Abstract

We theoretically report a novel graphene-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide (GHPW) by integrating a GaAs micro-tube on a silica spacer that is supported by a graphene-coated substrate. In comprehensive numerical simulations on guiding properties of the GHPW, it was found that the size of hybrid plasmonic mode (TM) can be reduced significantly to ~10−4(λ2/4), in conjunction with long propagation distances up to tens of micrometers by tuning the the waveguide’s key structure parameters and graphene’s chemical potential. Moreover, crosstalk between two adjacent GHPWs that are placed on the same substrate has been analyzed and ultralow crosstalk can be realized. The proposed scheme potentially enables realization of the various high performance nanophotonic components-based subwavelength plasmonic waveguides in terahertz domain.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

X. He, T. Ning, S. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Li, R. Li, and L. Pei, “Ultralow loss graphene-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide with deep-subwavelength confinement,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10109–10118 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, D. Svintsov, V. Leiman, P. P. Maltsev, D. S. Ponomarev, V. Mitin, M. S. Shur, and T. Otsuji, “Real-space-transfer mechanism of negative differential conductivity in gated graphene-phosphorene hybrid structures: Phenomenological heating model,” J. Appl. Phys. 124(11), 114501 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2015 (3)

A. F. Koenderink, A. Alù, and A. Polman, “Nanophotonics: shrinking light-based technology,” Science 348(6234), 516–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bian and Q. Gong, “Metallic-nanowire-loaded silicon-on-insulator structures: a route to low-loss plasmon waveguiding on the nanoscale,” Nanoscale 7(10), 4415–4422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Li, X. Lin, S. S. Lin, X. Liu, and H. S. Chen, “Tunable deep-subwavelength superscattering using graphene monolayers,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1651–1654 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

X. Zhou, T. Zhang, L. Chen, W. Hong, and X. Li, “A Graphene-Based Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide With Ultra-Deep Subwavelength Confinement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(21), 3597–3601 (2014).

Y. Bian and Q. Gong, “Deep-subwavelength light confinement and transport in hybrid dielectric-loaded metal wedges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 549–561 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

F. Xia, H. Yan, and P. Avouris, “The Interaction of Light and Graphene: Basics, Devices, and Applications,” Proc. IEEE 101(7), 1717–1731 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Han and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Radiation guiding with surface plasmon polaritons,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(1), 016402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Y. Wang, Y. Ma, X. Guo, and L. Tong, “Single-mode plasmonic waveguiding properties of metal nanowires with dielectric substrates,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19006–19015 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. How Gan, “Analysis of surface plasmon excitation at terahertz frequencies with highly doped graphene sheets via attenuated total reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111609 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(14), 145302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5855–5863 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. H. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

D. Chen, “Cylindrical hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement of light,” Appl. Opt. 49(36), 6868–6871 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai and S. He, “Low-loss hybrid plasmonic waveguide with double low-index nano-slots,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17958–17966 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Guha, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Minimizing temperature sensitivity of silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1879–1887 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

Y. Bian, Z. Zheng, X. Zhao, J. Zhu, and T. Zhou, “Symmetric hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguides for 3D photonic integration,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21320–21325 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 086809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Farmer, H. Y. Chiu, Y. M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Utilization of a Buffered Dielectric to Achieve High Field-Effect Carrier Mobility in Graphene Transistors,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4474–4478 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz Laser with Optically Pumped Graphene Layers and Fabri–Perot Resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092301 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, A. Satou, T. Otsuji, A. A. Dubinov, and V. Y. Aleshkin, “Feasibility of terahertz lasing in optically pumped epitaxial multiple graphene layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 084507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Screening-induced temperature-dependent transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(16), 165404 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

J.-H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Adam, M. Fuhrer, E. Williams, and M. Ishigami, “Charged-impurity scattering in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 377–381 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-Variable Optical Transitions in Graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Boltasseva, V. S. Volkov, R. B. Nielsen, E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5252–5260 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Modes of Subwavelength Plasmonic Slot Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(9), 2511–2521 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 303–305 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. A. Falkovsky and A. A. Varlamov, “Space-time dispersion of graphene conductivity,” Eur. Phys. J. B 56(4), 281–284 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, and S. He, “Comparative study of the integration density for passive linear planar light-wave circuits based on three different kinds of nanophotonic waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1126–1131 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Hwang, S. Adam, and S. D. Sarma, “Carrier transport in two-dimensional graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 186806 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Vasko and V. Ryzhii, “Voltage and temperature dependencies of conductivity in gated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 76(23), 233404 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

T. Ando, “Screening effect and impurity scattering in monolayer graphene,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 75(7), 074716 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061106 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, C. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, “Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(18), 187403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam, S.

J.-H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Adam, M. Fuhrer, E. Williams, and M. Ishigami, “Charged-impurity scattering in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 377–381 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. H. Hwang, S. Adam, and S. D. Sarma, “Carrier transport in two-dimensional graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 186806 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aleshkin, V. Y.

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, A. Satou, T. Otsuji, A. A. Dubinov, and V. Y. Aleshkin, “Feasibility of terahertz lasing in optically pumped epitaxial multiple graphene layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 084507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aleshkin, V. Ya.

A. A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(14), 145302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz Laser with Optically Pumped Graphene Layers and Fabri–Perot Resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

A. F. Koenderink, A. Alù, and A. Polman, “Nanophotonics: shrinking light-based technology,” Science 348(6234), 516–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5855–5863 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ando, T.

T. Ando, “Screening effect and impurity scattering in monolayer graphene,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 75(7), 074716 (2006).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

X. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

F. Xia, H. Yan, and P. Avouris, “The Interaction of Light and Graphene: Basics, Devices, and Applications,” Proc. IEEE 101(7), 1717–1731 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. B. Farmer, H. Y. Chiu, Y. M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Utilization of a Buffered Dielectric to Achieve High Field-Effect Carrier Mobility in Graphene Transistors,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4474–4478 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bian, Y.

Y. Bian and Q. Gong, “Metallic-nanowire-loaded silicon-on-insulator structures: a route to low-loss plasmon waveguiding on the nanoscale,” Nanoscale 7(10), 4415–4422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bian and Q. Gong, “Deep-subwavelength light confinement and transport in hybrid dielectric-loaded metal wedges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 549–561 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Bian, Z. Zheng, X. Zhao, J. Zhu, and T. Zhou, “Symmetric hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguides for 3D photonic integration,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21320–21325 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Z. Han and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Radiation guiding with surface plasmon polaritons,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(1), 016402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Boltasseva, V. S. Volkov, R. B. Nielsen, E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5252–5260 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breusing, M.

M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 086809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brus, L. E.

Y. J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, D. E.

F. H. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

Chen, H. S.

Chen, J.-H.

J.-H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Adam, M. Fuhrer, E. Williams, and M. Ishigami, “Charged-impurity scattering in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 377–381 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, P. Y.

P. Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5855–5863 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. D.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chiu, H. Y.

D. B. Farmer, H. Y. Chiu, Y. M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Utilization of a Buffered Dielectric to Achieve High Field-Effect Carrier Mobility in Graphene Transistors,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4474–4478 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-Variable Optical Transitions in Graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, J. M.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

Das Sarma, S.

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Screening-induced temperature-dependent transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(16), 165404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, C. H.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Drezet, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dubinov, A. A.

A. A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, V. Mitin, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz surface plasmons in optically pumped graphene structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(14), 145302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, A. Satou, T. Otsuji, A. A. Dubinov, and V. Y. Aleshkin, “Feasibility of terahertz lasing in optically pumped epitaxial multiple graphene layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 084507 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, M. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, and V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz Laser with Optically Pumped Graphene Layers and Fabri–Perot Resonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 086809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

X. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Falkovsky, L. A.

L. A. Falkovsky and A. A. Varlamov, “Space-time dispersion of graphene conductivity,” Eur. Phys. J. B 56(4), 281–284 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

Farmer, D. B.

D. B. Farmer, H. Y. Chiu, Y. M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Utilization of a Buffered Dielectric to Achieve High Field-Effect Carrier Mobility in Graphene Transistors,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4474–4478 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frischkorn, C.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, C. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, “Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(18), 187403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuhrer, M.

J.-H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Adam, M. Fuhrer, E. Williams, and M. Ishigami, “Charged-impurity scattering in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 377–381 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fukui, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gan, X.

X. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

X. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

García de Abajo, F. J.

F. H. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Girit, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-Variable Optical Transitions in Graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gondarenko, A.

Gong, Q.

Y. Bian and Q. Gong, “Metallic-nanowire-loaded silicon-on-insulator structures: a route to low-loss plasmon waveguiding on the nanoscale,” Nanoscale 7(10), 4415–4422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bian and Q. Gong, “Deep-subwavelength light confinement and transport in hybrid dielectric-loaded metal wedges,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 549–561 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guha, B.

Guo, G. C.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Han, Z.

Z. Han and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Radiation guiding with surface plasmon polaritons,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(1), 016402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, Z. F.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Haraguchi, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S.

He, X.

Heinz, T. F.

X. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hofer, F.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holmgaard, T.

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hone, J.

X. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, W.

How Gan, C.

C. How Gan, “Analysis of surface plasmon excitation at terahertz frequencies with highly doped graphene sheets via attenuated total reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111609 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, E. H.

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Screening-induced temperature-dependent transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(16), 165404 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. H. Hwang, S. Adam, and S. D. Sarma, “Carrier transport in two-dimensional graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 186806 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishigami, M.

J.-H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Adam, M. Fuhrer, E. Williams, and M. Ishigami, “Charged-impurity scattering in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 377–381 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jang, C.

J.-H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Adam, M. Fuhrer, E. Williams, and M. Ishigami, “Charged-impurity scattering in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 377–381 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jenkins, K. A.

D. B. Farmer, H. Y. Chiu, Y. M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Utilization of a Buffered Dielectric to Achieve High Field-Effect Carrier Mobility in Graphene Transistors,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4474–4478 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kampfrath, T.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, C. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, “Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(18), 187403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

Y. J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

Y. J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L.

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 303–305 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kirchain, R.

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 303–305 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koenderink, A. F.

A. F. Koenderink, A. Alù, and A. Polman, “Nanophotonics: shrinking light-based technology,” Science 348(6234), 516–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koppens, F. H.

F. H. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
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E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Energy flux density distributions of the fundamental hybrid mode for different ratio of inner diameter to outer diameter of the hollow tube.
» Visualization 2       Energy flux density distributions of the fundamental hybrid mode for different gap distance g.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) 3D geometry and (b) 2D cross section of the proposed hybrid plasmonic terahertz waveguide made of a rectangle SiO2 waveguide material (thickness g, width w0) between an micro-tube GaAs waveguide (outer diameter d, inner diameter di) and substrate with coated graphene sheets (thickness t). The excitation frequency is 3THz.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Energy flux density distributions of the fundamental hybrid mode for differentγ [see Visualization 1]: (a) γ=0, (b) γ=0.2, (c) γ=0.4, (d) γ=0.8; (f) One-dimensional plots of energy flux density distributions along y-axis, where the curves with different colors correspond to differentγ. The other parameters are d = w0 = 30μm, g = 3μm, and μc = 0.5eV.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Energy flux density distributions of the fundamental hybrid mode for different gap distance [see Visualization 2]: (a) g = 5μm; (b) g = 3μm; (c) g = 1μm, (d) g = 0.5μm; (e) One-dimensional plot of energy flux density distributions along y-axis, where the curves with different colors correspond to different g. The other parameters are d = w0 = 30μm, γ=0.2and μc = 0.5eV.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The left column (d = 30μm): the dependence of (a) the real part of the effective refractive index Re(neff), (b) normal modal area Am and (c) propagation length Lp of the fundamental hybrid mode on the ratio between the inner and outer diameter of the micro-tube. The right column (g = 0.5μm): the dependence of (e) the real part of the effective refractive index Re(neff), (f) normal modal area Am and (g) propagation length Lp of the fundamental hybrid mode on the ratio between the inner and outer diameter of the micro-tube. The other parameters are μc = 0.5eV and d = w0.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The left column(d = 30μm): Dependence of (a) the real part of the effective refractive index Re(neff), (b) normal modal area Am and (c) propagation length Lp of the fundamental hybrid mode on the width of gap w0; The right column (g = 0.5μm): Dependence of (a) the real part of the effective refractive index Re(neff), (b) normal modal area Am and (c) propagation length Lp of the fundamental hybrid mode on the on the width of gap w0. The other parameters are μc = 0.5eV and γ=0.6.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The left column: Dependence of (a) the real part of the effective refractive index Re(neff), (b) normal modal area Am and (c) propagation length Lp of the fundamental hybrid mode on the chemical potential of graphene μc; The right column: dependence of (d) the real part of the effective refractive index Re(neff), (e) normal modal area Am and (f) propagation length Lp of the fundamental hybrid mode on the chemical potential of graphene μc. The other parameters are γ=0.6anw0 = 30μm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Cross section of two GHPWs placed on a same substrate with separation of S; Electromagnetic field distribution of (b) symmetric hybrid mode and (c) anti-symmetric hybrid mode under the parameters μc = 0.5eV, d = w0 = 30μm, γ=0.6and g = 1μm ; Dependence of the normal coupler length (Lc/Lp) on the center to center distance of the two GHPWs placed on the same substrate for different gap distance when (d) γ=0, (e) γ=0.2, (f) γ=0.4, (g) γ=0.6. The other parameters are μc = 0.5eV, d = w0 = 30μm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Dependence of the normal coupler length (Lc/Lp) on the center to center distance of the two GHPWs placed on the same substrate for different gap distance when (a) μc = 0.3eV, (b) μc = 0.4eV, (c) μc = 0.5eV, (b) μc = 0.6eV, (e) μc = 0.7eV, (f) μc = 0.8eV. The other parameters are γ=0.6, d = w0 = 30μm.

Equations (5)

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ε g =1+ i σ g η 0 k 0 Δ ,
σ g = i e 2 k B T π 2 ( ω+i τ 1 ) [ μ c k B T +2ln( exp( μ c k B T )+1 ) ]+ i e 2 4π ln( 2| μ c |( ω+i τ 1 ) 2| μ c |+( ω+i τ 1 ) ),
A eff = W(r) d 2 r max(W(r)) ,
W(r)= 1 2 Re{ d[ωε(r)] dω } | E(r) | 2 + 1 2 μ 0 | H(r) | 2 .
L c = λ 2( n e n o ) .

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