Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) air-gap metal-coated nanocavities with tunable geometries, changeable heights, and improved smoothness are fabricated by combining electron beam lithography (EBL), ultra dilute hydrofluoric acid solution wet etching (UDHFE), and metal magnetron sputtering technologies. With different shapes, heights, and separations of the nanocavities, the strong electromagnetic resonances inside the nanocavities are changed in different extent, resulting in broad gamut and sophisticated plasmonic color generation. The nanocavities-based metasurface is also used to construct a real-time and label-free refractive index sensor with 372 nm/RIU sensitivity, which shows distinct colorimetric change between different mediums. This nanocavities may find extensive potential applications in high-fidelity color printing, high-density information storage, and on-chip colorimetric label-free biomedical sensing.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

H. Jiang and B. Kaminska, “Scalable Inkjet-Based Structural Color Printing by Molding Transparent Gratings on Multilayer Nanostructured Surfaces,” ACS Nano 12(4), 3112–3125 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Langley, E. Balaur, Y. Hwang, C. Sadatnajafi, and B. Abbey, “Optical Chemical Barcoding Based on Polarization Controlled Plasmonic Nanopixels,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(4), 1704842 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (12)

M. Rippa, R. Castagna, V. Tkachenko, J. Zhou, and L. Petti, “Engineered nanopatterned substrates for high-sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance: an assay on biomacromolecules,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 5(27), 5473–5478 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. A. López-Muñoz, M. C. Estevez, E. C. Peláez-Gutierrez, A. Homs-Corbera, M. C. García-Hernandez, J. I. Imbaud, and L. M. Lechuga, “A label-free nanostructured plasmonic biosensor based on Blu-ray discs with integrated microfluidics for sensitive biodetection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 96, 260–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mao, Y. Zheng, C. Li, L. Guo, Y. Pan, R. Zhu, J. Xu, W. Zhang, and W. Wu, “Programmable bidirectional folding of metallic thin films for 3D chiral optical antennas,” Adv. Mater. 29(19), 1606482 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Fan, W. G. Wu, Z. J. Chen, J. Zhu, and J. Li, “Three-dimensional cavity nanoantennas with resonant-enhanced surface plasmons as dynamic color-tuning reflectors,” Nanoscale 9(10), 3416–3423 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Highly reflective subtractive color filters capitalizing on a silicon metasurface integrated with nanostructured aluminum mirrors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600285 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, X. Wang, C. Yan, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Full color generation using silver tandem nanodisks,” ACS Nano 11(5), 4419–4427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Tseng, J. Yang, M. Semmlinger, C. Zhang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Two-Dimensional Active Tuning of an Aluminum Plasmonic Array for Full-Spectrum Response,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6034–6039 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, X. Duan, M. Matuschek, Y. Zhou, F. Neubrech, H. Duan, and N. Liu, “Dynamic color displays using stepwise cavity resonators,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5555–5560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Duan, S. Kamin, and N. Liu, “Dynamic plasmonic colour display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14606 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Franklin, R. Frank, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Actively addressed single pixel full-colour plasmonic display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15209 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Stewart, G. M. Akselrod, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Toward multispectral imaging with colloidal metasurface pixels,” Adv. Mater. 29(6), 1602971 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (12)

G. Wang, X. Chen, S. Liu, C. Wong, and S. Chu, “Mechanical Chameleon through Dynamic Real-Time Plasmonic Tuning,” ACS Nano 10(2), 1788–1794 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lütolf, D. Casari, and B. Gallinet, “Low-cost and large-area strain sensors based on plasmonic fano resonances,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(5), 715–721 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10671–10680 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Miyata, H. Hatada, and J. Takahara, “Full-Color Subwavelength Printing with Gap-Plasmonic Optical Antennas,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3166–3172 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhu, C. Vannahme, E. Højlund-Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Plasmonic colour laser printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 325–329 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Goh, R. J. H. Ng, S. Wang, S. J. Tan, and J. K. W. Yang, “Comparative study of plasmonic colors from all-metal structures of posts and pits,” ACS Photonics 3(6), 1000–1009 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. D. James, P. Mulvaney, and A. Roberts, “The Plasmonic Pixel: Large Area, Wide Gamut Color Reproduction Using Aluminum Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3817–3823 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, J. Yang, R. E. Simpson, and T. Cao, “Wideband Absorbers in the Visible with Ultrathin Plasmonic-Phase Change Material Nanogratings,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(23), 12713–12722 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, S. Sung, J. H. Choi, S. C. Eom, N. A. Mortensen, and J. H. Shin, “Ultra sub-wavelength surface plasmon confinement using air-gap, sub-wavelength ring resonator arrays,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mao, Y. Pan, W. Zhang, R. Zhu, J. Xu, and W. Wu, “Multi-direction-tunable three-dimensional meta-atoms for reversible switching between midwave and long-wave infrared regimes,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7025–7029 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Seo, X. Zhou, and G. L. Liu, “Sensitivity tuning through additive heterogeneous plasmon coupling between 3D assembled plasmonic nanoparticle and nanocup arrays,” Small 12(25), 3453–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (12)

J. He, M. Boegli, I. Bruzas, W. Lum, and L. Sagle, “Patterned plasmonic nanoparticle arrays for microfluidic and multiplexed biological assays,” Anal. Chem. 87(22), 11407–11414 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, T. D. Dao, S. Ishii, M. Aono, and T. Nagao, “Infrared Aluminum Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers for Plasmon-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6637–6643 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. J. Ng, X. M. Goh, and J. K. Yang, “All-metal nanostructured substrates as subtractive color reflectors with near-perfect absorptance,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32597–32605 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gu, L. Zhang, J. K. Yang, S. P. Yeo, and C. W. Qiu, “Color generation via subwavelength plasmonic nanostructures,” Nanoscale 7(15), 6409–6419 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yoo, T. W. Johnson, S. Cherukulappurath, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped tunable plasmonic devices on stretchable and rollable substrates,” ACS Nano 9(11), 10647–10654 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Doshay, X. Xie, H. Luo, D. Shah, Y. Shi, S. Xu, H. Fang, J. A. Fan, P. Nordlander, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Optics and nonlinear buckling mechanics in large-area, highly stretchable arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 5968–5975 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Duempelmann, D. Casari, A. Luu-Dinh, B. Gallinet, and L. Novotny, “Color rendering plasmonic aluminum substrates with angular symmetry breaking,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12383–12391 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Feng, C. Jiang, Y. He, S. Chu, G. Chu, R. Peng, and D. Li, “Widely adjustable and quasi-reversible electrochromic device based on core-shell Au-Ag plasmonic nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1174–1180 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Walia, N. Dhindsa, M. Khorasaninejad, and S. S. Saini, “Color generation and refractive index sensing using diffraction from 2D silicon nanowire arrays,” Small 10(1), 144–151 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z. K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2840 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Abbey, B.

D. P. Langley, E. Balaur, Y. Hwang, C. Sadatnajafi, and B. Abbey, “Optical Chemical Barcoding Based on Polarization Controlled Plasmonic Nanopixels,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(4), 1704842 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akselrod, G. M.

J. W. Stewart, G. M. Akselrod, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Toward multispectral imaging with colloidal metasurface pixels,” Adv. Mater. 29(6), 1602971 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrektsen, O.

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aono, M.

K. Chen, T. D. Dao, S. Ishii, M. Aono, and T. Nagao, “Infrared Aluminum Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers for Plasmon-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6637–6643 (2015).
[Crossref]

Artar, A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balaur, E.

D. P. Langley, E. Balaur, Y. Hwang, C. Sadatnajafi, and B. Abbey, “Optical Chemical Barcoding Based on Polarization Controlled Plasmonic Nanopixels,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(4), 1704842 (2018).
[Crossref]

Barrow, S. J.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartoli, F. J.

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2840 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benz, F.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boegli, M.

J. He, M. Boegli, I. Bruzas, W. Lum, and L. Sagle, “Patterned plasmonic nanoparticle arrays for microfluidic and multiplexed biological assays,” Anal. Chem. 87(22), 11407–11414 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boroumand, J.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruzas, I.

J. He, M. Boegli, I. Bruzas, W. Lum, and L. Sagle, “Patterned plasmonic nanoparticle arrays for microfluidic and multiplexed biological assays,” Anal. Chem. 87(22), 11407–11414 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgos, S. P.

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butun, S.

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, T.

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, J. Yang, R. E. Simpson, and T. Cao, “Wideband Absorbers in the Visible with Ultrathin Plasmonic-Phase Change Material Nanogratings,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(23), 12713–12722 (2016).
[Crossref]

Casari, D.

F. Lütolf, D. Casari, and B. Gallinet, “Low-cost and large-area strain sensors based on plasmonic fano resonances,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(5), 715–721 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Duempelmann, D. Casari, A. Luu-Dinh, B. Gallinet, and L. Novotny, “Color rendering plasmonic aluminum substrates with angular symmetry breaking,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12383–12391 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castagna, R.

M. Rippa, R. Castagna, V. Tkachenko, J. Zhou, and L. Petti, “Engineered nanopatterned substrates for high-sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance: an assay on biomacromolecules,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 5(27), 5473–5478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chanda, D.

D. Franklin, R. Frank, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Actively addressed single pixel full-colour plasmonic display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15209 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

K. Chen, T. D. Dao, S. Ishii, M. Aono, and T. Nagao, “Infrared Aluminum Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers for Plasmon-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6637–6643 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. T.

Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

G. Wang, X. Chen, S. Liu, C. Wong, and S. Chu, “Mechanical Chameleon through Dynamic Real-Time Plasmonic Tuning,” ACS Nano 10(2), 1788–1794 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, X. Duan, M. Matuschek, Y. Zhou, F. Neubrech, H. Duan, and N. Liu, “Dynamic color displays using stepwise cavity resonators,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5555–5560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. J.

J. R. Fan, W. G. Wu, Z. J. Chen, J. Zhu, and J. Li, “Three-dimensional cavity nanoantennas with resonant-enhanced surface plasmons as dynamic color-tuning reflectors,” Nanoscale 9(10), 3416–3423 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, F.

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cherukulappurath, S.

D. Yoo, T. W. Johnson, S. Cherukulappurath, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped tunable plasmonic devices on stretchable and rollable substrates,” ACS Nano 9(11), 10647–10654 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chikkaraddy, R.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, D.-Y.

W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Highly reflective subtractive color filters capitalizing on a silicon metasurface integrated with nanostructured aluminum mirrors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600285 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. H.

J. Lee, S. Sung, J. H. Choi, S. C. Eom, N. A. Mortensen, and J. H. Shin, “Ultra sub-wavelength surface plasmon confinement using air-gap, sub-wavelength ring resonator arrays,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christiansen, A. B.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, G.

Z. Feng, C. Jiang, Y. He, S. Chu, G. Chu, R. Peng, and D. Li, “Widely adjustable and quasi-reversible electrochromic device based on core-shell Au-Ag plasmonic nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1174–1180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

G. Wang, X. Chen, S. Liu, C. Wong, and S. Chu, “Mechanical Chameleon through Dynamic Real-Time Plasmonic Tuning,” ACS Nano 10(2), 1788–1794 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Feng, C. Jiang, Y. He, S. Chu, G. Chu, R. Peng, and D. Li, “Widely adjustable and quasi-reversible electrochromic device based on core-shell Au-Ag plasmonic nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1174–1180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Clausen, J. S.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dao, T. D.

K. Chen, T. D. Dao, S. Ishii, M. Aono, and T. Nagao, “Infrared Aluminum Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers for Plasmon-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6637–6643 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Nijs, B.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demetriadou, A.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhindsa, N.

J. Walia, N. Dhindsa, M. Khorasaninejad, and S. S. Saini, “Color generation and refractive index sensing using diffraction from 2D silicon nanowire arrays,” Small 10(1), 144–151 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, W.

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, J. Yang, R. E. Simpson, and T. Cao, “Wideband Absorbers in the Visible with Ultrathin Plasmonic-Phase Change Material Nanogratings,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(23), 12713–12722 (2016).
[Crossref]

Doshay, S.

L. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Doshay, X. Xie, H. Luo, D. Shah, Y. Shi, S. Xu, H. Fang, J. A. Fan, P. Nordlander, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Optics and nonlinear buckling mechanics in large-area, highly stretchable arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 5968–5975 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, H.

Y. Chen, X. Duan, M. Matuschek, Y. Zhou, F. Neubrech, H. Duan, and N. Liu, “Dynamic color displays using stepwise cavity resonators,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5555–5560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

Y. Chen, X. Duan, M. Matuschek, Y. Zhou, F. Neubrech, H. Duan, and N. Liu, “Dynamic color displays using stepwise cavity resonators,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5555–5560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Duan, S. Kamin, and N. Liu, “Dynamic plasmonic colour display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14606 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duempelmann, L.

L. Duempelmann, D. Casari, A. Luu-Dinh, B. Gallinet, and L. Novotny, “Color rendering plasmonic aluminum substrates with angular symmetry breaking,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12383–12391 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eom, S. C.

J. Lee, S. Sung, J. H. Choi, S. C. Eom, N. A. Mortensen, and J. H. Shin, “Ultra sub-wavelength surface plasmon confinement using air-gap, sub-wavelength ring resonator arrays,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Estevez, M. C.

G. A. López-Muñoz, M. C. Estevez, E. C. Peláez-Gutierrez, A. Homs-Corbera, M. C. García-Hernandez, J. I. Imbaud, and L. M. Lechuga, “A label-free nanostructured plasmonic biosensor based on Blu-ray discs with integrated microfluidics for sensitive biodetection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 96, 260–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, J. A.

L. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Doshay, X. Xie, H. Luo, D. Shah, Y. Shi, S. Xu, H. Fang, J. A. Fan, P. Nordlander, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Optics and nonlinear buckling mechanics in large-area, highly stretchable arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 5968–5975 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, J. R.

J. R. Fan, W. G. Wu, Z. J. Chen, J. Zhu, and J. Li, “Three-dimensional cavity nanoantennas with resonant-enhanced surface plasmons as dynamic color-tuning reflectors,” Nanoscale 9(10), 3416–3423 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, H.

L. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Doshay, X. Xie, H. Luo, D. Shah, Y. Shi, S. Xu, H. Fang, J. A. Fan, P. Nordlander, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Optics and nonlinear buckling mechanics in large-area, highly stretchable arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 5968–5975 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Z.

Z. Feng, C. Jiang, Y. He, S. Chu, G. Chu, R. Peng, and D. Li, “Widely adjustable and quasi-reversible electrochromic device based on core-shell Au-Ag plasmonic nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1174–1180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fox, P.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frank, R.

D. Franklin, R. Frank, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Actively addressed single pixel full-colour plasmonic display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15209 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franklin, D.

D. Franklin, R. Frank, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Actively addressed single pixel full-colour plasmonic display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15209 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallinet, B.

F. Lütolf, D. Casari, and B. Gallinet, “Low-cost and large-area strain sensors based on plasmonic fano resonances,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(5), 715–721 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Duempelmann, D. Casari, A. Luu-Dinh, B. Gallinet, and L. Novotny, “Color rendering plasmonic aluminum substrates with angular symmetry breaking,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12383–12391 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, Q.

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10671–10680 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Doshay, X. Xie, H. Luo, D. Shah, Y. Shi, S. Xu, H. Fang, J. A. Fan, P. Nordlander, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Optics and nonlinear buckling mechanics in large-area, highly stretchable arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 5968–5975 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, S.

W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Highly reflective subtractive color filters capitalizing on a silicon metasurface integrated with nanostructured aluminum mirrors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600285 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2840 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Hernandez, M. C.

G. A. López-Muñoz, M. C. Estevez, E. C. Peláez-Gutierrez, A. Homs-Corbera, M. C. García-Hernandez, J. I. Imbaud, and L. M. Lechuga, “A label-free nanostructured plasmonic biosensor based on Blu-ray discs with integrated microfluidics for sensitive biodetection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 96, 260–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Goh, X. M.

X. M. Goh, R. J. H. Ng, S. Wang, S. J. Tan, and J. K. W. Yang, “Comparative study of plasmonic colors from all-metal structures of posts and pits,” ACS Photonics 3(6), 1000–1009 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Ng, X. M. Goh, and J. K. Yang, “All-metal nanostructured substrates as subtractive color reflectors with near-perfect absorptance,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32597–32605 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grajower, M.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, L. Zhang, J. K. Yang, S. P. Yeo, and C. W. Qiu, “Color generation via subwavelength plasmonic nanostructures,” Nanoscale 7(15), 6409–6419 (2015).
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Y. Mao, Y. Pan, W. Zhang, R. Zhu, J. Xu, and W. Wu, “Multi-direction-tunable three-dimensional meta-atoms for reversible switching between midwave and long-wave infrared regimes,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7025–7029 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

L. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Doshay, X. Xie, H. Luo, D. Shah, Y. Shi, S. Xu, H. Fang, J. A. Fan, P. Nordlander, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Optics and nonlinear buckling mechanics in large-area, highly stretchable arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 5968–5975 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

H. Wang, X. Wang, C. Yan, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Full color generation using silver tandem nanodisks,” ACS Nano 11(5), 4419–4427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Mao, Y. Zheng, C. Li, L. Guo, Y. Pan, R. Zhu, J. Xu, W. Zhang, and W. Wu, “Programmable bidirectional folding of metallic thin films for 3D chiral optical antennas,” Adv. Mater. 29(19), 1606482 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

M. Rippa, R. Castagna, V. Tkachenko, J. Zhou, and L. Petti, “Engineered nanopatterned substrates for high-sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance: an assay on biomacromolecules,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 5(27), 5473–5478 (2017).
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Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z. K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
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Zhou, X.

S. Seo, X. Zhou, and G. L. Liu, “Sensitivity tuning through additive heterogeneous plasmon coupling between 3D assembled plasmonic nanoparticle and nanocup arrays,” Small 12(25), 3453–3462 (2016).
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Zhou, Y.

Y. Chen, X. Duan, M. Matuschek, Y. Zhou, F. Neubrech, H. Duan, and N. Liu, “Dynamic color displays using stepwise cavity resonators,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5555–5560 (2017).
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Zhou, Z. K.

Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z. K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
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Zhu, D.

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
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Zhu, J.

J. R. Fan, W. G. Wu, Z. J. Chen, J. Zhu, and J. Li, “Three-dimensional cavity nanoantennas with resonant-enhanced surface plasmons as dynamic color-tuning reflectors,” Nanoscale 9(10), 3416–3423 (2017).
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Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z. K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
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Zhu, R.

Y. Mao, Y. Zheng, C. Li, L. Guo, Y. Pan, R. Zhu, J. Xu, W. Zhang, and W. Wu, “Programmable bidirectional folding of metallic thin films for 3D chiral optical antennas,” Adv. Mater. 29(19), 1606482 (2017).
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Y. Mao, Y. Pan, W. Zhang, R. Zhu, J. Xu, and W. Wu, “Multi-direction-tunable three-dimensional meta-atoms for reversible switching between midwave and long-wave infrared regimes,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7025–7029 (2016).
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Zhu, S. N.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, C. Vannahme, E. Højlund-Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Plasmonic colour laser printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 325–329 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (7)

H. Wang, X. Wang, C. Yan, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Full color generation using silver tandem nanodisks,” ACS Nano 11(5), 4419–4427 (2017).
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H. Jiang and B. Kaminska, “Scalable Inkjet-Based Structural Color Printing by Molding Transparent Gratings on Multilayer Nanostructured Surfaces,” ACS Nano 12(4), 3112–3125 (2018).
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W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10671–10680 (2016).
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D. Yoo, T. W. Johnson, S. Cherukulappurath, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped tunable plasmonic devices on stretchable and rollable substrates,” ACS Nano 9(11), 10647–10654 (2015).
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L. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Doshay, X. Xie, H. Luo, D. Shah, Y. Shi, S. Xu, H. Fang, J. A. Fan, P. Nordlander, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Optics and nonlinear buckling mechanics in large-area, highly stretchable arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 5968–5975 (2015).
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G. Wang, X. Chen, S. Liu, C. Wong, and S. Chu, “Mechanical Chameleon through Dynamic Real-Time Plasmonic Tuning,” ACS Nano 10(2), 1788–1794 (2016).
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L. Duempelmann, D. Casari, A. Luu-Dinh, B. Gallinet, and L. Novotny, “Color rendering plasmonic aluminum substrates with angular symmetry breaking,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12383–12391 (2015).
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ACS Photonics (2)

X. M. Goh, R. J. H. Ng, S. Wang, S. J. Tan, and J. K. W. Yang, “Comparative study of plasmonic colors from all-metal structures of posts and pits,” ACS Photonics 3(6), 1000–1009 (2016).
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Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

K. Chen, T. D. Dao, S. Ishii, M. Aono, and T. Nagao, “Infrared Aluminum Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers for Plasmon-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6637–6643 (2015).
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D. P. Langley, E. Balaur, Y. Hwang, C. Sadatnajafi, and B. Abbey, “Optical Chemical Barcoding Based on Polarization Controlled Plasmonic Nanopixels,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(4), 1704842 (2018).
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Adv. Mater. (2)

J. W. Stewart, G. M. Akselrod, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Toward multispectral imaging with colloidal metasurface pixels,” Adv. Mater. 29(6), 1602971 (2017).
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Y. Mao, Y. Zheng, C. Li, L. Guo, Y. Pan, R. Zhu, J. Xu, W. Zhang, and W. Wu, “Programmable bidirectional folding of metallic thin films for 3D chiral optical antennas,” Adv. Mater. 29(19), 1606482 (2017).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

F. Lütolf, D. Casari, and B. Gallinet, “Low-cost and large-area strain sensors based on plasmonic fano resonances,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(5), 715–721 (2016).
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Z. Feng, C. Jiang, Y. He, S. Chu, G. Chu, R. Peng, and D. Li, “Widely adjustable and quasi-reversible electrochromic device based on core-shell Au-Ag plasmonic nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1174–1180 (2014).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

J. He, M. Boegli, I. Bruzas, W. Lum, and L. Sagle, “Patterned plasmonic nanoparticle arrays for microfluidic and multiplexed biological assays,” Anal. Chem. 87(22), 11407–11414 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
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Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

G. A. López-Muñoz, M. C. Estevez, E. C. Peláez-Gutierrez, A. Homs-Corbera, M. C. García-Hernandez, J. I. Imbaud, and L. M. Lechuga, “A label-free nanostructured plasmonic biosensor based on Blu-ray discs with integrated microfluidics for sensitive biodetection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 96, 260–267 (2017).
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J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. (1)

M. Rippa, R. Castagna, V. Tkachenko, J. Zhou, and L. Petti, “Engineered nanopatterned substrates for high-sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance: an assay on biomacromolecules,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 5(27), 5473–5478 (2017).
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J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, J. Yang, R. E. Simpson, and T. Cao, “Wideband Absorbers in the Visible with Ultrathin Plasmonic-Phase Change Material Nanogratings,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(23), 12713–12722 (2016).
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Lab Chip (1)

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Highly reflective subtractive color filters capitalizing on a silicon metasurface integrated with nanostructured aluminum mirrors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600285 (2017).
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Nano Lett. (10)

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
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M. Miyata, H. Hatada, and J. Takahara, “Full-Color Subwavelength Printing with Gap-Plasmonic Optical Antennas,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3166–3172 (2016).
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S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
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T. D. James, P. Mulvaney, and A. Roberts, “The Plasmonic Pixel: Large Area, Wide Gamut Color Reproduction Using Aluminum Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3817–3823 (2016).
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M. L. Tseng, J. Yang, M. Semmlinger, C. Zhang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Two-Dimensional Active Tuning of an Aluminum Plasmonic Array for Full-Spectrum Response,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6034–6039 (2017).
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Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
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Y. Chen, X. Duan, M. Matuschek, Y. Zhou, F. Neubrech, H. Duan, and N. Liu, “Dynamic color displays using stepwise cavity resonators,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5555–5560 (2017).
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J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
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S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
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Y. Mao, Y. Pan, W. Zhang, R. Zhu, J. Xu, and W. Wu, “Multi-direction-tunable three-dimensional meta-atoms for reversible switching between midwave and long-wave infrared regimes,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7025–7029 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (2)

J. R. Fan, W. G. Wu, Z. J. Chen, J. Zhu, and J. Li, “Three-dimensional cavity nanoantennas with resonant-enhanced surface plasmons as dynamic color-tuning reflectors,” Nanoscale 9(10), 3416–3423 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gu, L. Zhang, J. K. Yang, S. P. Yeo, and C. W. Qiu, “Color generation via subwavelength plasmonic nanostructures,” Nanoscale 7(15), 6409–6419 (2015).
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Nat. Commun. (4)

X. Duan, S. Kamin, and N. Liu, “Dynamic plasmonic colour display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14606 (2017).
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D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7337 (2015).
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D. Franklin, R. Frank, S. T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Actively addressed single pixel full-colour plasmonic display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15209 (2017).
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Y. Shen, J. Zhou, T. Liu, Y. Tao, R. Jiang, M. Liu, G. Xiao, J. Zhu, Z. K. Zhou, X. Wang, C. Jin, and J. Wang, “Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2381 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (3)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
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X. Zhu, C. Vannahme, E. Højlund-Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Plasmonic colour laser printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 325–329 (2016).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
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Nat. Rev. Mater. (1)

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
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Nature (1)

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
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Opt. Express (1)

Sci. Rep. (3)

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2840 (2013).
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F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
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Science (2)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
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Small (2)

S. Seo, X. Zhou, and G. L. Liu, “Sensitivity tuning through additive heterogeneous plasmon coupling between 3D assembled plasmonic nanoparticle and nanocup arrays,” Small 12(25), 3453–3462 (2016).
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J. Walia, N. Dhindsa, M. Khorasaninejad, and S. S. Saini, “Color generation and refractive index sensing using diffraction from 2D silicon nanowire arrays,” Small 10(1), 144–151 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 3D air-gap nanocavities and their color generation schematic diagram. (a) Helium ion microscope (HIM) 45°tilt-angle image of 3D air-gap nanocavities. (b) Schematic diagram shows color generation by 3D air-gap nanocavities. Scale bars: 200 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of 3D air-gap nanocavities fabrication process. (a) Thermal oxidization SiO2 membrane. (b) CVD Si3N4 membrane. (c) Patterned electron beam photoresist. (d) Patterned Si3N4 masks. (e) wet etching nanocavities. (f) Magnetron sputtering aluminum.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Characterization of a single 3D air-gap aluminum-coated nanocavity by different characterization methods. (a) SEM top view image. (b) TEM cross section image. (c) EDS cross section image. The pink dots represent aluminum element, and the green dots represent silicon element. Scale bars: 100 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM top view images of 3D air-gap nanopin-cavities with the air-gap height of (a) 30 nm, (b) 50 nm, (c) 70 nm, (d) 90 nm. Scale bars: 100 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM top view images of 3D air-gap nanocavities with the arm number of (a) two, (b) four, (c) six, (d) eight. Scale bars: 300 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Characterization of the nanocavities’ height accuracy. (a) AFM image and (b) The corresponding altitude curve of the nanocavities. Scale bar: 200 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 AFM images of nanopin-cavities fabricated by (a,c) ultra dilute hydrofluoric acid and (b.d) buffered hydrofluoric acid. Panels (a,b) are top-view images and panels (c,d) are 3D images. Scale bars: 200 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Electromagnetic numerical simulations of 3D air-gap nanocavities. (a) Schematic cross-section diagram of a single 3D nanopin-cavity simulation model. (b) Simulated reflection spectrum of 3D nanopin-cavity reflector. (c) Simulated top view and cross-section view of electric-field intensity distribution at resonant wavelengths. (d) Simulated cross-section view of charge distribution at resonant wavelengths.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Bright-field optical micrographs and spectral analyses of arrays of 3D air-gap nanocavities with varying separations (S), diameters (D), and nanocavity height (H). (a) Red, green and blue PKU letters generated by S-variation (D = 220 nm, H = 50 nm, S = 120/150/240 nm) and D-variation (D = 250/280/370 nm, S = 90 nm, H = 50 nm) strategies respectively. (b) Reflective PKU logo image generated by 3D air-gap nanocavities (D = 310 nm, S = 90 nm, H = 50 nm). (c) Optical micrographs of colorful checkerboard with varying D and H (S is fixed in 150 nm). (d) Measured reflection spectra of the indicated color blocks in (c).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Precise color tuning by different shaped 3D air-gap nanocavities with 2, 4, 6, and 8 arms’ nanocaps (S = 60 nm, H = 50nm, arm length: l = 380 nm). (a)-(d): measured reflection spectra, (e)-(h): optical micrographs, (i)-(l): SEM images.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Refractive index sensing by 3D air-gap nanocavities. (a) The reflection spectra of the nanopin-cavities (D = 190 nm, S = 120 nm, H = 50 nm) immersed in glycerin solution with the volume fraction of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. (b) The linear fit curve on the dip position and the refractive index corresponding to (a). (c) A yellow PKU logo micrograph composed by nanocavities (D = 310, S = 90 nm, H = 90 nm). (d) The color of the PKU logo changed from yellow to purple when the surrounding medium changed from air to alcohol. Scale bars: 40μm.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 SEM top view image of 20 nm height 3D air-gap nanocavities. Scale bars: 100 nm.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 SEM top view images of larger 3D air-gap nanopin-cavities with the air-gap height of (a) 30 nm, (b) 50 nm, (c) 70nm, (d) 90nm. Scale bars: 100 nm.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 AFM top view images of nanocavities’ Si substrate surface after ultra dilute hydrofluoric acid etching. Scale bars: 100 nm.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 AFM top view images of nanopin-cavities fabricated by (a) ultra dilute hydrofluoric acid and (b) BHF. Scale bars: 20nm.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinate for the measured reflection spectra of 30 nm, 50 nm, 70 nm, and 90 nm height 3D nanocavities. The CIE illuminant D65 was used for the conversion to the chromaticity coordinate.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Reflective dark-field PKU logo image generated by 3D air-gap nanocavities (D = 310 nm, S = 90 nm, H = 50 nm). Scale bar: 40 μm.
Fig. 18
Fig. 18 Color changes of PKU logos with the diameters from 190 nm to 310 nm, and the nanocavity heights from 30 nm to 90 nm (while S is fixed in 90 nm) in (a) air and (b) alcohol. Scale bars: 40 μm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Comparison among different plasmonic sensors

Tables Icon

Table 2 The silicon dioxide wet etching speed by hydrofluoric acid with the volume fraction of 1:60

Equations (2)

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μ= 1 N i=1 N v i
σ= 1 N1 i=1 N ( v i μ ) 2

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