized for more intuitive comparison.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured intensity fluctuations at different optical powers.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Maximum channel attenuation and the optimal N at different intensity fluctuations.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated secure key rates considering the experimental results of different intensity fluctuations.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ ν = k a k | k k | , ρ μ = k b k | k k | ,
a k = ν k e ν k ! , b k = μ k e μ k ! .
δ = σ ω × 100 % ,
α L ( X ) = X 1 + δ 1 ( X ) ,
α U ( X ) = X 1 δ 2 ( X ) ,
( e δ 1 ( 1 + δ 1 ) ( 1 + δ 1 ) ) X 1 + δ 1 = ξ 2 ,
( e δ 2 ( 1 δ 2 ) ( 1 δ 2 ) ) X 1 δ 2 = ξ 2 .
S ¯ l A = α U ( N l A S l A ) p N N l A , S _ l A = α L ( N l A S l A ) N l A ( 1 p N ) p N N l A ,
T ¯ l A = α U ( N l A T l A ) p N N l A , T _ l A = α L ( N l A T l A ) N l A ( 1 p N ) p N N l A ,
S ¯ o = α U ( N o S o ) N o , T _ o = α L ( N o T o ) N o ,
s _ 1 X = b 2 L S _ x 1 N a 2 U S ¯ y 1 N ( a 0 U b 2 L b 0 L a 2 U ) S ¯ o a 1 U b 2 L b 1 L a 2 U ,
e ¯ 1 X = a 1 U a 1 L T ¯ x 1 N a 0 L T _ o s _ 1 X .
s _ 1 Z = b 2 L S _ x 2 N a 2 U S ¯ y 2 N ( a 0 U b 2 L b 0 L a 2 U ) S ¯ o a 1 U b 2 L b 1 L a 2 U ,
e ¯ 1 Z = a 1 U a 1 L T ¯ x 2 a 0 L T _ o s _ 1 Z .
R = p μ p N { b 1 L s _ 1 Z [ 1 H ( e ¯ 1 X ) ] f S y 2 H ( E y 2 ) } + p μ p N { b 1 L s _ 1 X [ 1 H ( e ¯ 1 Z ) ] f S y 1 H ( E y 1 ) } ,

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