Abstract

We developed a mobile ozone differential absorption lidar system to simultaneously measure the vertical profiles of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from an altitude of ~5 to 50 km. The system emits four laser beams at wavelength of 289 nm, 299 nm, 308 nm and 355 nm and receives their corresponding Mie/Rayleigh backscattering return signals, and two N2 Raman return signals at 332 nm and 387 nm shifted from 308 nm and 355 nm, respectively. An assembled telescope array with four 1.25-m telescopes (effective diameter > 2 m) collects the Rayleigh and Raman backscattering signals at 308/332 and 355/387 nm. This system is currently deployed at the Yangbajing Observatory in Tibet (~4300 m elevation) and has begun observations in regular campaign mode since October 2017. The lidar results agree very well with those observed by the Aura/MLS satellite. This novel ozone lidar system operates at the highest elevation of any such system in the world. The higher elevation and larger receiver aperture of this system yield a higher signal-to-noise ratio and lower statistical uncertainty.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2014 (3)

J. T. Sullivan, T. J. McGee, G. K. Sumnicht, L. W. Twigg, and R. M. Hoff, “A mobile differential absorption lidar to measure sub-hourly fluctuation of tropospheric ozone profiles in the Baltimore-Washington, DC region,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(10), 3529–3548 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. De Young, W. Carrion, and D. Pliutau, “A compact mobile ozone Lidar for atmospheric ozone and aerosol profiling,” Proc. SPIE 9246, 1–8 (2014).

A. Serdyuchenko, V. Gorshelev, M. Weber, W. Chehade, and J. P. Burrows, “High spectral resolution ozone absorption cross-sections – Part 2: temperature dependence,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 625–636 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. L. Baray, Y. Courcoux, P. Keckhut, T. Portafaix, P. Tulet, J. P. Cammas, A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin Beekmann, M. De Mazière, C. Hermans, F. Desmet, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Ramonet, J. Sciare, C. Vuillemin, C. Hoareau, D. Dionisi, V. Duflot, H. Vérèmes, J. Porteneuve, F. Gabarrot, T. Gaudo, J.-M. Metzger, G. Payen, J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Barthe, F. Posny, P. Ricaud, A. Abchiche, and R. Delmas, “a new high-altitude station facility at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) for long-term atmospheric remote sensing and in situ measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2865–2877 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Hassler, P. J. Young, R. W. Portmann, G. E. Bodeker, J. S. Daniel, K. H. Rosenlof, and S. Solomon, “Comparison of three vertically resolved ozone data sets: climatology, trends and radiative forcings,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(11), 5533–5550 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2006 (2)

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44(5), 1093–1101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Tzortzakis, G. Tsaknakis, A. Papayannis, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Investigation of the spatial profile of stimulated Raman scattering beams in D-2 and H-2 gases using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser at 266 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 71–75 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

G. Hansen, K. Bramstedt, V. Rozanov, M. Weber, and J. P. Burrows, “Validation of GOME ozone profiles by means of the ALOMAR ozone lidar,” Annales Geophysicae 21(8), 1879–1886 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Immler, “A new algorithm for simultaneous ozone and aerosol retrieval from tropospheric DIAL measurements,” Appl. Phys., B Photophys. Laser Chem. 76(5), 593–596 (2003).

M. Naja, S. Lal, and D. Chand, “Diurnal and seasonal variabilities in surface ozone at a high altitude site Mt Abu (24.6°N, 72.7°E, 1680 m asl) in India,” Atmos. Environ. 37(30), 4205–4215 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Porteneuve, and A. Garnier, “Systematic DIAL lidar monitoring of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (43.92 ° N, 5.71 ° E),” J. Environ. Monit. 5(1), 57–67 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. Leblanc and I. S. McDermid, “Stratospheric ozone climatology from lidar measurements at Table Mountain (34.4°N, 117.7°W) and Mauna Loa (19.5°N, 155.6°W),” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 105(D11), 14613–14623 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. Paul, F. Fortuin, and H. Kelder, “An ozone climatology based on ozonesonde and satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D24), 31709–31734 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66(1), 105–113 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1993 (2)

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, and U. Singh, “Raman Dial Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone in the Presence of Volcanic Aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20(10), 955–958 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. P. Donovan, J. A. Whiteway, and A. I. Carswell, “Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 32(33), 6742–6753 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, and M. L. White, “Differential Absorption Lidar Systems for Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone Measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30(1), 22–30 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

D. A. Haner and I. S. McDermid, “Stimulated Raman shifting of the Nd:YAG fourth harmonic (266 nm) in H2, HD, and D2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 1292–1298 (1990).
[Crossref]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, and L. O. Lindqvist, “Ground-based laser DIAL system for long-term measurements of stratospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 29(25), 3603–3612 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, and G. Mégie, “DIAL Tropospheric Ozone Measurement Using a Nd:YAG Laser and the Raman Shifting Technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6(5), 832–839 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. Steinbrecht, K. W. Rothe, and H. Walther, “Lidar setup for daytime and nighttime probing of stratospheric ozone and measurements in polar and equatorial regions,” Appl. Opt. 28(17), 3616–3624 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Krueger, “The Global Distribution of Total Ozone - Toms Satellite Measurements,” Planet. Space Sci. 37(12), 1555–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. Mcpeters, P. A. Newman, and J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus-7 Satellite Measurements of the Springtime Antarctic Ozone Decrease,” Nature 322(6082), 808–811 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Pelon, S. Godin, and G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30-50 Km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical-Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 91(D8), 8667–8671 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, and M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a Xecl Lidar,” Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans and Atmospheres,  88(Nc9): 5273–5280 (1983).

1977 (1)

G. Mégie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, and J. E. Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from Ground,” Nature 270(5635), 329–331 (1977).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

W. D. Komhyr, “Electrochemical concentration cells for gas analysis,” Ann. Geophys. 25, 203–210 (1969).

1926 (1)

G. M. B. Dobson and D. N. Harrison, “Measurement of the amount of ozone in the earth’s atmosphere,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 38, 74–76 (1926).

Abchiche, A.

J. L. Baray, Y. Courcoux, P. Keckhut, T. Portafaix, P. Tulet, J. P. Cammas, A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin Beekmann, M. De Mazière, C. Hermans, F. Desmet, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Ramonet, J. Sciare, C. Vuillemin, C. Hoareau, D. Dionisi, V. Duflot, H. Vérèmes, J. Porteneuve, F. Gabarrot, T. Gaudo, J.-M. Metzger, G. Payen, J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Barthe, F. Posny, P. Ricaud, A. Abchiche, and R. Delmas, “a new high-altitude station facility at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) for long-term atmospheric remote sensing and in situ measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2865–2877 (2013).
[Crossref]

Allain, J. Y.

G. Mégie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, and J. E. Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from Ground,” Nature 270(5635), 329–331 (1977).
[Crossref]

Alpert, J. C.

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. Mcpeters, P. A. Newman, and J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus-7 Satellite Measurements of the Springtime Antarctic Ozone Decrease,” Nature 322(6082), 808–811 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ancellet, G.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66(1), 105–113 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, and G. Mégie, “DIAL Tropospheric Ozone Measurement Using a Nd:YAG Laser and the Raman Shifting Technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6(5), 832–839 (1989).
[Crossref]

G. J. Megie, G. Ancellet, and J. Pelon, “Lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24(21), 3454–3463 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apituley, A.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66(1), 105–113 (1998).
[Crossref]

Baray, J. L.

J. L. Baray, Y. Courcoux, P. Keckhut, T. Portafaix, P. Tulet, J. P. Cammas, A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin Beekmann, M. De Mazière, C. Hermans, F. Desmet, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Ramonet, J. Sciare, C. Vuillemin, C. Hoareau, D. Dionisi, V. Duflot, H. Vérèmes, J. Porteneuve, F. Gabarrot, T. Gaudo, J.-M. Metzger, G. Payen, J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Barthe, F. Posny, P. Ricaud, A. Abchiche, and R. Delmas, “a new high-altitude station facility at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) for long-term atmospheric remote sensing and in situ measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2865–2877 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barthe, C.

J. L. Baray, Y. Courcoux, P. Keckhut, T. Portafaix, P. Tulet, J. P. Cammas, A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin Beekmann, M. De Mazière, C. Hermans, F. Desmet, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Ramonet, J. Sciare, C. Vuillemin, C. Hoareau, D. Dionisi, V. Duflot, H. Vérèmes, J. Porteneuve, F. Gabarrot, T. Gaudo, J.-M. Metzger, G. Payen, J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Barthe, F. Posny, P. Ricaud, A. Abchiche, and R. Delmas, “a new high-altitude station facility at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) for long-term atmospheric remote sensing and in situ measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2865–2877 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blamont, J. E.

G. Mégie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, and J. E. Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from Ground,” Nature 270(5635), 329–331 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bodeker, G. E.

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J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
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J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
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Quintero, O.

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
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J. L. Baray, Y. Courcoux, P. Keckhut, T. Portafaix, P. Tulet, J. P. Cammas, A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin Beekmann, M. De Mazière, C. Hermans, F. Desmet, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Ramonet, J. Sciare, C. Vuillemin, C. Hoareau, D. Dionisi, V. Duflot, H. Vérèmes, J. Porteneuve, F. Gabarrot, T. Gaudo, J.-M. Metzger, G. Payen, J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Barthe, F. Posny, P. Ricaud, A. Abchiche, and R. Delmas, “a new high-altitude station facility at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) for long-term atmospheric remote sensing and in situ measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2865–2877 (2013).
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J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
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Ricaud, P.

J. L. Baray, Y. Courcoux, P. Keckhut, T. Portafaix, P. Tulet, J. P. Cammas, A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin Beekmann, M. De Mazière, C. Hermans, F. Desmet, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Ramonet, J. Sciare, C. Vuillemin, C. Hoareau, D. Dionisi, V. Duflot, H. Vérèmes, J. Porteneuve, F. Gabarrot, T. Gaudo, J.-M. Metzger, G. Payen, J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Barthe, F. Posny, P. Ricaud, A. Abchiche, and R. Delmas, “a new high-altitude station facility at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) for long-term atmospheric remote sensing and in situ measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2865–2877 (2013).
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B. Hassler, P. J. Young, R. W. Portmann, G. E. Bodeker, J. S. Daniel, K. H. Rosenlof, and S. Solomon, “Comparison of three vertically resolved ozone data sets: climatology, trends and radiative forcings,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(11), 5533–5550 (2013).
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Rozanov, V.

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Saari, H.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44(5), 1093–1101 (2006).
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Santee, M. L.

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
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Scaff, D. M.

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
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M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66(1), 105–113 (1998).
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J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
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Singh, U.

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Stammes, P.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44(5), 1093–1101 (2006).
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M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66(1), 105–113 (1998).
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Stek, P. C.

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
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R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. Mcpeters, P. A. Newman, and J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus-7 Satellite Measurements of the Springtime Antarctic Ozone Decrease,” Nature 322(6082), 808–811 (1986).
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Sullivan, J. T.

J. T. Sullivan, T. J. McGee, G. K. Sumnicht, L. W. Twigg, and R. M. Hoff, “A mobile differential absorption lidar to measure sub-hourly fluctuation of tropospheric ozone profiles in the Baltimore-Washington, DC region,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(10), 3529–3548 (2014).
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Sumnicht, G. K.

J. T. Sullivan, T. J. McGee, G. K. Sumnicht, L. W. Twigg, and R. M. Hoff, “A mobile differential absorption lidar to measure sub-hourly fluctuation of tropospheric ozone profiles in the Baltimore-Washington, DC region,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(10), 3529–3548 (2014).
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Sunesson, A.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66(1), 105–113 (1998).
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Svanberg, S.

E. Wallinder, H. Edner, P. Ragnarson, and S. Svanberg, “Vertically sounding ozone lidar system based on a KrF excimer laser,” Phys. Scr. 55(6), 714–718 (1997).
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Thurstans, R. P.

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
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Tope, M. C.

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
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Trickl, T.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66(1), 105–113 (1998).
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Tsaknakis, G.

S. Tzortzakis, G. Tsaknakis, A. Papayannis, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Investigation of the spatial profile of stimulated Raman scattering beams in D-2 and H-2 gases using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser at 266 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 71–75 (2004).
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Tulet, P.

J. L. Baray, Y. Courcoux, P. Keckhut, T. Portafaix, P. Tulet, J. P. Cammas, A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin Beekmann, M. De Mazière, C. Hermans, F. Desmet, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Ramonet, J. Sciare, C. Vuillemin, C. Hoareau, D. Dionisi, V. Duflot, H. Vérèmes, J. Porteneuve, F. Gabarrot, T. Gaudo, J.-M. Metzger, G. Payen, J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Barthe, F. Posny, P. Ricaud, A. Abchiche, and R. Delmas, “a new high-altitude station facility at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) for long-term atmospheric remote sensing and in situ measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2865–2877 (2013).
[Crossref]

Twigg, L. W.

J. T. Sullivan, T. J. McGee, G. K. Sumnicht, L. W. Twigg, and R. M. Hoff, “A mobile differential absorption lidar to measure sub-hourly fluctuation of tropospheric ozone profiles in the Baltimore-Washington, DC region,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(10), 3529–3548 (2014).
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S. Tzortzakis, G. Tsaknakis, A. Papayannis, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Investigation of the spatial profile of stimulated Raman scattering beams in D-2 and H-2 gases using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser at 266 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 71–75 (2004).
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van den Bergh, H.

Van den Oord, G. H. J.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44(5), 1093–1101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Van Snyder, W.

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vérèmes, H.

J. L. Baray, Y. Courcoux, P. Keckhut, T. Portafaix, P. Tulet, J. P. Cammas, A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin Beekmann, M. De Mazière, C. Hermans, F. Desmet, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Ramonet, J. Sciare, C. Vuillemin, C. Hoareau, D. Dionisi, V. Duflot, H. Vérèmes, J. Porteneuve, F. Gabarrot, T. Gaudo, J.-M. Metzger, G. Payen, J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Barthe, F. Posny, P. Ricaud, A. Abchiche, and R. Delmas, “a new high-altitude station facility at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) for long-term atmospheric remote sensing and in situ measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2865–2877 (2013).
[Crossref]

Visser, H.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44(5), 1093–1101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vuillemin, C.

J. L. Baray, Y. Courcoux, P. Keckhut, T. Portafaix, P. Tulet, J. P. Cammas, A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin Beekmann, M. De Mazière, C. Hermans, F. Desmet, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Ramonet, J. Sciare, C. Vuillemin, C. Hoareau, D. Dionisi, V. Duflot, H. Vérèmes, J. Porteneuve, F. Gabarrot, T. Gaudo, J.-M. Metzger, G. Payen, J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Barthe, F. Posny, P. Ricaud, A. Abchiche, and R. Delmas, “a new high-altitude station facility at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) for long-term atmospheric remote sensing and in situ measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(10), 2865–2877 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wagner, P. A.

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
[Crossref]

Walch, M. J.

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wallinder, E.

E. Wallinder, H. Edner, P. Ragnarson, and S. Svanberg, “Vertically sounding ozone lidar system based on a KrF excimer laser,” Phys. Scr. 55(6), 714–718 (1997).
[Crossref]

Walsh, T. D.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, and M. L. White, “Differential Absorption Lidar Systems for Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone Measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30(1), 22–30 (1991).
[Crossref]

Walther, H.

Waters, J. W.

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weber, M.

A. Serdyuchenko, V. Gorshelev, M. Weber, W. Chehade, and J. P. Burrows, “High spectral resolution ozone absorption cross-sections – Part 2: temperature dependence,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 625–636 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Hansen, K. Bramstedt, V. Rozanov, M. Weber, and J. P. Burrows, “Validation of GOME ozone profiles by means of the ALOMAR ozone lidar,” Annales Geophysicae 21(8), 1879–1886 (2003).
[Crossref]

Weitkamp, C.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66(1), 105–113 (1998).
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White, M. L.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, and M. L. White, “Differential Absorption Lidar Systems for Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone Measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30(1), 22–30 (1991).
[Crossref]

Whiteway, J. A.

Wu, D. L.

J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, R. S. Harwood, R. F. Jarnot, H. M. Pickett, W. G. Read, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Cofield, M. J. Filipiak, D. A. Flower, J. R. Holden, G. K. K. Lau, N. J. Livesey, G. L. Manney, H. C. Pumphrey, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, D. T. Cuddy, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, V. S. Perun, M. J. Schwartz, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, M. A. Boyles, K. M. Chandra, M. C. Chavez, G. S. Chen, B. V. Chudasama, R. Dodge, R. A. Fuller, M. A. Girard, J. H. Jiang, Y. B. Jiang, B. W. Knosp, R. C. LaBelle, J. C. Lam, K. A. Lee, D. Miller, J. E. Oswald, N. C. Patel, D. M. Pukala, O. Quintero, D. M. Scaff, W. Van Snyder, M. C. Tope, P. A. Wagner, and M. J. Walch, “The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura satellite,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 44, 1075–1092 (2006).
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Yamamura, H.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, and M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a Xecl Lidar,” Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans and Atmospheres,  88(Nc9): 5273–5280 (1983).

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B. Hassler, P. J. Young, R. W. Portmann, G. E. Bodeker, J. S. Daniel, K. H. Rosenlof, and S. Solomon, “Comparison of three vertically resolved ozone data sets: climatology, trends and radiative forcings,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(11), 5533–5550 (2013).
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A. Serdyuchenko, V. Gorshelev, M. Weber, W. Chehade, and J. P. Burrows, “High spectral resolution ozone absorption cross-sections – Part 2: temperature dependence,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 625–636 (2014).
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T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, and U. Singh, “Raman Dial Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone in the Presence of Volcanic Aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20(10), 955–958 (1993).
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IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. Van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44(5), 1093–1101 (2006).
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G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, and G. Mégie, “DIAL Tropospheric Ozone Measurement Using a Nd:YAG Laser and the Raman Shifting Technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6(5), 832–839 (1989).
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E. Wallinder, H. Edner, P. Ragnarson, and S. Svanberg, “Vertically sounding ozone lidar system based on a KrF excimer laser,” Phys. Scr. 55(6), 714–718 (1997).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of mobile ozone lidar system
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Layout of the assembled telescope array.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Layout of the subsequent optical units followed telescopes, (b) specific designed chopper, (c) optical setup for 308/332 channel.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Timing diagram of the ozone lidar.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Layout of Ozone lidar system (a) and its photo (b) in Tibet.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Integrated raw signals of ozone lidar in 30 minutes of (a)289L,299L,289H,299H, and (b)308, 355, 332, 387, 308-2,355-2, and their signal to noise ratios (c) and (d).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Observation result of ozone lidar on Dec., 24, 2017 in Yangbajing, Tibet (a) ozone number density and (b) its relative error.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Ozone number density comparison between ozone lidar and Aura/MLS (left), and relative difference (right) in three different days.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main parameters of the mobile ozone lidar

Metrics