Abstract

Dynamically and independently tunable absorbers based on multilayer metal-graphene metamaterials are proposed to achieve multi-band and ultra-wide-band absorbing properties at mid-infrared frequencies. Dual-band, triple-band and even more bands absorption can be arbitrarily customized by etching the appropriate number of tandem gold strips in each meta-molecule, as well as stacking multiple metal-graphene layers. Through tuning the Fermi energy level of the graphene in each metal-graphene layer separately, the multiple absorption resonances can be dynamically and independently adjusted. With side-by-side arrangement of the gold strips in each supercell, the proposed structure is rendered to be a promising candidate for ultra-wide-band absorber. The extreme bandwidth exceeding 80% absorption up to 7.5THz can be achieved with a dual-layered structure, and the average peak absorption is 88.5% in the wide-band range for lossless insulating interlayer. For a triple-layered structure, the average peak absorption is 84.7% from 27.5 THz to 38.4 THz with a minimum of 60%. The absorption windows can be even further broadened with more metal-graphene layers. All these results will benefit the integrated microstructure research with simple structure and flexible tunability, and the multilayer structure has potential applications in information processing fields such as filtering, sensing, cloaking objects and other multispectral devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Zanotto, C. Lange, T. Maag, A. Pitanti, V. Miseikis, C. Coletti, R. Degl’Innocenti, L. Baldacci, R. Huber, and A. Tredicucci, “Magneto-optic transmittance modulation observed in a hybrid graphene-split ring resonator terahertz metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121104 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
  24. Y. Fan, N. H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. J. Dong, Q. H. Fu, H. Q. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited graphene metasurfaces: significantly enhanced and tunable magnetic resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. X. Miao, S. Tongay, M. K. Petterson, K. Berke, A. G. Rinzler, B. R. Appleton, and A. F. Hebard, “High efficiency graphene solar cells by chemical doping,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2745–2750 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. L. Wang, S. Ge, W. Hu, M. Nakajima, and Y. Lu, “Graphene-assisted high-efficiency liquid crystal tunable terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23873–23879 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. Y. Ning, Z. Dong, J. Si, and X. Deng, “Tunable polarization-independent coherent perfect absorber based on a metal-graphene nanostructure,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32467–32474 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  35. R. Xu and Y. S. Lin, “Characterizations of reconfigurable infrared metamaterial absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 43(19), 4783–4786 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. W. Ma, Z. Huang, X. Bai, P. Zhan, and Y. Liu, “Dual-band light focusing using stacked graphene metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1770–1775 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  37. M. M. Jadidi, A. B. Sushkov, R. L. Myers-Ward, A. K. Boyd, K. M. Daniels, D. K. Gaskill, M. S. Fuhrer, H. D. Drew, and T. E. Murphy, “Tunable terahertz hybrid metal-graphene plasmons,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 7099–7104 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallel-plate waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 84314 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  39. B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metamagnetics with rainbow colors,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3333–3341 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11(01), 65–74 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  42. Y. J. Yoo, Y. J. Kim, P. Van Tuong, J. Y. Rhee, K. W. Kim, W. H. Jang, Y. H. Kim, H. Cheong, and Y. Lee, “Polarization-independent dual-band perfect absorber utilizing multiple magnetic resonances,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32484–32490 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. Y. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, S. E. Morin, Q. Wu, H. J. Carmichael, and T. W. Mossberg, “Vacuum Rabi splitting as a feature of linear-dispersion theory: Analysis and experimental observations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(21), 2499–2502 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. F. Liu and E. Cubukcu, “Tunable omnidirectional strong light-matter interactions mediated by graphene surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 88(11), 115439 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

T. T. Kim, H. D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, N. H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. J. Dong, Q. H. Fu, H. Q. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited graphene metasurfaces: significantly enhanced and tunable magnetic resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, R. Zhong, Z. Lian, C. Bu, and S. Liu, “Dynamically tunable band stop filter enabled by the metal-graphene metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2828 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Xu and Y. S. Lin, “Characterizations of reconfigurable infrared metamaterial absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 43(19), 4783–4786 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (6)

W. Ma, Z. Huang, X. Bai, P. Zhan, and Y. Liu, “Dual-band light focusing using stacked graphene metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1770–1775 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. Ge, W. Hu, M. Nakajima, and Y. Lu, “Graphene-assisted high-efficiency liquid crystal tunable terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23873–23879 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ning, Z. Dong, J. Si, and X. Deng, “Tunable polarization-independent coherent perfect absorber based on a metal-graphene nanostructure,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32467–32474 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. P. Chakyar, S. K. Simon, C. Bindu, J. Andrews, and V. P. Joseph, “Complex permittivity measurement using metamaterial split ring resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(5), 054101 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Parvaz and H. Karami, “Far-infrared multi-resonant graphene-based metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 396, 267–274 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Kenney, J. Grant, Y. D. Shah, I. Escorcia-Carranza, M. Humphreys, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Octave-spanning broadband absorption of terahertz light using metasurface fractal-cross absorbers,” ACS Photonics 4(10), 2604–2612 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Y. Gui, B. Yang, X. Q. Zhao, J. Q. Liu, X. Chen, X. L. Wang, and C. S. Yang, “Angular and polarization study of flexible metamaterials with double split-ring resonators on parylene-c substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161905 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. K. Kim, D. Lee, and S. Lim, “Wideband-switchable metamaterial absorber using injected liquid metal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31823 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

R. Kowerdziej, L. Jaroszewicz, M. Olifierczuk, and J. Parka, “Experimental study on terahertz metamaterial embedded in nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 092905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H.-T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zanotto, C. Lange, T. Maag, A. Pitanti, V. Miseikis, C. Coletti, R. Degl’Innocenti, L. Baldacci, R. Huber, and A. Tredicucci, “Magneto-optic transmittance modulation observed in a hybrid graphene-split ring resonator terahertz metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121104 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Jadidi, A. B. Sushkov, R. L. Myers-Ward, A. K. Boyd, K. M. Daniels, D. K. Gaskill, M. S. Fuhrer, H. D. Drew, and T. E. Murphy, “Tunable terahertz hybrid metal-graphene plasmons,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 7099–7104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yu, V. Pruneri, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Resonant visible light modulation with graphene,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 550–558 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene Plasmonics: Challenges and Opportunities,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 135–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 21102 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liu, Y. C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, “Graphene photodetectors with ultra-broadband and high responsivity at room temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 273–278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7(3), 2388–2395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Park, P. V. Tuong, J. Y. Rhee, K. W. Kim, W. H. Jang, E. H. Choi, L. Y. Chen, and Y. Lee, “Multi-band metamaterial absorber based on the arrangement of donut-type resonators,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9691–9702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Yoo, Y. J. Kim, P. Van Tuong, J. Y. Rhee, K. W. Kim, W. H. Jang, Y. H. Kim, H. Cheong, and Y. Lee, “Polarization-independent dual-band perfect absorber utilizing multiple magnetic resonances,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32484–32490 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Liu and E. Cubukcu, “Tunable omnidirectional strong light-matter interactions mediated by graphene surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 88(11), 115439 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, “Dual-band perfect absorber for multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7998–8006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6(1), 431–440 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, L. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24348–24355 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Fallahi and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Design of tunable biperiodic graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(19), 195408 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Miao, S. Tongay, M. K. Petterson, K. Berke, A. G. Rinzler, B. R. Appleton, and A. F. Hebard, “High efficiency graphene solar cells by chemical doping,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2745–2750 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

H. Liu, Y. Liu, and D. Zhu, “Chemical doping of graphene,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 21(10), 3335–3345 (2011).

2010 (2)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bai, C. Liu, J. Chen, C. Cheng, M. Kang, and H.-T. Wang, “Tunable slow light in semiconductor metamaterial in a broad terahertz regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093104 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallel-plate waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 84314 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Plasmon hybridization in stacked cut-wire metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 19(21), 3628–3632 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metamagnetics with rainbow colors,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3333–3341 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11(01), 65–74 (2002).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

Y. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, S. E. Morin, Q. Wu, H. J. Carmichael, and T. W. Mossberg, “Vacuum Rabi splitting as a feature of linear-dispersion theory: Analysis and experimental observations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(21), 2499–2502 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abele, E.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H.-T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adato, R.

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, “Dual-band perfect absorber for multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7998–8006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7(3), 2388–2395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alici, K. B.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, “Dual-band perfect absorber for multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7998–8006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrews, J.

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Y. Fan, N. H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. J. Dong, Q. H. Fu, H. Q. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited graphene metasurfaces: significantly enhanced and tunable magnetic resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, K.

Wong, Z. J.

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Y. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, S. E. Morin, Q. Wu, H. J. Carmichael, and T. W. Mossberg, “Vacuum Rabi splitting as a feature of linear-dispersion theory: Analysis and experimental observations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(21), 2499–2502 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
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Xu, R.

Yan, L.

Yan, R.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

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[Crossref]

Yang, C. S.

Y. Gui, B. Yang, X. Q. Zhao, J. Q. Liu, X. Chen, X. L. Wang, and C. S. Yang, “Angular and polarization study of flexible metamaterials with double split-ring resonators on parylene-c substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
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Zang, Y.

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
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Y. Fan, N. H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. J. Dong, Q. H. Fu, H. Q. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited graphene metasurfaces: significantly enhanced and tunable magnetic resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
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X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
[Crossref]

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X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H.-T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Q.

Y. Fan, N. H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. J. Dong, Q. H. Fu, H. Q. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited graphene metasurfaces: significantly enhanced and tunable magnetic resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, R.

T. T. Kim, H. D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. Q.

Y. Gui, B. Yang, X. Q. Zhao, J. Q. Liu, X. Chen, X. L. Wang, and C. S. Yang, “Angular and polarization study of flexible metamaterials with double split-ring resonators on parylene-c substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161905 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Y. Liu, R. Zhong, Z. Lian, C. Bu, and S. Liu, “Dynamically tunable band stop filter enabled by the metal-graphene metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2828 (2018).
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C. H. Liu, Y. C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, “Graphene photodetectors with ultra-broadband and high responsivity at room temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 273–278 (2014).
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H. Liu, Y. Liu, and D. Zhu, “Chemical doping of graphene,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 21(10), 3335–3345 (2011).

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R. Yu, V. Pruneri, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Resonant visible light modulation with graphene,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 550–558 (2015).
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T. T. Kim, H. D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
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Y. Fan, N. H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. J. Dong, Q. H. Fu, H. Q. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited graphene metasurfaces: significantly enhanced and tunable magnetic resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
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Science (1)

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the proposed absorber based on metal-graphene metamaterials and the incident light polarization configuration. (b) Top view of the unit cell. (c) Side view of the unit cell. The thickness of the insulating spacer is assumed to be h1 and h2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The conductivity of graphene changes with various Fermi energy level, and the relaxation time τ is fixed as 0.0198 ps. (b) The conductivity of graphene changes with various relaxation time, and the Fermi energy level Ef is fixed as 0.15 eV. (c) The ratio of the imaginary part to real of the graphene conductivity with different Fermi energy level and the relaxation time τ is fixed as 0.0198 ps.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The simulated absorption spectrum of the basic unit cell of the metal-graphene metamaterials. (b) The distributions of electric field amplitude | E |, and the surface current on the unit cell and the metallic ground plane at its absorption peak. The small red arrows represent the magnitude and the direction of the surface currents.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorption spectra as a function of (a) the thickness of the dielectric layer h, (b) the period P = Px = Py, and (c) the length of the gold strip l (the metal-graphene layer is located in the interface of air and the dielectric layer). (d) Absorption spectra as a function of the Fermi level Ef. The color bars represent the value of absorption. (e) Absorption spectra as a function of the incident angle with p-polarization. (f) Absorption spectra as a function of the length of the gold strip l’ (the metal-graphene layer is located inside the dielectric layer). Unless otherwise specified, the Fermi energy level and carrier mobility is fixed as 0.15 eV and 1318 cm2V−1s−1, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The schematic and the simulated absorption spectrum of the absorber with: (a) single-layer and two tandem gold strips and (c) single-layers and three tandem gold strips. Absorption spectra as a function of the incident angle with p-polarization for the absorber with: (b) single-layer and two tandem gold strips and (d) single-layer and three tandem gold strips. The Fermi energy of graphene is fixed as 0.15 eV.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic (upper panel) and the simulated absorption spectra (lower panel) with various Fermi energy level of the proposed absorber with (a1) double layers structure, (a2) three layers structure, and (a3) double layers structure with multiple strips. The amplitude of electric field |E| at the absorption peaks for (b1) double layers structure, (b2) three layers structure, and (b3) the double layers structure with multiple strips. The Fermi energy of graphene is fixed as 0.15 eV.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The absorption spectrum as a function of frequency for (a) single metal-graphene layer and (b) double metal-graphene layers ultra-wide band absorbers with various Fermi energy levels or different gold strips’ length.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The absorption spectrum for dual wideband absorbers as a function of frequency with various Fermi energy levels of bottom graphene layer from 0.15 eV to 0.6 eV, and the length of the gold strips are l1 = 2.25 μm, l2 = 2.50 μm, l3 = 3.15 μm and l4 = 3.40 μm.

Equations (2)

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σ inter ( ω , τ , μ c ) j e 2 4 π l n [ 2 | μ c | ( w + j / τ ) 2 | μ c | + ( w + j / τ ) ] ,
σ intra ( ω , τ , μ c ) j e 2 k B T π 2 ( w + j τ 1 ) [ μ c k B T + 2 ln ( exp ( μ c k B T ) + 1 ) ] .

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