Abstract

We present a CMOS-compatible, Q-switched mode-locked integrated laser operating at 1.9 µm with a compact footprint of 23.6 × 0.6 × 0.78mm. The Q-switching rate is 720 kHz, the mode-locking rate is 1.2 GHz, and the optical bandwidth is 17nm, which is sufficient to support pulses as short as 215 fs. The laser is fabricated using a silicon nitride on silicon dioxide 300-mm wafer platform, with thulium-doped Al2O3 glass as a gain material deposited over the silicon photonics chip. An integrated Kerr-nonlinearity-based artificial saturable absorber is implemented in silicon nitride. A broadband (over 100 nm) dispersion-compensating grating in silicon nitride provides sufficient anomalous dispersion to compensate for the normal dispersion of the other laser components, enabling femtosecond-level pulses. The laser has no off-chip components with the exception of the optical pump, allowing for easy co-integration of numerous other photonic devices such as supercontinuum generation and frequency doublers which together potentially enable fully on-chip frequency comb generation.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

1 February 2019: A typographical correction was made to the funding section.


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References

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2018 (3)

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06um to beyond 2.4um,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. S. Magden, N. Li, M. Raval, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, L. A. Kolodziejski, and M. R. Watts, “Transmissive silicon photonic dichroic filters with spectrally selective waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3009 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Magden, P. Callahan, N. Li, J. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, L. Kolodziejski, E. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Frequency domain spectroscopy in rare-earth-doped gain media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2015 (1)

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Cherchi, S. Ylinen, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, and T. Aalto, “Dramatic size reduction of waveguide bends on a micron-scale silicon photonic platform,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17814–17823 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

J. D. Bradley and M. Pollnau, “Erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 368–403 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “77 GHz soliton modelocked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Electron. Lett. 36(22), 1846–1848 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, C. Hönninger, U. Keller, M. Moser, D. Kopf, and K. J. Weingarten, “Passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with up to 13 GHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 69(3), 245–247 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80~200 GHz erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1370–1372 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

T. Pfeiffer and G. Veith, “40 GHz pulse generation using a widely tunable all-polarization preserving erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1849–1850 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Y. K. Chen and M. C. Wu, “Monolithic Colliding-Pulse Mode-Locked Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2176–2185 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

Y. K. Chen, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, and M. A. Chin, “Subpicosecond monolithic colliding-pulse mode-locked multiple quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(12), 1253–1255 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Structures for additive pulse mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8(10), 2068–2076 (1991).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

H. Haus, “Parameter ranges for cw passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(3), 169–176 (1976).
[Crossref]

Aalto, T.

Agazzi, L.

K. Wörhoff, J. D. Bradley, L. Agazzi, and M. Pollnau, “Rare-earth-ion-doped Al2O3 for integrated optical amplification,” in SPIE Proceedings, 7604 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atabaki, A. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aus der Au, J.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, C. Hönninger, U. Keller, M. Moser, D. Kopf, and K. J. Weingarten, “Passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with up to 13 GHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 69(3), 245–247 (1999).
[Crossref]

Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baiocco, C.

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06um to beyond 2.4um,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, J.

E. Magden, P. Callahan, N. Li, J. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, L. Kolodziejski, E. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Frequency domain spectroscopy in rare-earth-doped gain media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bradley, J. D.

N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Bradley and M. Pollnau, “Erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 368–403 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Wörhoff, J. D. Bradley, L. Agazzi, and M. Pollnau, “Rare-earth-ion-doped Al2O3 for integrated optical amplification,” in SPIE Proceedings, 7604 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bradley, J. D. B.

Byrd, M. J.

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, and M. R. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Callahan, P.

E. Magden, P. Callahan, N. Li, J. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, L. Kolodziejski, E. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Frequency domain spectroscopy in rare-earth-doped gain media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Shtyrkova, P. Callahan, N. Li, S. E. Magden, M. R. Watts, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Integrated CMOS-compatible Q-Switched-Mode-Locked Laser at 1.9µm with On-Chip Artificial Saturable Absorber,” in Advanced Photonics2018, paper IM3B.2.

Callahan, P. T.

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06um to beyond 2.4um,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, G.

Chen, Y. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. K.

Y. K. Chen and M. C. Wu, “Monolithic Colliding-Pulse Mode-Locked Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2176–2185 (1992).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Chen, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, and M. A. Chin, “Subpicosecond monolithic colliding-pulse mode-locked multiple quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(12), 1253–1255 (1991).
[Crossref]

Cherchi, M.

Chin, M. A.

Y. K. Chen, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, and M. A. Chin, “Subpicosecond monolithic colliding-pulse mode-locked multiple quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(12), 1253–1255 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. T.

Cook, H. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coolbaugh, D.

C. McDonough, D. La Tulipe, D. Pascual, P. Tariello, J. Mucci, M. Smalley, A. Nguyen, T. Vo, C. Johnson, P. Nguyen, J. Hebding, G. Leake, M. Moresco, E. Timurdogan, V. Stojanović, M. R. Watts, and D. Coolbaugh, “Heterogeneous integration of a 300mm silicon photonics-CMOS wafer stack by direct oxide bonding and via-last 3D interconnection,” International Symposium on Microelectronics, 621–626 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coolbaugh, D. D.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Fahrenkopf, N.

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E. S. Magden, N. Li, M. Raval, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, L. A. Kolodziejski, and M. R. Watts, “Transmissive silicon photonic dichroic filters with spectrally selective waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3009 (2018).
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L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “77 GHz soliton modelocked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Electron. Lett. 36(22), 1846–1848 (2000).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, A. J.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paschotta, R.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “77 GHz soliton modelocked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Electron. Lett. 36(22), 1846–1848 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, C. Hönninger, U. Keller, M. Moser, D. Kopf, and K. J. Weingarten, “Passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with up to 13 GHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 69(3), 245–247 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pascual, D.

C. McDonough, D. La Tulipe, D. Pascual, P. Tariello, J. Mucci, M. Smalley, A. Nguyen, T. Vo, C. Johnson, P. Nguyen, J. Hebding, G. Leake, M. Moresco, E. Timurdogan, V. Stojanović, M. R. Watts, and D. Coolbaugh, “Heterogeneous integration of a 300mm silicon photonics-CMOS wafer stack by direct oxide bonding and via-last 3D interconnection,” International Symposium on Microelectronics, 621–626 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pasquazi, A.

Pavanello, F.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peccianti, M.

Petrich, G. S.

Pfeiffer, T.

T. Pfeiffer and G. Veith, “40 GHz pulse generation using a widely tunable all-polarization preserving erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1849–1850 (1993).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D. F.

Pollnau, M.

J. D. Bradley and M. Pollnau, “Erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 368–403 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Wörhoff, J. D. Bradley, L. Agazzi, and M. Pollnau, “Rare-earth-ion-doped Al2O3 for integrated optical amplification,” in SPIE Proceedings, 7604 (2010).
[Crossref]

Popovic, M. A.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Post, E.

Poulton, C. V.

E. S. Magden, N. Li, M. Raval, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, L. A. Kolodziejski, and M. R. Watts, “Transmissive silicon photonic dichroic filters with spectrally selective waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3009 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, and M. R. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Purnawirman, J. D. B.

Purnawirman, P.

Radic, S.

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06um to beyond 2.4um,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ram, R. J.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raval, M.

E. S. Magden, N. Li, M. Raval, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, L. A. Kolodziejski, and M. R. Watts, “Transmissive silicon photonic dichroic filters with spectrally selective waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3009 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruocco, A.

E. S. Magden, N. Li, M. Raval, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, L. A. Kolodziejski, and M. R. Watts, “Transmissive silicon photonic dichroic filters with spectrally selective waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3009 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06um to beyond 2.4um,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Magden, P. Callahan, N. Li, J. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, L. Kolodziejski, E. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Frequency domain spectroscopy in rare-earth-doped gain media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Magden, N. Li, J. D. B. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G. S. Petrich, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, E. P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salih Magden, E.

Sander, M. Y.

Schmid, J. H.

Shainline, J. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shmulovich, J.

Shtyrkova, K.

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06um to beyond 2.4um,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shtyrkova, P. Callahan, N. Li, S. E. Magden, M. R. Watts, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Integrated CMOS-compatible Q-Switched-Mode-Locked Laser at 1.9µm with On-Chip Artificial Saturable Absorber,” in Advanced Photonics2018, paper IM3B.2.

Singh, N.

E. Magden, P. Callahan, N. Li, J. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, L. Kolodziejski, E. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Frequency domain spectroscopy in rare-earth-doped gain media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06um to beyond 2.4um,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. S. Magden, N. Li, M. Raval, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, L. A. Kolodziejski, and M. R. Watts, “Transmissive silicon photonic dichroic filters with spectrally selective waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3009 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Magden, N. Li, J. D. B. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G. S. Petrich, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, E. P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smalley, M.

C. McDonough, D. La Tulipe, D. Pascual, P. Tariello, J. Mucci, M. Smalley, A. Nguyen, T. Vo, C. Johnson, P. Nguyen, J. Hebding, G. Leake, M. Moresco, E. Timurdogan, V. Stojanović, M. R. Watts, and D. Coolbaugh, “Heterogeneous integration of a 300mm silicon photonics-CMOS wafer stack by direct oxide bonding and via-last 3D interconnection,” International Symposium on Microelectronics, 621–626 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, V.

C. McDonough, D. La Tulipe, D. Pascual, P. Tariello, J. Mucci, M. Smalley, A. Nguyen, T. Vo, C. Johnson, P. Nguyen, J. Hebding, G. Leake, M. Moresco, E. Timurdogan, V. Stojanović, M. R. Watts, and D. Coolbaugh, “Heterogeneous integration of a 300mm silicon photonics-CMOS wafer stack by direct oxide bonding and via-last 3D interconnection,” International Symposium on Microelectronics, 621–626 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, V. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Storey, C.

Su, Z.

Sun, C.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

Tanbun-Ek, T.

Y. K. Chen, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, and M. A. Chin, “Subpicosecond monolithic colliding-pulse mode-locked multiple quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(12), 1253–1255 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tariello, P.

C. McDonough, D. La Tulipe, D. Pascual, P. Tariello, J. Mucci, M. Smalley, A. Nguyen, T. Vo, C. Johnson, P. Nguyen, J. Hebding, G. Leake, M. Moresco, E. Timurdogan, V. Stojanović, M. R. Watts, and D. Coolbaugh, “Heterogeneous integration of a 300mm silicon photonics-CMOS wafer stack by direct oxide bonding and via-last 3D interconnection,” International Symposium on Microelectronics, 621–626 (2015).
[Crossref]

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, and M. R. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. McDonough, D. La Tulipe, D. Pascual, P. Tariello, J. Mucci, M. Smalley, A. Nguyen, T. Vo, C. Johnson, P. Nguyen, J. Hebding, G. Leake, M. Moresco, E. Timurdogan, V. Stojanović, M. R. Watts, and D. Coolbaugh, “Heterogeneous integration of a 300mm silicon photonics-CMOS wafer stack by direct oxide bonding and via-last 3D interconnection,” International Symposium on Microelectronics, 621–626 (2015).
[Crossref]

Veith, G.

T. Pfeiffer and G. Veith, “40 GHz pulse generation using a widely tunable all-polarization preserving erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1849–1850 (1993).
[Crossref]

Vermeulen, D.

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06um to beyond 2.4um,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. S. Magden, N. Li, M. Raval, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, L. A. Kolodziejski, and M. R. Watts, “Transmissive silicon photonic dichroic filters with spectrally selective waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3009 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vo, T.

C. McDonough, D. La Tulipe, D. Pascual, P. Tariello, J. Mucci, M. Smalley, A. Nguyen, T. Vo, C. Johnson, P. Nguyen, J. Hebding, G. Leake, M. Moresco, E. Timurdogan, V. Stojanović, M. R. Watts, and D. Coolbaugh, “Heterogeneous integration of a 300mm silicon photonics-CMOS wafer stack by direct oxide bonding and via-last 3D interconnection,” International Symposium on Microelectronics, 621–626 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wade, M. T.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waldron, P.

Walsworth, R. L.

Waterman, A. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watts, M. R.

E. S. Magden, N. Li, M. Raval, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, L. A. Kolodziejski, and M. R. Watts, “Transmissive silicon photonic dichroic filters with spectrally selective waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3009 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06um to beyond 2.4um,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Magden, P. Callahan, N. Li, J. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, L. Kolodziejski, E. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Frequency domain spectroscopy in rare-earth-doped gain media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, and M. R. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Magden, N. Li, J. D. B. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G. S. Petrich, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, E. P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shtyrkova, P. Callahan, N. Li, S. E. Magden, M. R. Watts, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Integrated CMOS-compatible Q-Switched-Mode-Locked Laser at 1.9µm with On-Chip Artificial Saturable Absorber,” in Advanced Photonics2018, paper IM3B.2.

C. McDonough, D. La Tulipe, D. Pascual, P. Tariello, J. Mucci, M. Smalley, A. Nguyen, T. Vo, C. Johnson, P. Nguyen, J. Hebding, G. Leake, M. Moresco, E. Timurdogan, V. Stojanović, M. R. Watts, and D. Coolbaugh, “Heterogeneous integration of a 300mm silicon photonics-CMOS wafer stack by direct oxide bonding and via-last 3D interconnection,” International Symposium on Microelectronics, 621–626 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weingarten, K. J.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, C. Hönninger, U. Keller, M. Moser, D. Kopf, and K. J. Weingarten, “Passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with up to 13 GHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 69(3), 245–247 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wörhoff, K.

K. Wörhoff, J. D. Bradley, L. Agazzi, and M. Pollnau, “Rare-earth-ion-doped Al2O3 for integrated optical amplification,” in SPIE Proceedings, 7604 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Wu, M. C.

Y. K. Chen and M. C. Wu, “Monolithic Colliding-Pulse Mode-Locked Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2176–2185 (1992).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Chen, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, and M. A. Chin, “Subpicosecond monolithic colliding-pulse mode-locked multiple quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(12), 1253–1255 (1991).
[Crossref]

Xin, M.

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06um to beyond 2.4um,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D. X.

Ylinen, S.

Yoshida, E.

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “Low-threshold 115-GHz continuous-wave modulational-instability erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(18), 1409–1411 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80~200 GHz erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1370–1372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, J. Aus der Au, C. Hönninger, U. Keller, M. Moser, D. Kopf, and K. J. Weingarten, “Passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with up to 13 GHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 69(3), 245–247 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. K. Chen, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, and M. A. Chin, “Subpicosecond monolithic colliding-pulse mode-locked multiple quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(12), 1253–1255 (1991).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (3)

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “77 GHz soliton modelocked Nd:YVO4 laser,” Electron. Lett. 36(22), 1846–1848 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Pfeiffer and G. Veith, “40 GHz pulse generation using a widely tunable all-polarization preserving erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1849–1850 (1993).
[Crossref]

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80~200 GHz erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1370–1372 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

Y. K. Chen and M. C. Wu, “Monolithic Colliding-Pulse Mode-Locked Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2176–2185 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Magden, P. Callahan, N. Li, J. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, L. Kolodziejski, E. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Frequency domain spectroscopy in rare-earth-doped gain media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

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N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06um to beyond 2.4um,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
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K. Shtyrkova, P. Callahan, N. Li, S. E. Magden, M. R. Watts, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Integrated CMOS-compatible Q-Switched-Mode-Locked Laser at 1.9µm with On-Chip Artificial Saturable Absorber,” in Advanced Photonics2018, paper IM3B.2.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the MLL architecture (not to scale).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photonic layers used in fabrication process.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Pump-Signal Combiner. [a] Layout/schematic; [b] Optimized single directional coupler performance vs wavelength; [c] Transmission of the final MZI device with two directional couplers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 [a] Gain waveguide schematic; [b] Optical intensity profile of the gain waveguide for the pump (1614nm) mode; [c] Measured gain spectrum; [d] Optical intensity profile of the gain waveguide for the signal (1900nm) mode.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Intensity of the optical mode at the beginning [a] and the end [b] of the vertical layer transition; [c] Compact bend layout.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 [a] Chirped grating layout; [b] Reflection profile for three designs; [c] Corresponding GDD profiles for three different designs; [d] top – grating coupling strength as a function of normalized position, bottom – gap between central waveguide and side blocks, as a function of normalized position along the grating.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Integrated mode-locking element. [a] Overall schematic/layout of the device; [b] waveguide cross-section with electric field intensity profile; [c] Nonlinear reflection for two different device lengths.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 [a] Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation cavity simulation flow. [b] The result of the NLSE laser model - a steady state pulse duration evolution for one cavity roundtrip. DCG – dispersion-compensating grating, NLI – nonlinear interferometer, ZN – “zero nitride” waveguide section.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 [a] Characterization setup; [b] Photo of a chip with 9 MLLs.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 [a] Signal power (on-chip) vs pump power (on-chip); [b] Optical spectrum.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 MLL results: [a] Time-domain data showing Q-switching; [b] RF spectrum; [c] Time-domain data, close up of one Q-switched pulse; [d] Time-domain data, individual pulses.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 MLL components and corresponding photonic layers.

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Table 2 Spectroscopic parameters of Al2O3:Tm3+ films.

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Table 3 Dispersion and nonlinearity values for MLL components, in order of appearance in MLL cavity.

Equations (1)

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A ( z , t ) z = β 2 2 2 A ( z , t ) t 2 j γ N L | A ( z , t | 2 A ( z , t ) + g A ( z , t ) l A ( z , t )

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