Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD), harnessing quantum physics and optoelectronics, may promise unconditionally secure information exchange in theory. Recently, theoretical and experimental advances in measurement-device-independent (MDI)-QKD have successfully closed the physical back door in detection terminals. However, the issues of scalability, stability, cost and loss prevent QKD systems from widespread application in practice. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a solution to build a star-topology quantum access network with an integrated server. By using femtosecond laser direct writing techniques, we construct integrated circuits for all the elements of Bell state analyzer together and are able to integrate 10 such analyzer structures on a single photonic chip. The measured high-visibility Bell state analysis suggests the integrated server as a promising platform for the practical application of MDI-QKD network.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (5)

G. Corrielli, S. Atzeni, S. Piacentini, I. Pitsios, A. Crespi, and R. Osellame, “Symmetric polarization-insensitive directional couplers fabricated by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 26, 15101–15109 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tang, X.-F. Lin, Z. Feng, J.-Y. Chen, J. Gao, K. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, P.-C. Lai, X.-Y. Xu, Y. Wang, L.-F. Qiao, A.-L. Yang, and X.-M. Jin, “Experimental two-dimensional quantum walk on a photonic chip,” Sci. Adv. 4, 3174 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. C. Humphreys, N. Kalb, J. P. J. Morits, R. N. Schouten, R. F. L. Vermeulen, D. J. Twitchen, M. Markham, and R. Hanson, “Deterministic delivery of remote entanglement on a quantum network,” Nature 558, 268–273 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Choe, H. Ko, B. Choi, K. Kim, and C. J. Youn, “Silica planar lightwave circuit based integrated 1 × 4 polarization beam splitter module for free-space bb84 quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Bunandar, A. Lentine, C. Lee, H. Cai, C. M. Long, N. Boynton, N. Martinez, C. DeRose, C. Chen, M. Grein, D. Trotter, A. Starbuck, A. Pomerene, S. Hamilton, F. N. C. Wong, R. Camacho, P. Davids, J. Urayama, and D. Englund, “Metropolitan quantum key distribution with silicon photonics,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021009 (2018).

2017 (8)

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13984 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Bacco, Y. Ding, K. Dalgaard, K. Rottwitt, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Space division multiplexing chip-to-chip quantum key distribution,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12459 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Maring, P. Farrera, K. Kutluer, M. Mazzera, G. Heinze, and H. de Riedmatten, “Photonic quantum state transfer between a cold atomic gas and a crystal,” Nature 551, 485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Valivarthi, Q. Zhou, C. John, F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, M. D. Shaw, S. W. Nam, D. Oblak, and W. Tittel, “A cost-effective measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system for quantum networks,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 2, 04LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Ji, J. Gao, A.-L. Yang, Z. Feng, X.-F. Lin, Z.-G. Li, and X.-M. Jin, “Towards quantum communications in free-space seawater,” Opt. Express 25, 19795–19806 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-G. Ren, P. Xu, H.-L. Yong, L. Zhang, S.-K. Liao, J. Yin, W.-Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, M. Yang, L. Li, K.-X. Yang, X. Han, Y.-Q. Yao, J. Li, H.-Y. Wu, S. Wan, L. Liu, D.-Q. Liu, Y.-W. Kuang, Z.-P. He, P. Shang, C. Guo, R.-H. Zheng, K. Tian, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation,” Nature 549, 70 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pitsios, F. Samara, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, and R. Osellame, “Geometrically-controlled polarisation processing in femtosecond-laser-written photonic circuits,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11342 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

J. Gao, L.-F. Qiao, X.-F. Lin, Z.-Q. Jiao, Z. Feng, Z. Zhou, Z.-W. Gao, X.-Y. Xu, Y. Chen, H. Tang, and X.-M. Jin, “Non-classical photon correlation in a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Opt. Express 24, 12607–12616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ma, W. D. Sacher, Z. Tang, J. C. Mikkelsen, Y. Yang, F. Xu, T. Thiessen, H.-K. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Silicon photonic transmitter for polarization-encoded quantum key distribution,” Optica 3, 1274–1278 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Autebert, J. Trapateau, A. Orieux, A. Lemaître, C. Gomez-Carbonell, E. Diamanti, I. Zaquine, and S. Ducci, “Multi-user quantum key distribution with entangled photons from an algaas chip,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 1, 01LT02 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Pirandola and S. L. Braunstein, “Physics: Unite to build a quantum internet,” Nature 532, 169 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 011024 (2016).

2015 (2)

F. Xu, “Measurement-device-independent quantum communication with an untrusted source,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 012333 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron 21, 131–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 190503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, S.-J. Chen, Y. Liu, W.-J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L.-X. You, J.-Y. Guan, D.-X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T.-Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 560, 7–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Quantum teleportation on a photonic chip,” Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, K. Aungskunsiri, E. Martín-López, J. Wabnig, M. Lobino, R. W. Nock, J. Munns, D. Bonneau, P. Jiang, H. W. Li, A. Laing, J. G. Rarity, A. O. Niskanen, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Reference-frame-independent quantum-key-distribution server with a telecom tether for an on-chip client,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “A quantum access network,” Nature 501, 69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ferreira da Silva, D. Vitoreti, G. B. Xavier, G. C. do Amaral, G. P. Temporão, and J. P. von der Weid, “Proof-of-principle demonstration of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution using polarization qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 052303 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. F. da Silva, D. Vitoreti, G. B. Xavier, G. P. Temporão, and J. P. von der Weid, “Long-distance bell-state analysis of fully independent polarization weak coherent states,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 2881–2887 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Braunstein and S. Pirandola, “Side-channel-free quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tanzilli, A. Martin, F. Kaiser, M. P. De Micheli, O. Alibart, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “On the genesis and evolution of integrated quantum optics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 115–143 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. S. Marques, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of birefringent directional couplers as polarization beam splitters in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19, 11992–11999 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

X.-M. Jin, J.-G. Ren, B. Yang, Z.-H. Yi, F. Zhou, X.-F. Xu, S.-K. Wang, D. Yang, Y.-F. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Yang, H. Yin, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space quantum teleportation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 376 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C.-W. Chou, J. Laurat, H. Deng, K. S. Choi, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, and H. J. Kimble, “Functional quantum nodes for entanglement distribution over scalable quantum networks,” Science 316, 1316 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Elliott, “Building the quantum network,” New J. Phys. 4, 46 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. Calsamiglia and N. Lütkenhaus, “Maximum efficiency of a linear-optical bell-state analyzer,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 67–71 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1987 (1)

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2046 (1987).
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Cai, H.

D. Bunandar, A. Lentine, C. Lee, H. Cai, C. M. Long, N. Boynton, N. Martinez, C. DeRose, C. Chen, M. Grein, D. Trotter, A. Starbuck, A. Pomerene, S. Hamilton, F. N. C. Wong, R. Camacho, P. Davids, J. Urayama, and D. Englund, “Metropolitan quantum key distribution with silicon photonics,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021009 (2018).

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D. Bunandar, A. Lentine, C. Lee, H. Cai, C. M. Long, N. Boynton, N. Martinez, C. DeRose, C. Chen, M. Grein, D. Trotter, A. Starbuck, A. Pomerene, S. Hamilton, F. N. C. Wong, R. Camacho, P. Davids, J. Urayama, and D. Englund, “Metropolitan quantum key distribution with silicon photonics,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021009 (2018).

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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
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D. Bunandar, A. Lentine, C. Lee, H. Cai, C. M. Long, N. Boynton, N. Martinez, C. DeRose, C. Chen, M. Grein, D. Trotter, A. Starbuck, A. Pomerene, S. Hamilton, F. N. C. Wong, R. Camacho, P. Davids, J. Urayama, and D. Englund, “Metropolitan quantum key distribution with silicon photonics,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021009 (2018).

Chen, J.-Y.

H. Tang, X.-F. Lin, Z. Feng, J.-Y. Chen, J. Gao, K. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, P.-C. Lai, X.-Y. Xu, Y. Wang, L.-F. Qiao, A.-L. Yang, and X.-M. Jin, “Experimental two-dimensional quantum walk on a photonic chip,” Sci. Adv. 4, 3174 (2018).
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Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 011024 (2016).

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, S.-J. Chen, Y. Liu, W.-J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L.-X. You, J.-Y. Guan, D.-X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T.-Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 190501 (2014).
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Chen, T.-Y.

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 011024 (2016).

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Chen, X.-W.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
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Chen, Y.

Chen, Y.-A.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
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J.-G. Ren, P. Xu, H.-L. Yong, L. Zhang, S.-K. Liao, J. Yin, W.-Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, M. Yang, L. Li, K.-X. Yang, X. Han, Y.-Q. Yao, J. Li, H.-Y. Wu, S. Wan, L. Liu, D.-Q. Liu, Y.-W. Kuang, Z.-P. He, P. Shang, C. Guo, R.-H. Zheng, K. Tian, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation,” Nature 549, 70 (2017).
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Choi, B.

J. Choe, H. Ko, B. Choi, K. Kim, and C. J. Youn, “Silica planar lightwave circuit based integrated 1 × 4 polarization beam splitter module for free-space bb84 quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–8 (2018).
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Choi, K. S.

C.-W. Chou, J. Laurat, H. Deng, K. S. Choi, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, and H. J. Kimble, “Functional quantum nodes for entanglement distribution over scalable quantum networks,” Science 316, 1316 (2007).
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Chou, C.-W.

C.-W. Chou, J. Laurat, H. Deng, K. S. Choi, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, and H. J. Kimble, “Functional quantum nodes for entanglement distribution over scalable quantum networks,” Science 316, 1316 (2007).
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G. Corrielli, S. Atzeni, S. Piacentini, I. Pitsios, A. Crespi, and R. Osellame, “Symmetric polarization-insensitive directional couplers fabricated by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 26, 15101–15109 (2018).
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G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron 21, 131–137 (2015).
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G. Mélen, T. Vogl, M. Rau, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Integrated quantum key distribution sender unit for daily-life implementations,” in Advances in Photonics of Quantum Computing, Memory, and Communication IX, vol. 9762 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 97620A.
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Crespi, A.

G. Corrielli, S. Atzeni, S. Piacentini, I. Pitsios, A. Crespi, and R. Osellame, “Symmetric polarization-insensitive directional couplers fabricated by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 26, 15101–15109 (2018).
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I. Pitsios, F. Samara, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, and R. Osellame, “Geometrically-controlled polarisation processing in femtosecond-laser-written photonic circuits,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11342 (2017).
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G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron 21, 131–137 (2015).
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A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
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L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
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G. Mélen, T. Vogl, M. Rau, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Integrated quantum key distribution sender unit for daily-life implementations,” in Advances in Photonics of Quantum Computing, Memory, and Communication IX, vol. 9762 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 97620A.
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H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
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T. F. da Silva, D. Vitoreti, G. B. Xavier, G. P. Temporão, and J. P. von der Weid, “Long-distance bell-state analysis of fully independent polarization weak coherent states,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 2881–2887 (2013).
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Dalgaard, K.

D. Bacco, Y. Ding, K. Dalgaard, K. Rottwitt, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Space division multiplexing chip-to-chip quantum key distribution,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12459 (2017).
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Davids, P.

D. Bunandar, A. Lentine, C. Lee, H. Cai, C. M. Long, N. Boynton, N. Martinez, C. DeRose, C. Chen, M. Grein, D. Trotter, A. Starbuck, A. Pomerene, S. Hamilton, F. N. C. Wong, R. Camacho, P. Davids, J. Urayama, and D. Englund, “Metropolitan quantum key distribution with silicon photonics,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021009 (2018).

Davis, K. M.

De Micheli, M. P.

S. Tanzilli, A. Martin, F. Kaiser, M. P. De Micheli, O. Alibart, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “On the genesis and evolution of integrated quantum optics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 115–143 (2012).
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de Riedmatten, H.

N. Maring, P. Farrera, K. Kutluer, M. Mazzera, G. Heinze, and H. de Riedmatten, “Photonic quantum state transfer between a cold atomic gas and a crystal,” Nature 551, 485 (2017).
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C.-W. Chou, J. Laurat, H. Deng, K. S. Choi, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, and H. J. Kimble, “Functional quantum nodes for entanglement distribution over scalable quantum networks,” Science 316, 1316 (2007).
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Deng, H.

C.-W. Chou, J. Laurat, H. Deng, K. S. Choi, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, and H. J. Kimble, “Functional quantum nodes for entanglement distribution over scalable quantum networks,” Science 316, 1316 (2007).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeRose, C.

D. Bunandar, A. Lentine, C. Lee, H. Cai, C. M. Long, N. Boynton, N. Martinez, C. DeRose, C. Chen, M. Grein, D. Trotter, A. Starbuck, A. Pomerene, S. Hamilton, F. N. C. Wong, R. Camacho, P. Davids, J. Urayama, and D. Englund, “Metropolitan quantum key distribution with silicon photonics,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021009 (2018).

Diamanti, E.

C. Autebert, J. Trapateau, A. Orieux, A. Lemaître, C. Gomez-Carbonell, E. Diamanti, I. Zaquine, and S. Ducci, “Multi-user quantum key distribution with entangled photons from an algaas chip,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 1, 01LT02 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

D. Bacco, Y. Ding, K. Dalgaard, K. Rottwitt, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Space division multiplexing chip-to-chip quantum key distribution,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12459 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Ferreira da Silva, D. Vitoreti, G. B. Xavier, G. C. do Amaral, G. P. Temporão, and J. P. von der Weid, “Proof-of-principle demonstration of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution using polarization qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 052303 (2013).
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Ducci, S.

C. Autebert, J. Trapateau, A. Orieux, A. Lemaître, C. Gomez-Carbonell, E. Diamanti, I. Zaquine, and S. Ducci, “Multi-user quantum key distribution with entangled photons from an algaas chip,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 1, 01LT02 (2016).
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B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “A quantum access network,” Nature 501, 69 (2013).
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C. Elliott, “Building the quantum network,” New J. Phys. 4, 46 (2002).
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Englund, D.

D. Bunandar, A. Lentine, C. Lee, H. Cai, C. M. Long, N. Boynton, N. Martinez, C. DeRose, C. Chen, M. Grein, D. Trotter, A. Starbuck, A. Pomerene, S. Hamilton, F. N. C. Wong, R. Camacho, P. Davids, J. Urayama, and D. Englund, “Metropolitan quantum key distribution with silicon photonics,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021009 (2018).

Erven, C.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13984 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farrera, P.

N. Maring, P. Farrera, K. Kutluer, M. Mazzera, G. Heinze, and H. de Riedmatten, “Photonic quantum state transfer between a cold atomic gas and a crystal,” Nature 551, 485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Felinto, D.

C.-W. Chou, J. Laurat, H. Deng, K. S. Choi, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, and H. J. Kimble, “Functional quantum nodes for entanglement distribution over scalable quantum networks,” Science 316, 1316 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Z.

Fernandes, L. A.

Ferreira da Silva, T.

T. Ferreira da Silva, D. Vitoreti, G. B. Xavier, G. C. do Amaral, G. P. Temporão, and J. P. von der Weid, “Proof-of-principle demonstration of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution using polarization qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 052303 (2013).
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B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “A quantum access network,” Nature 501, 69 (2013).
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Fuchs, L.

G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron 21, 131–137 (2015).
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P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13984 (2017).
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Gao, J.

Gao, Z.-W.

Gates, J. C.

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Quantum teleportation on a photonic chip,” Nat. Photonics 8, 770 (2014).
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Godfrey, M.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13984 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomez-Carbonell, C.

C. Autebert, J. Trapateau, A. Orieux, A. Lemaître, C. Gomez-Carbonell, E. Diamanti, I. Zaquine, and S. Ducci, “Multi-user quantum key distribution with entangled photons from an algaas chip,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 1, 01LT02 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grein, M.

D. Bunandar, A. Lentine, C. Lee, H. Cai, C. M. Long, N. Boynton, N. Martinez, C. DeRose, C. Chen, M. Grein, D. Trotter, A. Starbuck, A. Pomerene, S. Hamilton, F. N. C. Wong, R. Camacho, P. Davids, J. Urayama, and D. Englund, “Metropolitan quantum key distribution with silicon photonics,” Phys. Rev. X 8, 021009 (2018).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of integrated server for MDI-QKD a. Overview of MDI-QKD protocol. Two clients (Alice and Bob) encode their photons in BB84 bases by polarization modulator (Pol-M) and send them to an untrusted relay Charlie to conduct Bell state analysis. Intensity modulators (IM) are used to generate decoy states. The Bell state analyzer is composed of one 50/50 beam splitter (BS) and a polarization beam splitter(PBS) on each of its output ports for projection. b. Fully connected star-topology network requiring N channels. c. Fully connected mesh-topology network requiring C N 2 = N ( N 1 ) / 2 channels. d. Integrated server for proof-of-principle test. Two single photons from Alice and Bob are employed to qualify on-chip Bell state analyzer. Signals from off-chip avalanche photodiode detectors (APD) are processed by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Design of integrated elements of on-chip Bell state analyzer. a. Top view geometry of integrated analyzer consisting of one polarization insensitive coupler (PIC) and two identical polarization directional couplers (PDC). r: radius of fabrication circular arc. CL: coupling length. CW: coupling width. b. Contour map of index simulation of PIC with designed two crossings. c. Power distribution in waveguides with a Gaussian beam injected from In1. d. Measured transmission of couplers by scanning coupling lengths when coupling width is fixed at 8μm, for horizontal-(red square) and vertical-(blue circle) polarization input light. Solid lines are the best-fitting curves according to coupling mode theory. Dashed line marks the right coupling length for realizing a PDC.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Characterized polarization performance of on-chip Bell state analyzer. a. Measured polarization projection with a probe laser at 780 nm. b. Measured polarization projection with a probe laser at 786 nm. c. and d. Measured projection coincidence counts per 100 seconds with heralded single photon at 780 nm injected from In1 and In2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental results of Bell state analysis with integrated server. a. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference for all the coincidence counts. An average visibility over 90% is reached. b.-e. Relative conditional probability distribution with different input states in rectilinear and diagonal bases. b. and d. show the theoretical distributions, and c. and e. show the experimental coincidence distributions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 50/50 PIC performance. Output splitting ratios under different input conditions.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Transmission = P cross P cross + P bar
Reflection = P bar P cross + P bar
Q i , j r = 1 4 ( C Sum HH + C Sum VV + C Sum HV + C Sum VH )
Q i , j d = 1 4 ( C Sum + + + C Sum + C Sum + + C Sum + )
C Sum AB = C 12 AB + C 34 AB + C 13 AB + C 24 AB
E i , j r = C Sum HH + C Sum VV C Sum HH + C Sum VV + C Sum HV + C Sum VH
E i , j d = C 13 + + + C 24 + + + C 13 + C 24 C Sum + + + C Sum + C Sum + + C Sum + + C 12 + + C 34 + + C 12 + + C 34 + C Sum + + + C Sum + C Sum + + C Sum +

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