Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a modulation format identification (MFI) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring method for digital coherent receivers by using the specific features of received signals’ density distributions in Stokes axes combined with deep neural networks (DNNs). The features of received signals’ density distribution fitting curves in S1 and S2 axes depend on the signal’s modulation format and OSNR. The proposed technique extracts the features of these fitting curves’ first-order derivation for MFI and OSNR monitoring, in order to improve the probability of format correct identification and OSNR estimation accuracy. Experimental results for 28Gbaud/s polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), PDM 8 quadrature amplitude modulation (PDM-8QAM), PDM-16QAM, and 21.5Gbaud/s PDM-32QAM signals demonstrate OSNR monitoring over back-to-back transmission with mean estimation standard errors (SEs) of 0.21dB, 0.48dB, 0.35dB and 0.44dB, respectively. The MFI results over back-to-back transmission show that 100% identification accuracy of all these four modulation formats are achieved at the OSNR values lower or equal to their respective 7% forward error correction (FEC) thresholds. Similarly, 100% identification accuracy also is obtained for PDM-QPSK, PDM-8QAM, PDM-16QAM, and PDM-32QAM after 2000km, 2000km, 1040km, and 400km standard single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission within practical optical power ranges launched to the fiber, respectively.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

2017 (8)

D. Wang, M. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, M. Fu, Y. Cui, and X. Chen, “Modulation format recognition and OSNR estimation using CNN-based deep learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1667–1670 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Thrane, J. Wass, M. Piels, J. C. M. Diniz, R. Jones, and D. Zibar, “Machine learning techniques for optical performance monitoring from directly detected PDM-QAM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 868–875 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, R. Proietti, K. Zhang, H. Lu, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Blind modulation format identification using nonlinear power transformation,” Opt. Express 25(25), 30895–30904 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, J. Liu, X. Wu, K. Zhong, and X. Mai, “Subtraction-clustering-based modulation format identification in Stokes space,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(17), 1439–1442 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Xiang, Q. Zhuge, M. Qiu, X. Zhou, M. Tang, D. Liu, S. Fu, and D. V. Plant, “RF-pilot aided modulation format identification for hitless coherent transceiver,” Opt. Express 25(1), 463–471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Mai, J. Liu, X. Wu, Q. Zhang, C. Guo, Y. Yang, and Z. Li, “Stokes space modulation format classification based on non-iterative clustering algorithm for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2038–2050 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bo, J. Tang, and C. Chan, “Modulation format recognition for optical signals using connected component analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(1), 11–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, X. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Joint OSNR monitoring and modulation format identification in digital coherent receivers using deep neural networks,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17767–17776 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Khan, K. Zhong, W. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “OSNR monitoring for QPSK and 16-QAM systems in presence of fiber nonlinearities for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19520–19534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. R. Shen, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “OSNR monitoring for PM-QPSK systems with large inline chromatic dispersion using artificial neural network technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1564 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhu, A. V. Tran, S. Chen, L. B. Du, C. C. Do, T. Anderson, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, “Statistical moments-based OSNR monitoring for coherent optical systems,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17711–17721 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Al-Arashi, W.

F. Khan, K. Zhong, W. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

Al-Arashi, W. H.

Almaiman, A.

Anderson, T.

Arlunno, V.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ben Yoo, S. J.

Bilal, S. M.

Bo, T.

L. Jiang, L. Yan, A. Yi, Y. Pan, T. Bo, M. Hao, W. Pan, and B. Luo, “Blind density-peak-based modulation format identification for elastic optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(14), 2850–2858 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Bo, J. Tang, and C. Chan, “Modulation format recognition for optical signals using connected component analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(1), 11–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boada, R.

Borkowski, R.

R. Boada, R. Borkowski, and I. T. Monroy, “Clustering algorithms for Stokes space modulation format recognition,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15521–15531 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bosco, G.

Caballero, A.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, C.

T. Bo, J. Tang, and C. Chan, “Modulation format recognition for optical signals using connected component analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(1), 11–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. C.

Chen, P.

P. Chen, J. Liu, X. Wu, K. Zhong, and X. Mai, “Subtraction-clustering-based modulation format identification in Stokes space,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(17), 1439–1442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, M. Fu, Y. Cui, and X. Chen, “Modulation format recognition and OSNR estimation using CNN-based deep learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1667–1670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chitgarha, M. R.

Cui, Y.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, M. Fu, Y. Cui, and X. Chen, “Modulation format recognition and OSNR estimation using CNN-based deep learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1667–1670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Daab, W.

Diniz, J. C. M.

Do, C.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Do, C. C.

Dong, Z.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Du, L. B.

Faruk, M. S.

M. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, and K. Kikuchi, “In-band estimation of optical signal-to-noise ratio from equalized signals in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fu, M.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, M. Fu, Y. Cui, and X. Chen, “Modulation format recognition and OSNR estimation using CNN-based deep learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1667–1670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

Guo, C.

Hao, M.

He, Z.

Hewitt, D.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z.

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ionescu, M.

Jiang, H.

Jiang, L.

Jones, R.

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khaleghi, S.

Khan, F.

F. Khan, K. Zhong, W. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khan, F. N.

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, X. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Joint OSNR monitoring and modulation format identification in digital coherent receivers using deep neural networks,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17767–17776 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, K.

M. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, and K. Kikuchi, “In-band estimation of optical signal-to-noise ratio from equalized signals in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koenig, S.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lau, A. P. T.

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, X. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Joint OSNR monitoring and modulation format identification in digital coherent receivers using deep neural networks,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17767–17776 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Khan, K. Zhong, W. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Bilal, G. Bosco, Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Blind modulation format identification for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26769–26778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Dong, K. Zhong, X. Zhou, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, Y. Lu, and L. Li, “Modulation-format-independent OSNR monitoring insensitive to cascaded filtering effects by low-cost coherent receptions and RF power measurements,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15971–15982 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “OSNR monitoring for QPSK and 16-QAM systems in presence of fiber nonlinearities for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19520–19534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. R. Shen, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “OSNR monitoring for PM-QPSK systems with large inline chromatic dispersion using artificial neural network technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1564 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, M. Fu, Y. Cui, and X. Chen, “Modulation format recognition and OSNR estimation using CNN-based deep learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1667–1670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

X. Mai, J. Liu, X. Wu, Q. Zhang, C. Guo, Y. Yang, and Z. Li, “Stokes space modulation format classification based on non-iterative clustering algorithm for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2038–2050 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, M. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, M. Fu, Y. Cui, and X. Chen, “Modulation format recognition and OSNR estimation using CNN-based deep learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1667–1670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

Liu, G.

Liu, J.

X. Mai, J. Liu, X. Wu, Q. Zhang, C. Guo, Y. Yang, and Z. Li, “Stokes space modulation format classification based on non-iterative clustering algorithm for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2038–2050 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, J. Liu, X. Wu, K. Zhong, and X. Mai, “Subtraction-clustering-based modulation format identification in Stokes space,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(17), 1439–1442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lowery, A. J.

Lu, C.

Lu, H.

Lu, J.

Lu, Y.

Luo, B.

Mai, X.

X. Mai, J. Liu, X. Wu, Q. Zhang, C. Guo, Y. Yang, and Z. Li, “Stokes space modulation format classification based on non-iterative clustering algorithm for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2038–2050 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, J. Liu, X. Wu, K. Zhong, and X. Mai, “Subtraction-clustering-based modulation format identification in Stokes space,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(17), 1439–1442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mohajerin-Ariaei, A.

Monroy, I. T.

R. Boada, R. Borkowski, and I. T. Monroy, “Clustering algorithms for Stokes space modulation format recognition,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15521–15531 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mori, Y.

M. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, and K. Kikuchi, “In-band estimation of optical signal-to-noise ratio from equalized signals in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pan, W.

Pan, Y.

Piels, M.

Plant, D. V.

Proietti, R.

Qiu, M.

Rogawski, D.

Sato, M.

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, T. S. R.

T. S. R. Shen, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “OSNR monitoring for PM-QPSK systems with large inline chromatic dispersion using artificial neural network technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1564 (2012).
[Crossref]

Skafidas, E.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhu, A. V. Tran, S. Chen, L. B. Du, C. C. Do, T. Anderson, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, “Statistical moments-based OSNR monitoring for coherent optical systems,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17711–17721 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sui, Q.

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. S. R. Shen, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “OSNR monitoring for PM-QPSK systems with large inline chromatic dispersion using artificial neural network technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1564 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

T. Bo, J. Tang, and C. Chan, “Modulation format recognition for optical signals using connected component analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(1), 11–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tang, M.

Thomsen, B.

Thrane, J.

Touch, J. D.

Tran, A. V.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhu, A. V. Tran, S. Chen, L. B. Du, C. C. Do, T. Anderson, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, “Statistical moments-based OSNR monitoring for coherent optical systems,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17711–17721 (2012).
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Tur, M.

Vusirikala, V.

Wang, D.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, M. Fu, Y. Cui, and X. Chen, “Modulation format recognition and OSNR estimation using CNN-based deep learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1667–1670 (2017).
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Wass, J.

Willner, A. E.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Wu, X.

X. Mai, J. Liu, X. Wu, Q. Zhang, C. Guo, Y. Yang, and Z. Li, “Stokes space modulation format classification based on non-iterative clustering algorithm for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2038–2050 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, J. Liu, X. Wu, K. Zhong, and X. Mai, “Subtraction-clustering-based modulation format identification in Stokes space,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(17), 1439–1442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xiang, M.

Xu, Z.

Yan, L.

Yang, Y.

Yi, A.

Yu, C.

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, X. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Joint OSNR monitoring and modulation format identification in digital coherent receivers using deep neural networks,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17767–17776 (2017).
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F. Khan, K. Zhong, W. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, K.

Zhang, M.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, M. Fu, Y. Cui, and X. Chen, “Modulation format recognition and OSNR estimation using CNN-based deep learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1667–1670 (2017).
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Zhang, N.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, W.

Zhong, K.

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, X. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Joint OSNR monitoring and modulation format identification in digital coherent receivers using deep neural networks,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17767–17776 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, J. Liu, X. Wu, K. Zhong, and X. Mai, “Subtraction-clustering-based modulation format identification in Stokes space,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(17), 1439–1442 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Khan, K. Zhong, W. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Dong, K. Zhong, X. Zhou, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, Y. Lu, and L. Li, “Modulation-format-independent OSNR monitoring insensitive to cascaded filtering effects by low-cost coherent receptions and RF power measurements,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15971–15982 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

Zhu, C.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhu, A. V. Tran, S. Chen, L. B. Du, C. C. Do, T. Anderson, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, “Statistical moments-based OSNR monitoring for coherent optical systems,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17711–17721 (2012).
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Zhu, D.

Zhuge, Q.

Zibar, D.

J. Thrane, J. Wass, M. Piels, J. C. M. Diniz, R. Jones, and D. Zibar, “Machine learning techniques for optical performance monitoring from directly detected PDM-QAM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 868–875 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ziyadi, M.

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

M. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, and K. Kikuchi, “In-band estimation of optical signal-to-noise ratio from equalized signals in digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (7)

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Bo, J. Tang, and C. Chan, “Modulation format recognition for optical signals using connected component analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(1), 11–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. S. R. Shen, Q. Sui, and A. P. T. Lau, “OSNR monitoring for PM-QPSK systems with large inline chromatic dispersion using artificial neural network technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1564 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, J. Liu, X. Wu, K. Zhong, and X. Mai, “Subtraction-clustering-based modulation format identification in Stokes space,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(17), 1439–1442 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Khan, K. Zhong, W. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Modulation format identification in coherent receivers using deep machine learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1886–1889 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, M. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, M. Fu, Y. Cui, and X. Chen, “Modulation format recognition and OSNR estimation using CNN-based deep learning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1667–1670 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

Z. Dong, F. N. Khan, Q. Sui, K. Zhong, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Optical performance monitoring: a review of current and future technologies,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(2), 525–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (12)

R. Boada, R. Borkowski, and I. T. Monroy, “Clustering algorithms for Stokes space modulation format recognition,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15521–15531 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Xiang, Q. Zhuge, M. Qiu, X. Zhou, M. Tang, D. Liu, S. Fu, and D. V. Plant, “RF-pilot aided modulation format identification for hitless coherent transceiver,” Opt. Express 25(1), 463–471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fu, Z. Xu, J. Lu, H. Jiang, Q. Wu, Z. Hu, M. Tang, D. Liu, and C. C. Chan, “Modulation format identification enabled by the digital frequency-offset loading technique for hitless coherent transceiver,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7288–7296 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, R. Proietti, K. Zhang, H. Lu, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Blind modulation format identification using nonlinear power transformation,” Opt. Express 25(25), 30895–30904 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. He, N. Zhang, X. Zhang, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Identifying modulation formats through 2D Stokes planes with deep neural networks,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23507–23517 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. N. Khan, K. Zhong, X. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Joint OSNR monitoring and modulation format identification in digital coherent receivers using deep neural networks,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17767–17776 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Dong, K. Zhong, X. Zhou, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, Y. Lu, and L. Li, “Modulation-format-independent OSNR monitoring insensitive to cascaded filtering effects by low-cost coherent receptions and RF power measurements,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15971–15982 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, A. V. Tran, S. Chen, L. B. Du, C. C. Do, T. Anderson, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, “Statistical moments-based OSNR monitoring for coherent optical systems,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17711–17721 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Mai, J. Liu, X. Wu, Q. Zhang, C. Guo, Y. Yang, and Z. Li, “Stokes space modulation format classification based on non-iterative clustering algorithm for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2038–2050 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “OSNR monitoring for QPSK and 16-QAM systems in presence of fiber nonlinearities for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19520–19534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ionescu, M. Sato, and B. Thomsen, “Cyclostationarity-based joint monitoring of symbol-rate, frequency offset, CD and OSNR for Nyquist WDM superchannels,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25762–25772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Bilal, G. Bosco, Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Blind modulation format identification for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26769–26778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

S. Oda, Y. Aoki, M. Sekiya, Y. Akasaka, K. Sone, Jeng-Yuan Yang, and J. C. Rasmussen, “In-band OSNR monitor using an optical bandpass filter and optical power measurements for superchannel signals,” in Proc. European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’2013), paper P.3.12.
[Crossref]

L. Lundberg, H. Sunnerud, and P. Johannisson, “In-band OSNR monitoring of PM-QPSK using the Stokes parameters,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’2015), paper W4D. 5.
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, M. Tang, X. Chen, Z. Feng, Q. Wu, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Fractal dimension aided modulation formats identification based on support vector machines,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’2017), paper 1–3.
[Crossref]

N. G. Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in Proc. European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’2010), paper P6.11.
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T. Bo, J. Tang, and C. Chan, “Blind modulation format recognition for software-defined optical networks using image processing techniques,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’2016), paper Th2A.31.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) DSP configuration in the receiver with the proposed MFI and OSNR monitoring; (b) The first-order derivation of the density distributions fitting curves ( s 1 ' and s 2 ' ) for (i) various formats and (ii) PDM-QPSK with different OSNRs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The DNNs structures for MFI and OSNR monitoring with some key network parameters.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for the proposed MFI and OSNR monitoring. ECL: external cavity laser, AWG: arbitrary waveform generator, PBS: polarization beam splitter, PBC: polarization beam coupler, ASE: Amplified spontaneous emission noise source EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier, VOA: variable optical attenuator, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer, SMF: single mode fiber, OBPF: optical bandpass filter, LO: local oscillator, B-t-B: back-to-back.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 MFI identification accuracies versus OSNRs for PDM-QPSK, PDM-8QAM, PDM-16QAM and PDM-32QAM. The dot lines (same color with the corresponding data curves) represent OSNR thresholds corresponding to FEC correcting BER of 3.8 × 10−3 of the corresponding modulation formats.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Actual OSNRs versus estimated OSNRs (left) and estimated SEs (right) for (a) PDM-QPSK, (b) PDM-8QAM, (c) PDM-16QAM and (d) PDM-32QAM.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 MFI identification accuracies versus launching optical power for PDM-QPSK over 2000km SMF transmission, PDM-8QAM over 2000km SMF transmission, PDM-16QAM over 1040km SMF transmission and PDM-32QAM over 400km SMF transmission, respectively.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ s 1 , s 2 , s 3 ]=[ | X | 2 | Y | 2 ,2Re{ X Y * },2Im{ X Y * } ]
SE= 1 n i=1 n [ OSN R Est (i)OSN R Act (i) ] 2

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