Abstract

The frequency-drift of laser source is a crucial factor for influencing the performance of the phase–sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR). It induces signal fluctuation and severely limits the measurement capacity for low frequency. In this paper, a twice differential method is proposed to compensate for the influence of the laser-frequency-drift in Φ-OTDR. It uses the differential signal between two points on the sensing fiber as a reference signal and then subtracts the reference signal from the main signal to obtain the final result. In the experiment, the signal fluctuation induced by laser-frequency-drift is decreased by more than 95%. A vibration with a 0.1 Hz frequency on a 6 km sensing fiber is detected with 10 m spatial resolution and sensitivity is estimated to be 5.9 nε. With this method we also successfully measured the process of a stepper motor stretching a fiber section. This method will expand the scope of application of Φ-OTDR in the fields, which require high sensitivity and low frequency response.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (5)

2017 (2)

X. Fan, G. Yang, S. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensing based on phase extraction from optical reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(16), 3281–3288 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. J. Lindsey, E. R. Martin, D. S. Dreger, B. Freifeld, S. Cole, S. R. James, B. L. Biondi, J. B. Ajo-Franklin, and B. Jonathan, “Fiber-optic network observations of earthquake wavefields,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(23), 792–799 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

F. Pang, M. He, H. Liu, X. Mei, J. Tao, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “A fading-discrimination method for distributed vibration sensor using coherent detection of Φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(23), 2752–2755 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Wang, N. Xue, F. Peng, M. Fan, W. Sun, X. Qian, J. Rao, and Y. Rao, “Coherent Φ-OTDR based on I/Q demodulation and homodyne detection,” Opt. Express 24(2), 853–858 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tejedor, H. F. Martins, D. Piote, J. Macias-Guarasa, J. Pastor-Graells, S. Martin-Lopez, P. C. Guillen, F. De Smet, W. Postvoll, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Toward prevention of pipeline integrity threats using a smart fiber-optic surveillance system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(19), 4445–4453 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liang, X. Sheng, S. Lou, Y. Feng, and K. Zhang, “Combination of phase-sensitive OTDR and michelson interferometer for nuisance alarm rate reducing and event identification,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(2), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, S. Faralli, and F. Di Pasquale, “A cost-effective distributed acoustic sensor using a commercial off-the-shelf DFB laser and direct detection phase-OTDR,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, H. F. Martins, J. Pastor-Graells, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Phase-sensitive OTDR probe pulse shapes robust against modulation-instability fading,” Opt. Lett. 41(24), 5756–5759 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ren, D. P. Zhou, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Influence of finite extinction ratio on performance of phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13325–13333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yang, X. Fan, S. Wang, B. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Long-range distributed vibration sensing based on phase extraction from phase-sensitive OTDR,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

A. E. Alekseev, V. S. Vdovenko, B. G. Gorshkov, V. T. Potapov, and D. E. Simikin, “A phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer with dual-pulse diverse frequency probe signal,” Laser Phys. 25(6), 65101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Zhu, X. Zhang, L. Xia, and Y. Zhang, “Active compensation method for light source frequency drifting in phi-OTDR sensing system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(24), 2523–2526 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2010 (1)

Ajo-Franklin, J. B.

N. J. Lindsey, E. R. Martin, D. S. Dreger, B. Freifeld, S. Cole, S. R. James, B. L. Biondi, J. B. Ajo-Franklin, and B. Jonathan, “Fiber-optic network observations of earthquake wavefields,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(23), 792–799 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alekseev, A. E.

A. E. Alekseev, V. S. Vdovenko, B. G. Gorshkov, V. T. Potapov, and D. E. Simikin, “A phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer with dual-pulse diverse frequency probe signal,” Laser Phys. 25(6), 65101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ba, D.

D. Zhou, Y. Dong, B. Wang, C. Pang, D. Ba, H. Zhang, Z. Lu, H. Li, and X. Bao, “Single-shot BOTDA based on an optical chirp chain probe wave for distributed ultrafast measurement,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 32 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.

Belal, M.

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biondi, B. L.

N. J. Lindsey, E. R. Martin, D. S. Dreger, B. Freifeld, S. Cole, S. R. James, B. L. Biondi, J. B. Ajo-Franklin, and B. Jonathan, “Fiber-optic network observations of earthquake wavefields,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(23), 792–799 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cao, Q.

Chen, L.

Chen, N.

F. Pang, M. He, H. Liu, X. Mei, J. Tao, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “A fading-discrimination method for distributed vibration sensor using coherent detection of Φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(23), 2752–2755 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cole, S.

N. J. Lindsey, E. R. Martin, D. S. Dreger, B. Freifeld, S. Cole, S. R. James, B. L. Biondi, J. B. Ajo-Franklin, and B. Jonathan, “Fiber-optic network observations of earthquake wavefields,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(23), 792–799 (2017).
[Crossref]

Corredera, P.

De Smet, F.

Di Pasquale, F.

Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, S. Faralli, and F. Di Pasquale, “A cost-effective distributed acoustic sensor using a commercial off-the-shelf DFB laser and direct detection phase-OTDR,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

Dong, Y.

D. Zhou, Y. Dong, B. Wang, C. Pang, D. Ba, H. Zhang, Z. Lu, H. Li, and X. Bao, “Single-shot BOTDA based on an optical chirp chain probe wave for distributed ultrafast measurement,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 32 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dreger, D. S.

N. J. Lindsey, E. R. Martin, D. S. Dreger, B. Freifeld, S. Cole, S. R. James, B. L. Biondi, J. B. Ajo-Franklin, and B. Jonathan, “Fiber-optic network observations of earthquake wavefields,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(23), 792–799 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, M.

Fan, X.

Faralli, S.

Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, S. Faralli, and F. Di Pasquale, “A cost-effective distributed acoustic sensor using a commercial off-the-shelf DFB laser and direct detection phase-OTDR,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

S. Liang, X. Sheng, S. Lou, Y. Feng, and K. Zhang, “Combination of phase-sensitive OTDR and michelson interferometer for nuisance alarm rate reducing and event identification,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(2), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fernández-Ruiz, M. R.

Filograno, M. L.

Frazao, O.

Freifeld, B.

N. J. Lindsey, E. R. Martin, D. S. Dreger, B. Freifeld, S. Cole, S. R. James, B. L. Biondi, J. B. Ajo-Franklin, and B. Jonathan, “Fiber-optic network observations of earthquake wavefields,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(23), 792–799 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y.

Garcia-Ruiz, A.

Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

Gorshkov, B. G.

A. E. Alekseev, V. S. Vdovenko, B. G. Gorshkov, V. T. Potapov, and D. E. Simikin, “A phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer with dual-pulse diverse frequency probe signal,” Laser Phys. 25(6), 65101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guillen, P. C.

Guo, N.

He, M.

F. Pang, M. He, H. Liu, X. Mei, J. Tao, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “A fading-discrimination method for distributed vibration sensor using coherent detection of Φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(23), 2752–2755 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

James, S. R.

N. J. Lindsey, E. R. Martin, D. S. Dreger, B. Freifeld, S. Cole, S. R. James, B. L. Biondi, J. B. Ajo-Franklin, and B. Jonathan, “Fiber-optic network observations of earthquake wavefields,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(23), 792–799 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jia, X. H.

Jin, C.

Jonathan, B.

N. J. Lindsey, E. R. Martin, D. S. Dreger, B. Freifeld, S. Cole, S. R. James, B. L. Biondi, J. B. Ajo-Franklin, and B. Jonathan, “Fiber-optic network observations of earthquake wavefields,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(23), 792–799 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

D. Zhou, Y. Dong, B. Wang, C. Pang, D. Ba, H. Zhang, Z. Lu, H. Li, and X. Bao, “Single-shot BOTDA based on an optical chirp chain probe wave for distributed ultrafast measurement,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 32 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Li, Q.

Liang, S.

S. Liang, X. Sheng, S. Lou, Y. Feng, and K. Zhang, “Combination of phase-sensitive OTDR and michelson interferometer for nuisance alarm rate reducing and event identification,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(2), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, C. Zhang, L. Li, S. Liang, Q. Li, Q. Lü, X. Ding, and Q. Cao, “Influences of laser source on phase-sensitivity optical time-domain reflectometer-based distributed intrusion sensor,” Appl. Opt. 53(21), 4645–4650 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindsey, N. J.

N. J. Lindsey, E. R. Martin, D. S. Dreger, B. Freifeld, S. Cole, S. R. James, B. L. Biondi, J. B. Ajo-Franklin, and B. Jonathan, “Fiber-optic network observations of earthquake wavefields,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(23), 792–799 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

F. Pang, M. He, H. Liu, X. Mei, J. Tao, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “A fading-discrimination method for distributed vibration sensor using coherent detection of Φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(23), 2752–2755 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Lou, S.

S. Liang, X. Sheng, S. Lou, Y. Feng, and K. Zhang, “Combination of phase-sensitive OTDR and michelson interferometer for nuisance alarm rate reducing and event identification,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(2), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

Lu, Y.

Lu, Z.

D. Zhou, Y. Dong, B. Wang, C. Pang, D. Ba, H. Zhang, Z. Lu, H. Li, and X. Bao, “Single-shot BOTDA based on an optical chirp chain probe wave for distributed ultrafast measurement,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 32 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lü, Q.

Macias-Guarasa, J.

Martin, E. R.

N. J. Lindsey, E. R. Martin, D. S. Dreger, B. Freifeld, S. Cole, S. R. James, B. L. Biondi, J. B. Ajo-Franklin, and B. Jonathan, “Fiber-optic network observations of earthquake wavefields,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(23), 792–799 (2017).
[Crossref]

Martin-Lopez, S.

Martins, H. F.

Masoudi, A.

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mei, X.

F. Pang, M. He, H. Liu, X. Mei, J. Tao, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “A fading-discrimination method for distributed vibration sensor using coherent detection of Φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(23), 2752–2755 (2016).
[Crossref]

Muanenda, Y.

Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, S. Faralli, and F. Di Pasquale, “A cost-effective distributed acoustic sensor using a commercial off-the-shelf DFB laser and direct detection phase-OTDR,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Newson, T. P.

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oton, C. J.

Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, S. Faralli, and F. Di Pasquale, “A cost-effective distributed acoustic sensor using a commercial off-the-shelf DFB laser and direct detection phase-OTDR,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pang, C.

D. Zhou, Y. Dong, B. Wang, C. Pang, D. Ba, H. Zhang, Z. Lu, H. Li, and X. Bao, “Single-shot BOTDA based on an optical chirp chain probe wave for distributed ultrafast measurement,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 32 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pang, F.

F. Pang, M. He, H. Liu, X. Mei, J. Tao, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “A fading-discrimination method for distributed vibration sensor using coherent detection of Φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(23), 2752–2755 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pastor-Graells, J.

Peng, F.

Peng, Z. P.

Piote, D.

Postvoll, W.

Potapov, V. T.

A. E. Alekseev, V. S. Vdovenko, B. G. Gorshkov, V. T. Potapov, and D. E. Simikin, “A phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer with dual-pulse diverse frequency probe signal,” Laser Phys. 25(6), 65101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qian, X.

Rao, J.

Rao, Y.

Rao, Y. J.

Ren, M.

Sheng, X.

S. Liang, X. Sheng, S. Lou, Y. Feng, and K. Zhang, “Combination of phase-sensitive OTDR and michelson interferometer for nuisance alarm rate reducing and event identification,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(2), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Simikin, D. E.

A. E. Alekseev, V. S. Vdovenko, B. G. Gorshkov, V. T. Potapov, and D. E. Simikin, “A phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer with dual-pulse diverse frequency probe signal,” Laser Phys. 25(6), 65101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

Tam, H.

Tao, J.

F. Pang, M. He, H. Liu, X. Mei, J. Tao, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “A fading-discrimination method for distributed vibration sensor using coherent detection of Φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(23), 2752–2755 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tejedor, J.

Vdovenko, V. S.

A. E. Alekseev, V. S. Vdovenko, B. G. Gorshkov, V. T. Potapov, and D. E. Simikin, “A phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer with dual-pulse diverse frequency probe signal,” Laser Phys. 25(6), 65101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

D. Zhou, Y. Dong, B. Wang, C. Pang, D. Ba, H. Zhang, Z. Lu, H. Li, and X. Bao, “Single-shot BOTDA based on an optical chirp chain probe wave for distributed ultrafast measurement,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 32 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, X. Fan, S. Wang, B. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Long-range distributed vibration sensing based on phase extraction from phase-sensitive OTDR,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, S.

Wang, T.

F. Pang, M. He, H. Liu, X. Mei, J. Tao, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “A fading-discrimination method for distributed vibration sensor using coherent detection of Φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(23), 2752–2755 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wang, Z. N.

Wu, H.

Wu, M.

Xia, L.

F. Zhu, X. Zhang, L. Xia, and Y. Zhang, “Active compensation method for light source frequency drifting in phi-OTDR sensing system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(24), 2523–2526 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiong, J.

Xue, N.

Yang, G.

X. Fan, G. Yang, S. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensing based on phase extraction from optical reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(16), 3281–3288 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, X. Fan, S. Wang, B. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Long-range distributed vibration sensing based on phase extraction from phase-sensitive OTDR,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, H.

D. Zhou, Y. Dong, B. Wang, C. Pang, D. Ba, H. Zhang, Z. Lu, H. Li, and X. Bao, “Single-shot BOTDA based on an optical chirp chain probe wave for distributed ultrafast measurement,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 32 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

S. Liang, X. Sheng, S. Lou, Y. Feng, and K. Zhang, “Combination of phase-sensitive OTDR and michelson interferometer for nuisance alarm rate reducing and event identification,” J. IEEE Photonics. 8(2), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, T.

F. Pang, M. He, H. Liu, X. Mei, J. Tao, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “A fading-discrimination method for distributed vibration sensor using coherent detection of Φ-OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(23), 2752–2755 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The principle of twice differential algorithm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The setup of the Φ-OTDR system.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Intensity of coherent light along fiber.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The variation of phase with time at 5.1 km (a) before and (b) after differential operation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The variation of phase with time on undisturbed fiber (a) with differential operation and (b) with twice differential method.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Waveform compensated by the twice differential method.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Waveform with different frequencies before and after compensation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Sinusoidal waveform with 0.1Hz frequency by twice differential method.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Compensation result of ultra-low frequency signal generated by stepper motor.

Equations (5)

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I( z,t )Q(f)cos[ 4πn c f( t )z2π f AOM t+φ( t )+ θ R (f(t),z) ]
Δ Φ AB ( t )= 4πn c D AB f( t )+φ( t )+ θ R (f(t), z B ) θ R (f(t), z A )
Δ Φ CD ( t )= 4πn c D CD f( t )+ θ R (f(t), z D ) θ R (f(t), z C )
[ Δ Φ AB ( t 2 )Δ Φ AB ( t 1 ) ][ Δ Φ CD ( t 2 )Δ Φ CD ( t 1 ) ] =φ( t 2 )φ( t 1 )+Δ θ R
Δ θ R ={ [ θ R (f( t 2 ), z B ) θ R (f( t 1 ), z B ) ][ θ R (f( t 2 ), z A ) θ R (f( t 1 ), z A ) ] } { [ θ R (f( t 2 ), z D ) θ R (f( t 1 ), z D ) ][ θ R (f( t 2 ), z C ) θ R (f( t 1 ), z C ) ] }

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