Abstract

This manuscript presents the first systematic study of non-periodic, broadband Mo/Si multilayer coatings with and without B 4C interface barrier layers for hard x-ray applications with large field of view. The photon energy of operation in this work is 17.4 keV, the Mo Kα emission line. The coatings involve layers with varying thicknesses in the nanometer scale and the behavior at the layer interfaces plays a crucial role in their performance. Reflectivity measurements and modeling at 8.05 keV and 17.4 keV, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), as well as thin film stress measurements, are employed to examine and optimize the reflective performance of these coatings and the physics of their constituent layers and interfaces. Mo/Si with B 4C barrier layers on the Mo-on-Si interface is shown to produce the highest reflectivity among all design configurations considered in this work.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Besnard, “Fusion with the megajoule laser,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012004 (2008).
  3. M. E. Savage, K. R. LeChien, M. R. Lopez, B. S. Stoltzfus, W. A. Stygar, D. S. Artery, J. A. Lott, and P. A. Corcoran, “Status of the Z pulsed power driver,” in 2011 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, (2011), pp. 983–990.
  4. M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  6. N. F. Brejnholt, R. Soufli, M.-A. Descalle, M. Fernández-Perea, F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, V. Honkimäki, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Demonstration of multilayer reflective optics at photon energies above 0.6 MeV,” Opt. Express 22, 15364–15369 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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  9. B. Emprin, P. Troussel, G. Soullié, P. Stemmler, P. Mercère, E. Meltchakov, A. Jérôme, and F. Delmotte, “X-ray broadband Ni/SiC multilayers: improvement with W barrier layers,” Opt. Express 22, 25853–25865 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Pardini, J. Alameda, Y. Platonov, J. Robinson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, C. Walton, and S. P. Hau-Riege, “Aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers for hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 24, 18642–18648 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Montcalm, “Reduction of residual stress in extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with postdeposition thermal treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40, 469–477 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo-Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. L. Windt, “IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. M. Gullikson, F. Salamassi, A. L. Aquila, and F. Dollar, “Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications,” presented at the8th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Sapporo, Japan (2006). See also: http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/multilayer/survey.html .
  19. P. Jonnard, H. Maury, K. L. Guen, J.-M. André, N. Mahne, A. Giglia, S. Nannarone, and F. Bridou, “Effect of B 4C diffusion barriers on the thermal stability of Sc/Si periodic multilayers,” Surf. Sci. 604,1015–1021 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. A. Thornton, “The microstructure of sputter-deposited coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A 4, 3059–3065 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

T. Pardini, J. Alameda, Y. Platonov, J. Robinson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, C. Walton, and S. P. Hau-Riege, “Aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers for hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 24, 18642–18648 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

P. Jonnard, H. Maury, K. L. Guen, J.-M. André, N. Mahne, A. Giglia, S. Nannarone, and F. Bridou, “Effect of B 4C diffusion barriers on the thermal stability of Sc/Si periodic multilayers,” Surf. Sci. 604,1015–1021 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Besnard, “Fusion with the megajoule laser,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012004 (2008).

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Montcalm, “Reduction of residual stress in extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with postdeposition thermal treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40, 469–477 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo-Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. A. Thornton, “The microstructure of sputter-deposited coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A 4, 3059–3065 (1986).
[Crossref]

Alameda, J.

T. Pardini, J. Alameda, Y. Platonov, J. Robinson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, C. Walton, and S. P. Hau-Riege, “Aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers for hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 24, 18642–18648 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Alameda, J. B.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

André, J.-M.

P. Jonnard, H. Maury, K. L. Guen, J.-M. André, N. Mahne, A. Giglia, S. Nannarone, and F. Bridou, “Effect of B 4C diffusion barriers on the thermal stability of Sc/Si periodic multilayers,” Surf. Sci. 604,1015–1021 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A.

Aquila, A. L.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

Artery, D. S.

M. E. Savage, K. R. LeChien, M. R. Lopez, B. S. Stoltzfus, W. A. Stygar, D. S. Artery, J. A. Lott, and P. A. Corcoran, “Status of the Z pulsed power driver,” in 2011 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, (2011), pp. 983–990.

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baker, S. L.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Barbee, T. W.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Besnard, D.

D. Besnard, “Fusion with the megajoule laser,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012004 (2008).

Bionta, R.

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[Crossref]

Boehly, T.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Braun, S.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brejnholt, N. F.

Bridou, F.

P. Jonnard, H. Maury, K. L. Guen, J.-M. André, N. Mahne, A. Giglia, S. Nannarone, and F. Bridou, “Effect of B 4C diffusion barriers on the thermal stability of Sc/Si periodic multilayers,” Surf. Sci. 604,1015–1021 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brown, D.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bruni, R.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Burcklen, C.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Capitanio, B.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ceglio, N. M.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo-Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo-Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

Christensen, F. E.

N. F. Brejnholt, R. Soufli, M.-A. Descalle, M. Fernández-Perea, F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, V. Honkimäki, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Demonstration of multilayer reflective optics at photon energies above 0.6 MeV,” Opt. Express 22, 15364–15369 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Clift, W. M.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Corcoran, P. A.

M. E. Savage, K. R. LeChien, M. R. Lopez, B. S. Stoltzfus, W. A. Stygar, D. S. Artery, J. A. Lott, and P. A. Corcoran, “Status of the Z pulsed power driver,” in 2011 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, (2011), pp. 983–990.

Craxton, R.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Davis, J.

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

de Rossi, S.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Delmotte, F.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Emprin, P. Troussel, G. Soullié, P. Stemmler, P. Mercère, E. Meltchakov, A. Jérôme, and F. Delmotte, “X-ray broadband Ni/SiC multilayers: improvement with W barrier layers,” Opt. Express 22, 25853–25865 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dennetiere, D.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Descalle, M.-A.

N. F. Brejnholt, R. Soufli, M.-A. Descalle, M. Fernández-Perea, F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, V. Honkimäki, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Demonstration of multilayer reflective optics at photon energies above 0.6 MeV,” Opt. Express 22, 15364–15369 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Dollar, F.

Dollar, F. J.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

Emprin, B.

Fernández-Perea, M.

N. F. Brejnholt, R. Soufli, M.-A. Descalle, M. Fernández-Perea, F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, V. Honkimäki, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Demonstration of multilayer reflective optics at photon energies above 0.6 MeV,” Opt. Express 22, 15364–15369 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Folta, J. A.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Giglia, A.

P. Jonnard, H. Maury, K. L. Guen, J.-M. André, N. Mahne, A. Giglia, S. Nannarone, and F. Bridou, “Effect of B 4C diffusion barriers on the thermal stability of Sc/Si periodic multilayers,” Surf. Sci. 604,1015–1021 (2010).
[Crossref]

Golub, L.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

Guen, K. L.

P. Jonnard, H. Maury, K. L. Guen, J.-M. André, N. Mahne, A. Giglia, S. Nannarone, and F. Bridou, “Effect of B 4C diffusion barriers on the thermal stability of Sc/Si periodic multilayers,” Surf. Sci. 604,1015–1021 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Aquila, F. Salmassi, F. Dollar, Y. Liu, and E. Gullikson, “Developments in realistic design for aperiodic Mo/Si multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 14, 10073–10078 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

Hau-Riege, S. P.

T. Pardini, J. Alameda, Y. Platonov, J. Robinson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, C. Walton, and S. P. Hau-Riege, “Aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers for hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 24, 18642–18648 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[Crossref]

Henke, B.

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Honkimäki, V.

N. F. Brejnholt, R. Soufli, M.-A. Descalle, M. Fernández-Perea, F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, V. Honkimäki, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Demonstration of multilayer reflective optics at photon energies above 0.6 MeV,” Opt. Express 22, 15364–15369 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Hornback, D.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Jakobsen, A. C.

N. F. Brejnholt, R. Soufli, M.-A. Descalle, M. Fernández-Perea, F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, V. Honkimäki, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Demonstration of multilayer reflective optics at photon energies above 0.6 MeV,” Opt. Express 22, 15364–15369 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Jérome, A.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jérôme, A.

Jonnard, P.

P. Jonnard, H. Maury, K. L. Guen, J.-M. André, N. Mahne, A. Giglia, S. Nannarone, and F. Bridou, “Effect of B 4C diffusion barriers on the thermal stability of Sc/Si periodic multilayers,” Surf. Sci. 604,1015–1021 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kaufmann, B. B.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Keck, R.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kelly, J.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kessler, T.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

Knauer, J.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kumpan, S.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

LeChien, K. R.

M. E. Savage, K. R. LeChien, M. R. Lopez, B. S. Stoltzfus, W. A. Stygar, D. S. Artery, J. A. Lott, and P. A. Corcoran, “Status of the Z pulsed power driver,” in 2011 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, (2011), pp. 983–990.

Leson, A.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Letzring, S.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lopez, M. R.

M. E. Savage, K. R. LeChien, M. R. Lopez, B. S. Stoltzfus, W. A. Stygar, D. S. Artery, J. A. Lott, and P. A. Corcoran, “Status of the Z pulsed power driver,” in 2011 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, (2011), pp. 983–990.

Lott, J. A.

M. E. Savage, K. R. LeChien, M. R. Lopez, B. S. Stoltzfus, W. A. Stygar, D. S. Artery, J. A. Lott, and P. A. Corcoran, “Status of the Z pulsed power driver,” in 2011 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, (2011), pp. 983–990.

Loucks, S.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mahne, N.

P. Jonnard, H. Maury, K. L. Guen, J.-M. André, N. Mahne, A. Giglia, S. Nannarone, and F. Bridou, “Effect of B 4C diffusion barriers on the thermal stability of Sc/Si periodic multilayers,” Surf. Sci. 604,1015–1021 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mai, H.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Marshall, F.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Maury, H.

P. Jonnard, H. Maury, K. L. Guen, J.-M. André, N. Mahne, A. Giglia, S. Nannarone, and F. Bridou, “Effect of B 4C diffusion barriers on the thermal stability of Sc/Si periodic multilayers,” Surf. Sci. 604,1015–1021 (2010).
[Crossref]

McCarville, T.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

McCarville, T. J.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[Crossref]

McCrory, R.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Meltchakov, E.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Emprin, P. Troussel, G. Soullié, P. Stemmler, P. Mercère, E. Meltchakov, A. Jérôme, and F. Delmotte, “X-ray broadband Ni/SiC multilayers: improvement with W barrier layers,” Opt. Express 22, 25853–25865 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mercère, P.

Mirkarimi, P.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Mirkarimi, P. B.

P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Montcalm, C.

C. Montcalm, “Reduction of residual stress in extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with postdeposition thermal treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40, 469–477 (2001).
[Crossref]

Morse, S.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moss, M.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nannarone, S.

P. Jonnard, H. Maury, K. L. Guen, J.-M. André, N. Mahne, A. Giglia, S. Nannarone, and F. Bridou, “Effect of B 4C diffusion barriers on the thermal stability of Sc/Si periodic multilayers,” Surf. Sci. 604,1015–1021 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pardini, T.

Pivovaroff, M. J.

N. F. Brejnholt, R. Soufli, M.-A. Descalle, M. Fernández-Perea, F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, V. Honkimäki, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Demonstration of multilayer reflective optics at photon energies above 0.6 MeV,” Opt. Express 22, 15364–15369 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Platonov, Y.

Polack, F.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J.

Robinson, J. C.

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

Romaine, S.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Salmassi, F.

Savage, M. E.

M. E. Savage, K. R. LeChien, M. R. Lopez, B. S. Stoltzfus, W. A. Stygar, D. S. Artery, J. A. Lott, and P. A. Corcoran, “Status of the Z pulsed power driver,” in 2011 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, (2011), pp. 983–990.

Scholz, R.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Seely, J. F.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

Seka, W.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Soufli, R.

T. Pardini, J. Alameda, Y. Platonov, J. Robinson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, C. Walton, and S. P. Hau-Riege, “Aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers for hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 24, 18642–18648 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. F. Brejnholt, R. Soufli, M.-A. Descalle, M. Fernández-Perea, F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, V. Honkimäki, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Demonstration of multilayer reflective optics at photon energies above 0.6 MeV,” Opt. Express 22, 15364–15369 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Soullié, G.

Soures, J.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Spiller, E.

T. Pardini, J. Alameda, Y. Platonov, J. Robinson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, C. Walton, and S. P. Hau-Riege, “Aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers for hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 24, 18642–18648 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

Spiller, E. A.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo-Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stearns, M. B.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo-Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stefan, P.

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[Crossref]

Stemmler, P.

Stith, J. H.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo-Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stoltzfus, B. S.

M. E. Savage, K. R. LeChien, M. R. Lopez, B. S. Stoltzfus, W. A. Stygar, D. S. Artery, J. A. Lott, and P. A. Corcoran, “Status of the Z pulsed power driver,” in 2011 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, (2011), pp. 983–990.

Stygar, W. A.

M. E. Savage, K. R. LeChien, M. R. Lopez, B. S. Stoltzfus, W. A. Stygar, D. S. Artery, J. A. Lott, and P. A. Corcoran, “Status of the Z pulsed power driver,” in 2011 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, (2011), pp. 983–990.

Thomasset, M.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, “The microstructure of sputter-deposited coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A 4, 3059–3065 (1986).
[Crossref]

Troussel, P.

Verdon, C.

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Walton, C.

Windt, D. L.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

D. L. Windt, “IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Z.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Ziegler, E.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Ziock, K.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

Ziock, K. P.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo-Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B 4C multilayer mirrors: study of interfaces and x-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

D. Besnard, “Fusion with the megajoule laser,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012004 (2008).

J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A (1)

J. A. Thornton, “The microstructure of sputter-deposited coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A 4, 3059–3065 (1986).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Boehly, D. Brown, R. Craxton, R. Keck, J. Knauer, J. Kelly, T. Kessler, S. Kumpan, S. Loucks, S. Letzring, F. Marshall, R. McCrory, S. Morse, W. Seka, J. Soures, and C. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495 – 506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (3)

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Montcalm, “Reduction of residual stress in extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with postdeposition thermal treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40, 469–477 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005).
[Crossref]

Surf. Sci. (1)

P. Jonnard, H. Maury, K. L. Guen, J.-M. André, N. Mahne, A. Giglia, S. Nannarone, and F. Bridou, “Effect of B 4C diffusion barriers on the thermal stability of Sc/Si periodic multilayers,” Surf. Sci. 604,1015–1021 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

E. M. Gullikson, F. Salamassi, A. L. Aquila, and F. Dollar, “Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications,” presented at the8th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Sapporo, Japan (2006). See also: http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/multilayer/survey.html .

M. Fernández-Perea, M. J. Pivovaroff, R. Soufli, J. Alameda, P. Mirkarimi, M.-A. Descalle, S. L. Baker, T. McCarville, K. Ziock, D. Hornback, S. Romaine, R. Bruni, Z. Zhong, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, and A. C. Jakobsen, “Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip.710, 114 – 119 (2013).

M. E. Savage, K. R. LeChien, M. R. Lopez, B. S. Stoltzfus, W. A. Stygar, D. S. Artery, J. A. Lott, and P. A. Corcoran, “Status of the Z pulsed power driver,” in 2011 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, (2011), pp. 983–990.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Reflectivity vs. incidence angle of Mo/Si multilayers (solid lines) at a photon energy of 17.4 keV. B   4C barrier layers were inserted in some of the coatings at both interfaces (dashed lines) or at the Mo-on-Si interfaces only (dotted lines). All B   4C barrier layers are 8 Å thick, except for the samples marked with a dagger † (4 Å) or double dagger ‡ (6 Å). All black lines correspond to multilayers deposited at 2 mTorr and all red lines to multilayers deposited at 1 mTorr. The average reflectivity given here was calculated by extrapolating the model derived from 8.05 keV measurements. The three samples indicated with an asterisk* were also measured experimentally at 17.4 keV; their measurements are discussed in the following.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the structure corresponding to (a) the HS and LS samples, (b) the HB2 and LB2 samples, and (c) the HB1 and LB1 samples, and associated notations. N is the number of Mo/Si bilayers in the coating. It should be noted that N = 300 bilayers for all samples, except for HS-2 and LS-2 which have N = 150 bilayers. “σi” represents the interfacial roughness at the corresponding interface.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured reflectivity (red solid line, log scale) vs. grazing incidence angle for sample HS-3 at a photon energy of (a) 8.05 keV and (b) 17.4 keV. In (a) and (b), the dash line represents the model that fits best the 8.05 keV and 17.4 keV data. A detail of the 1   st order Bragg peak in shown in linear scale, in the insets.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured reflectivity (red solid line, log scale) vs. grazing incidence angle for sample HS-2 at a photon energy of (a) 8.05 keV and (b) 17.4 keV. In (a), the dash lines represent two models that fit best the 8.05 keVdata. In (b), the dash lines represent the reflectivity calculated at 17.4 keV using the two models developed in (a). A detail of the 1   st order Bragg peak is shown in linear scale, in the insets. The integrated reflectivity in Fig. effig:fig1 is the average value of model 1 and model 2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured reflectivity (red solid line, log scale) vs. grazing incidence angle for sample HS-1 at a photon energy of (a) 8.05 keV and (b) 17.4 keV. In (a), the dash lines represent two models that fit best the 8.05 keV data. In (b), the dash lines represent the reflectivity calculated at 17.4 keV using the models developed in (a). A detail of the 1   st order Bragg peak is shown in linear scale, in the insets.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 High resolution, 440k magnification TEM images of a section of sample HS-1: (a) top, (b) middle and (c) bottom of the multilayer. The averaged profiles (in green) are overplotted on the corresponding TEM images. The dark layers are Mo and the bright layers are Si.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of samples HS-1 (in red) and LS-1 (in blue): reflectivity at 8.05 keV as a function of grazing incidence angle (a) in logarithmic scale and (b) linear scale, detail of the 1   st order. The solid linescorrespond to measured reflectivity and the dashed line to simulations. The models for sample HS-1 have been included in Fig. 5 and are omitted from this Figure, for easier viewing of the plots.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison of samples HS-2 (in red) and LS-2 (in blue): reflectivity at 8.05 keV as a function of grazing incidence angle (a) in logarithmic scale and (b) linear scale, detail of the 1   st order peak. The solid lines correspond to measured reflectivity and the dashed lines to simulations (models). The models for sample HS-2 have been included in Fig. 4 and are omitted from this Figure, for easier viewing of the plots.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Reflectivity vs. grazing incidence angle at a photon energy of 8.05 keV for (a),(b) samples HB2-1 (red) and HB1-1 (green), and (c),(d) samples LB2-1 (blue) and LB1-1 (orange). (b) and (d) show a detail of the first order in linear scale. The measured reflectivity is plotted with solid lines and the models are shown in dashed lines.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Extrapolated reflectivity at 17.4 keV of samples HB2-1, HB1-1, LB2-1 and LB1-1, and two simulated Mo/SI multilayers adapted from HS-3 and LS-1 models, respectively (the Mo and Si thicknesses were optimized to match the other samples’ angular acceptance).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of samples with as-designed layer thicknesses and deposition parameters. The subscript in the “Structure” column denotes the number of bilayers. The thicknesses are indicated for layers from top to bottom.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Extrapolated or measured (indicated with an asterisk*) integrated reflectance at 17.4 keV and corresponding angular bandwidth. The bandwidth is defined as the full width at half maximum.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Model parameters for samples HS-1, LS-1, HS-2 and LS-2, using the layer model shown in Fig. 2. Layer thicknesses (indicated by the letter “d”) and interfacial roughnesses (indicated by the letter “σ”) are given in Å.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d M o = D M o 0.39 × d M o S i 2 t o t
d S i = D S i 1.0 × d M o S i 2 t o t
d S i [ i ] = a ( b + i ) c
d S i [ i ] = a + b × exp  ( c × i )

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