Abstract

Single-pixel imaging commonly uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) to encode a scene’s spatial information into a one-dimensional light signal sequence so that a single-pixel detector can be used to capture a scene. Digital micromirror device, liquid crystal on silicon, or light emitted diode matrix is a common choice of SLM, but it requires a certain lens system in order to project the structured light pattern that is generated by the SLM onto the scene. Using a lens would not only lead to aberration but also result in difficulty for establishing a compact imaging system. Therefore, we propose to use a liquid crystal display (LCD) as an intensity-only SLM to conduct structured illumination. As such, single-pixel imaging can be performed in a lensless way. As an instance of the proposed technique, a small-size and multi-functional scanner is designed and established to prove the lensless single-pixel imaging concept. As experimentally demonstrated, the single-pixel scanner can not only achieve grayscale and true-color scanning as a typical scanner does, but also achieve distinctive functionalities, such as accurate optical character recognition from under-sampled data, on-the-fly encryption, and genuine document identification. This compact scanner is as thin as 2.48 millimeters. The proposed lensless single-pixel imaging technique might find applications in various fields.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2018 (10)

C. F. Higham, R. Murray-Smith, M. J. Padgett, and M. P. Edgar, “Deep learning for real-time single-pixel video,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2369 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. H. Xu, W. Chen, J. Penuelas, M. Padgett, and M. J. Sun, “1000 fps computational ghost imaging using LED-based structured illumination,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2427–2434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Xu, H. Jiang, H. Zhao, X. Li, and S. Zhu, “Projector-defocusing rectification for Fourier single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 26(4), 5005–5017 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Suo, Y. Wang, and Q. Dai, “Doubling the pixel count limitation of single-pixel imaging via sinusoidal amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 26(6), 6929–6942 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, S. Liu, J. Peng, M. Yao, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Simultaneous spatial, spectral, and 3D compressive imaging via efficient Fourier single-pixel measurements,” Optica 5(3), 315–319 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, S. Jiao, M. Yao, X. Li, and J. Zhong, “Secured single-pixel broadcast imaging,” Opt. Express 26(11), 14578–14591 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Salvador-Balaguer, P. Latorre-Carmona, C. Chabert, F. Pla, J. Lancis, and E. Tajahuerce, “Low-cost single-pixel 3D imaging by using an LED array,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15623–15631 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Huang, D. Shi, K. Yuan, S. Hu, and Y. Wang, “Computational-weighted Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16547–16559 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Huang, D. Shi, K. Yuan, S. Hu, and Y. Wang, “Computational-weighted Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16547–16559 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Peng, M. Yao, J. Cheng, Z. Zhang, S. Li, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Micro-tomography via single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31094–31105 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, N. Hempler, G. T. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, and M. J. Padgett, “Real-time imaging of methane gas leaks using a single-pixel camera,” Opt. Express 25(4), 2998–3005 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, “Ghost identification based on single-pixel imaging in big data environment,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16509–16516 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Hadamard single-pixel imaging versus Fourier single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19619–19639 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Sun, J. M. Taylor, M. P. Edgar, S. M. Barnett, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Adaptive foveated single-pixel imaging with dynamic supersampling,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1601782 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, L. T. Meng, M. P. Edgar, M. J. Padgett, and N. Radwell, “A Russian Dolls ordering of the Hadamard basis for compressive single-pixel imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3464 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Fast Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12029 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bian, J. Suo, X. Hu, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Efficient single pixel imaging in Fourier space,” J. Opt-UK 18(8), 085704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, M. P. Edgar, B. Sun, N. Radwell, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “3D single-pixel video,” J. Opt-UK 18(3), 035203 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of single-pixel imaging using digital microscanning,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10476–10485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang and J. Zhong, “Three-dimensional single-pixel imaging with far fewer measurements than effective image pixels,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2497–2500 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Guo, S. Jiang, and G. Zheng, “Multilayer fluorescence imaging on a single-pixel detector,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2425–2431 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lochocki, A. Gambín, S. Manzanera, E. Irles, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, and P. Artal, “Single pixel camera ophthalmoscope,” Optica 3(10), 1056–1059 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, R. W. Bowman, B. Sun, N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, S. S. Welsh, and M. J. Padgett, “Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt-UK 17(2), 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Artal, P.

Baraniuk, R. G.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Sun, J. M. Taylor, M. P. Edgar, S. M. Barnett, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Adaptive foveated single-pixel imaging with dynamic supersampling,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1601782 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bian, L.

L. Bian, J. Suo, X. Hu, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Efficient single pixel imaging in Fourier space,” J. Opt-UK 18(8), 085704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bowman, A.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowman, R.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt-UK 17(2), 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1(5), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowman, R. W.

M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, R. W. Bowman, B. Sun, N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, S. S. Welsh, and M. J. Padgett, “Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chabert, C.

Chen, F.

L. Bian, J. Suo, X. Hu, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Efficient single pixel imaging in Fourier space,” J. Opt-UK 18(8), 085704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Cheng, J.

Clemente, P.

Dai, Q.

Davenport, M. A.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Duarte, M. F.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Durán, V.

Edgar, M. P.

C. F. Higham, R. Murray-Smith, M. J. Padgett, and M. P. Edgar, “Deep learning for real-time single-pixel video,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2369 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, N. Hempler, G. T. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, and M. J. Padgett, “Real-time imaging of methane gas leaks using a single-pixel camera,” Opt. Express 25(4), 2998–3005 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, L. T. Meng, M. P. Edgar, M. J. Padgett, and N. Radwell, “A Russian Dolls ordering of the Hadamard basis for compressive single-pixel imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3464 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Sun, J. M. Taylor, M. P. Edgar, S. M. Barnett, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Adaptive foveated single-pixel imaging with dynamic supersampling,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1601782 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, M. P. Edgar, B. Sun, N. Radwell, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “3D single-pixel video,” J. Opt-UK 18(3), 035203 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of single-pixel imaging using digital microscanning,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10476–10485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt-UK 17(2), 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, R. W. Bowman, B. Sun, N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, S. S. Welsh, and M. J. Padgett, “Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1(5), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández-Alonso, M.

Gambín, A.

Gibson, G. M.

G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, N. Hempler, G. T. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, and M. J. Padgett, “Real-time imaging of methane gas leaks using a single-pixel camera,” Opt. Express 25(4), 2998–3005 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Sun, J. M. Taylor, M. P. Edgar, S. M. Barnett, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Adaptive foveated single-pixel imaging with dynamic supersampling,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1601782 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, M. P. Edgar, B. Sun, N. Radwell, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “3D single-pixel video,” J. Opt-UK 18(3), 035203 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of single-pixel imaging using digital microscanning,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10476–10485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, R. W. Bowman, B. Sun, N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, S. S. Welsh, and M. J. Padgett, “Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1(5), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, K.

Hempler, N.

Hendry, E.

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Higham, C. F.

C. F. Higham, R. Murray-Smith, M. J. Padgett, and M. P. Edgar, “Deep learning for real-time single-pixel video,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2369 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hobson, P. A.

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornett, S. M.

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

Hu, X.

L. Bian, J. Suo, X. Hu, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Efficient single pixel imaging in Fourier space,” J. Opt-UK 18(8), 085704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Irles, E.

Jiang, H.

Jiang, S.

Jiao, S.

Kelly, K. F.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lamb, R.

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancis, J.

Laska, J. N.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Latorre-Carmona, P.

Li, S.

Li, X.

Liu, S.

Lochocki, B.

Ma, X.

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maker, G. T.

Malcolm, G. P. A.

Manzanera, S.

Meng, L. T.

M. J. Sun, L. T. Meng, M. P. Edgar, M. J. Padgett, and N. Radwell, “A Russian Dolls ordering of the Hadamard basis for compressive single-pixel imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3464 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, K. J.

M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, R. W. Bowman, B. Sun, N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, S. S. Welsh, and M. J. Padgett, “Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1(5), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

Murray-Smith, R.

C. F. Higham, R. Murray-Smith, M. J. Padgett, and M. P. Edgar, “Deep learning for real-time single-pixel video,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2369 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

C. F. Higham, R. Murray-Smith, M. J. Padgett, and M. P. Edgar, “Deep learning for real-time single-pixel video,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2369 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, N. Hempler, G. T. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, and M. J. Padgett, “Real-time imaging of methane gas leaks using a single-pixel camera,” Opt. Express 25(4), 2998–3005 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Sun, J. M. Taylor, M. P. Edgar, S. M. Barnett, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Adaptive foveated single-pixel imaging with dynamic supersampling,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1601782 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, L. T. Meng, M. P. Edgar, M. J. Padgett, and N. Radwell, “A Russian Dolls ordering of the Hadamard basis for compressive single-pixel imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3464 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, M. P. Edgar, B. Sun, N. Radwell, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “3D single-pixel video,” J. Opt-UK 18(3), 035203 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of single-pixel imaging using digital microscanning,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10476–10485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, R. W. Bowman, B. Sun, N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, S. S. Welsh, and M. J. Padgett, “Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt-UK 17(2), 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1(5), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, J.

Penuelas, J.

Phillips, D. B.

Pla, F.

Radwell, N.

M. J. Sun, L. T. Meng, M. P. Edgar, M. J. Padgett, and N. Radwell, “A Russian Dolls ordering of the Hadamard basis for compressive single-pixel imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3464 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, M. P. Edgar, B. Sun, N. Radwell, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “3D single-pixel video,” J. Opt-UK 18(3), 035203 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, R. W. Bowman, B. Sun, N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, S. S. Welsh, and M. J. Padgett, “Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1(5), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

Salvador-Balaguer, E.

Shi, D.

Stantchev, R. I.

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, B.

G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, N. Hempler, G. T. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, and M. J. Padgett, “Real-time imaging of methane gas leaks using a single-pixel camera,” Opt. Express 25(4), 2998–3005 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, M. P. Edgar, B. Sun, N. Radwell, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “3D single-pixel video,” J. Opt-UK 18(3), 035203 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt-UK 17(2), 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, R. W. Bowman, B. Sun, N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, S. S. Welsh, and M. J. Padgett, “Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, M. J.

Z. H. Xu, W. Chen, J. Penuelas, M. Padgett, and M. J. Sun, “1000 fps computational ghost imaging using LED-based structured illumination,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2427–2434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Sun, J. M. Taylor, M. P. Edgar, S. M. Barnett, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Adaptive foveated single-pixel imaging with dynamic supersampling,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1601782 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, L. T. Meng, M. P. Edgar, M. J. Padgett, and N. Radwell, “A Russian Dolls ordering of the Hadamard basis for compressive single-pixel imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3464 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of single-pixel imaging using digital microscanning,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10476–10485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, T.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suo, J.

Tajahuerce, E.

Takhar, D.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. M.

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Sun, J. M. Taylor, M. P. Edgar, S. M. Barnett, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Adaptive foveated single-pixel imaging with dynamic supersampling,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1601782 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torres-Company, V.

Vittert, L. E.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Fast Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12029 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Hadamard single-pixel imaging versus Fourier single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19619–19639 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Welsh, S.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welsh, S. S.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt-UK 17(2), 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, R. W. Bowman, B. Sun, N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, S. S. Welsh, and M. J. Padgett, “Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, B.

Xu, Z. H.

Yao, M.

Yuan, K.

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, H.

Zheng, G.

Zhong, J.

Zhu, S.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt-UK (3)

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt-UK 17(2), 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, M. P. Edgar, B. Sun, N. Radwell, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “3D single-pixel video,” J. Opt-UK 18(3), 035203 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Bian, J. Suo, X. Hu, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Efficient single pixel imaging in Fourier space,” J. Opt-UK 18(8), 085704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (12)

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of single-pixel imaging using digital microscanning,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10476–10485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, D. B. Phillips, N. Hempler, G. T. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, and M. J. Padgett, “Real-time imaging of methane gas leaks using a single-pixel camera,” Opt. Express 25(4), 2998–3005 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Huang, D. Shi, K. Yuan, S. Hu, and Y. Wang, “Computational-weighted Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16547–16559 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Hadamard single-pixel imaging versus Fourier single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19619–19639 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Xu, H. Jiang, H. Zhao, X. Li, and S. Zhu, “Projector-defocusing rectification for Fourier single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 26(4), 5005–5017 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Suo, Y. Wang, and Q. Dai, “Doubling the pixel count limitation of single-pixel imaging via sinusoidal amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 26(6), 6929–6942 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Peng, M. Yao, J. Cheng, Z. Zhang, S. Li, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Micro-tomography via single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31094–31105 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, S. Jiao, M. Yao, X. Li, and J. Zhong, “Secured single-pixel broadcast imaging,” Opt. Express 26(11), 14578–14591 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Huang, D. Shi, K. Yuan, S. Hu, and Y. Wang, “Computational-weighted Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16547–16559 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. H. Xu, W. Chen, J. Penuelas, M. Padgett, and M. J. Sun, “1000 fps computational ghost imaging using LED-based structured illumination,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2427–2434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Salvador-Balaguer, P. Latorre-Carmona, C. Chabert, F. Pla, J. Lancis, and E. Tajahuerce, “Low-cost single-pixel 3D imaging by using an LED array,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15623–15631 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, “Ghost identification based on single-pixel imaging in big data environment,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16509–16516 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (3)

Sci. Adv. (2)

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Sun, J. M. Taylor, M. P. Edgar, S. M. Barnett, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Adaptive foveated single-pixel imaging with dynamic supersampling,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1601782 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (4)

M. J. Sun, L. T. Meng, M. P. Edgar, M. J. Padgett, and N. Radwell, “A Russian Dolls ordering of the Hadamard basis for compressive single-pixel imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3464 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, R. W. Bowman, B. Sun, N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, S. S. Welsh, and M. J. Padgett, “Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Higham, R. Murray-Smith, M. J. Padgett, and M. P. Edgar, “Deep learning for real-time single-pixel video,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2369 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Fast Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12029 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics (Pergamon, 1959).

H. S. Malvar, L. He, and R. Cutler, “High-quality linear interpolation for demosaicing of Bayer-patterned color images.” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2004), pp. 485–488.
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Comparison of typical scanner (a) and proposed single-pixel scanner (b). The solar cell in (b) is rendered to be semi-transparent to make the document in the middle visible.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Illustration of light transmitted through a document. (a) Light transmitted through a thin document contains strong direct light and weak scattering light. (b) Light transmitted through a thick document contains weak direct light and strong scattering light. Both components are effective for imaging as they carry the spatial information of the document.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Generation of color coded Hadamard basis pattern (8 × 8 pixels) with Bayer’s mask.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of two-step document scanning and encryption by typical scanner (a) and single-step document scanning and encryption by proposed single-pixel scanner (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Example of original-encrypted Hadamard basis pattern pairs. (a) and (c) are original Hadamard basis patterns with a different sequency pair. (b) and (d) are encrypted patterns corresponding to (a) and (c), respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Flexible solar cell and LCD used in experiments.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Grayscale text document scanning results for different sampling ratios. The first row in panel (a) is the Hadamard spectrum for sampling ratio = 20%, the second row is the reconstructed image from the spectrum, the third row is a partial enlargement of the reconstruction. (b)-(e) are counterparts of (a) for sampling ratio = 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Grayscale text document encryption scanning results for different sampling ratios. The first row in panel (a) is the Hadamard spectrum for sampling ratio = 20%, the second row is the reconstructed image from the spectrum, the third row is the decrypted result from the reconstructed image, and the forth row is a partial enlargement of the decrypted result. (b)-(e) are counterparts of (a) for sampling ratio = 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, respectively.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Colored image scanning results. Results for ‘the gate’: (a) initial reconstruction and (b) partial enlargement showing the color information embedded mosaic features. (c) true-color reconstruction without color calibration. (d) true-color reconstruction with color calibration. (e)-(h) are the counterpart of (a)-(d) for ‘the flowers’.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Genuine document identification results. (a) image of test object scanned by a typical scanner. (b) image of genuine document scanned by proposed scanner. (c)-(e) test documents scanned by proposed scanner, among which (c) is image of genuine document and (d) and (e) are images of faked documents. Black arrows in (b) and (d) indicate the characteristic bright spots of the paperprint.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Watermark scanning results. (a) image scanned by a typical scanner (Canon PIXMA MP-288). (b) is a partial enlargement of (a). (c) image scanned by the proposed single-pixel scanner.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Scanning and OCR results for different paper thickness: (a) 70 gsm, (b) 100 gsm, (c) 120 gsm, and (d) 250 gsm. The OCR accuracies for (a)-(d) are 98.3%, 97.5%, 98.3%, and 80.6%, respectively.

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