Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the use of a large-scale silicon-photonic optical phased array (OPA) chip as a compact, low-cost, and potentially high-speed light illuminating device for ghost imaging (GI) applications. By driving 128 phase shifters of a newly developed silicon OPA chip using rapidly changing random electrical signals, we successfully retrieve a slit pattern with over 90 resolvable points in one dimension. We then demonstrate 2D imaging capability by sweeping the wavelength. With the potential of integrating high-speed phase modulators, tunable lasers, grating couplers, and CMOS driver circuit on the same silicon platform, this work paves the way towards realizing ultrahigh-speed and low-cost single-chip GI devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
High frame-rate computational ghost imaging system using an optical fiber phased array and a low-pixel APD array

Chunbo Liu, Jingqiu Chen, Jiaxin Liu, and Xiang’e Han
Opt. Express 26(8) 10048-10064 (2018)

2D broadband beamsteering with large-scale MEMS optical phased array

Youmin Wang, Guangya Zhou, Xiaosheng Zhang, Kyungmok Kwon, Pierre-A. Blanche, Nicholas Triesault, Kyoung-sik Yu, and Ming C. Wu
Optica 6(5) 557-562 (2019)

Coherent solid-state LIDAR with silicon photonic optical phased arrays

Christopher V. Poulton, Ami Yaacobi, David B. Cole, Matthew J. Byrd, Manan Raval, Diedrik Vermeulen, and Michael R. Watts
Opt. Lett. 42(20) 4091-4094 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 061802 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053840 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Fast full-color computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23068–23074 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1(5), 285–289 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. A. Howland, P. B. Dixon, and J. C. Howell, “Photon-counting compressive sensing laser radar for 3D imaging,” Appl. Opt. 50(31), 5917–5920 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. Kirmani, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, and V. K. Goyal, “Exploiting sparsity in time-of-flight range acquisition using a single time-resolved sensor,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21485–21507 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. B. Lochocki, A. Gambín, S. Manzanera, E. Irles, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, and P. Artal, “Single pixel camera ophthalmoscope,” Optica 3(10), 1056–1059 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of single-pixel imaging using digital microscanning,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10476–10485 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Z. H. Xu, W. Chen, J. Penuelas, M. Padgett, and M. J. Sun, “1000 fps computational ghost imaging using LED-based structured illumination,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2427–2434 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. K. Van Acoleyen, H. Rogier, and R. Baets, “Two-dimensional optical phased array antenna on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13655–13660 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. F. Aflatouni, B. Abiri, A. Rekhi, and A. Hajimiri, “Nanophotonic projection system,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21012–21022 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. N. Hutchison, J. Sun, J. K. Doylend, R. Kumar, J. Heck, W. Kim, C. T. Phare, A. Feshali, and H. Rong, “High-resolution aliasing-free optical beam steering,” Optica 3(8), 887–890 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Fully integrated hybrid silicon two dimensional beam scanner,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5861–5874 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. K. Komatsu, Y. Ozeki, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Ghost imaging using integrated optical phased array,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3H.4.
    [Crossref]
  18. P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. H. Xu, W. Chen, J. Penuelas, M. Padgett, and M. J. Sun, “1000 fps computational ghost imaging using LED-based structured illumination,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2427–2434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053840 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 061802 (2008).
[Crossref]

Abiri, B.

Aflatouni, F.

Artal, P.

Baets, R.

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

Bowman, R.

Bromberg, Y.

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053840 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, M.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Chen, Y. K.

Colaço, A.

Coldren, L. A.

Davenport, M. L.

Dixon, P. B.

Dong, P.

Doylend, J. K.

Edgar, M. P.

Feshali, A.

Fujiu, K.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gambín, A.

Gibson, G. M.

Gong, W.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goyal, V. K.

Hajimiri, A.

Han, S.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, K.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heck, J.

Heck, M. J. R.

Horisaki, R.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howell, J. C.

Howland, G. A.

Hulme, J. C.

Hutchison, D. N.

Irles, E.

Jonathan, P.

Kamesawa, R.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katz, O.

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053840 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, Y.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, W.

Kirmani, A.

Kumar, R.

Lancis, J.

Lochocki, B.

Manzanera, S.

Mitchell, K. J.

Noji, H.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ota, S.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

Penuelas, J.

Peters, J. D.

Phare, C. T.

Phillips, D. B.

Radwell, N.

Rekhi, A.

Rogier, H.

Rong, H.

Sato, I.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Setoyama, K.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, J. H.

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 061802 (2008).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053840 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, B.

Sun, J.

D. N. Hutchison, J. Sun, J. K. Doylend, R. Kumar, J. Heck, W. Kim, C. T. Phare, A. Feshali, and H. Rong, “High-resolution aliasing-free optical beam steering,” Optica 3(8), 887–890 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, M. J.

Tajahuerce, E.

Timurdogan, E.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ugawa, M.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Acoleyen, K.

Waki, K.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watts, M. R.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welsh, S. S.

Wong, F. N. C.

Xu, W.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. H.

Yaacobi, A.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Nature (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

F. Aflatouni, B. Abiri, A. Rekhi, and A. Hajimiri, “Nanophotonic projection system,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21012–21022 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of single-pixel imaging using digital microscanning,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10476–10485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. H. Xu, W. Chen, J. Penuelas, M. Padgett, and M. J. Sun, “1000 fps computational ghost imaging using LED-based structured illumination,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2427–2434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Van Acoleyen, H. Rogier, and R. Baets, “Two-dimensional optical phased array antenna on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13655–13660 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Fully integrated hybrid silicon two dimensional beam scanner,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5861–5874 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kirmani, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, and V. K. Goyal, “Exploiting sparsity in time-of-flight range acquisition using a single time-resolved sensor,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21485–21507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Fast full-color computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23068–23074 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optica (3)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 061802 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053840 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. Ota, R. Horisaki, Y. Kawamura, M. Ugawa, I. Sato, K. Hashimoto, R. Kamesawa, K. Setoyama, S. Yamaguchi, K. Fujiu, K. Waki, and H. Noji, “Ghost cytometry,” Science 360(6394), 1246–1251 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

K. Komatsu, Y. Ozeki, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Ghost imaging using integrated optical phased array,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3H.4.
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of GI system using an integrated OPA chip. Inset shows details of the OPA chip, having only 8 waveguides for the sake of clarity. The actual fabricated device has 128 waveguides (M = 128). The off-chip diffraction grating could be integrated on the OPA chip in future to realize single-chip 2D GI module.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fabricated OPA chip with 128 phase shifters. Top photographs of (a) the entire chip, (b) 1 × 2 MMI splitter, and (c) TO phase shifter array. (d) Measured optical transmission through a test Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a heater attached in one arm. Optical phase shift of 2π is obtained at a heater driving power of 37 mW.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Top view and (b) side view of the experimental setup. The object is placed at the Fourier plane and the transmitted light is detected by a single-pixel avalanche PD. The FFP is monitored by the infrared InGaAs camera. Random electrical signals are applied to 128 phase shifters to generate rapidly changing speckle illumination patterns. f1 = f6 = 1.8 mm, f2 = 30 mm, f3 = 200 mm, f4 = 150 mm, f5 = 175 mm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Observed intensity patterns at the object plane when the 128 phase shifters are (a) fine-tuned for beam steering, and (b) driven randomly to generate speckle patterns.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reconstructed 1D images of the slit pattern with increasing N by using (a) the iterative method [Eq. (1)] and (b) the inverse method [Eq. (2)]. For each method, PSNR of the reconstructed images is plotted as a function of N on the top row.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) PSNR of the reconstructed 2D images with increasing N, and (b) actual reconstructed images for N = 10, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500. The wavelength is scanned from 1498.8 nm to 1517.0 nm with 1.4-nm step to cover a total range of around 2 mm with 14 pixels in y direction.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

O ( x , y ) = r = 1 N ( S r S ) I r ( x , y ) ,
I O = S ,

Metrics