Abstract

We demonstrated that the combination of a hyperbolic convex and elliptical concave mirrors works as a compact reflective X-ray imaging system with a short optical focal length and large magnification factor. We performed an experiment to form a one-dimensional demagnified image with a demagnification factor of 321 within an approximately 2-m-long optical setup at an X-ray energy of 10 keV. The results showed that this imaging optics system is capable of providing a resolution of ~40 nm. From wavefront analysis, it was confirmed that the optics possessed a wide field-of-view with a significant reduction of comatic aberration.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, K. Hata, R. Hirose, Y. Takeda, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, K. Omote, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Reflective Imaging Optics Using Concave and Convex Mirrors for a Compact and Achromatic Full-field X-ray Microscope,” Microsc. Microanal. 24(S2Suppl 2), 276 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

S. Matsuyama, S. Yasuda, J. Yamada, H. Okada, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “50-nm-resolution full-field X-ray microscope without chromatic aberration using total-reflection imaging mirrors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation of concave-convex imaging mirror system for development of a compact and achromatic full-field x-ray microscope,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 967–974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation of concave-convex imaging mirror system for development of a compact and achromatic full-field x-ray microscope,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 967–974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yabashi and H. Tanaka, “The next ten years of X-ray science,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 12–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(9), 093103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

R. Hettel, “DLSR design and plans: an international overview,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 843–855 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eriksson, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Quitmann, “Diffraction-limited storage rings - A window to the science of tomorrow,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 837–842 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yabashi, K. Tono, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, T. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, K. Tamasaku, H. Ohashi, S. Goto, and T. Ishikawa, “Optics for coherent X-ray applications,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 976–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, S. Alcock, and K. Sawhney, “At-wavelength metrology of hard X-ray mirror using near field speckle,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6438–6446 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1(1), 57 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, M. Fujii, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation study of four-mirror alignment of advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 241–245 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2–3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

F. Siewert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, and H. Lammert, “The nanometer optical component measuring machine: a new sub-nm topography measuring device for X-ray optics at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 847–850 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Shorey, W. Kordonski, and M. Tricard, “Magnetorheological finishing of large and lightweight optics,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 99–107 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard X-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(10), 4549–4553 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Ueno, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Microstitching interferometry for X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(5), 2894–2898 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, T. Jalinaud, J. P. Le Breton, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, G. Tissot, and J. Y. Clotaire, “Large-field high-resolution X-ray microscope for studying laser plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3412–3420 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

R. Kodama, Y. Katori, T. Iwai, N. Ikeda, Y. Kato, and K. Takeshi, “Development of an advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1321–1323 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

H. Wolter, “Spiegelsysteme streifenden Einfalls als abbildende Optiken für Röntgenstrahlen,” Ann. Phys. 445(1-2), 94–114 (1952).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

Alcock, S.

Anderson, E.

Baez, A. V.

Barrett, R.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1(1), 57 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berujon, S.

Boye, P.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bridou, F.

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, T. Jalinaud, J. P. Le Breton, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, G. Tissot, and J. Y. Clotaire, “Large-field high-resolution X-ray microscope for studying laser plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3412–3420 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bucourt, S.

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2–3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1(1), 57 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burghammer, M.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cammarata, M.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1(1), 57 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, W.

Clotaire, J. Y.

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, T. Jalinaud, J. P. Le Breton, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, G. Tissot, and J. Y. Clotaire, “Large-field high-resolution X-ray microscope for studying laser plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3412–3420 (1997).
[Crossref]

Conley, R.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dalmasso, J. M.

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, T. Jalinaud, J. P. Le Breton, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, G. Tissot, and J. Y. Clotaire, “Large-field high-resolution X-ray microscope for studying laser plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3412–3420 (1997).
[Crossref]

David, C.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1(1), 57 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dierolf, M.

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M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2–3), 162–171 (2010).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
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K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard X-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(10), 4549–4553 (2003).
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K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Ueno, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Microstitching interferometry for X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(5), 2894–2898 (2003).
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M. Eriksson, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Quitmann, “Diffraction-limited storage rings - A window to the science of tomorrow,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 837–842 (2014).
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M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2–3), 162–171 (2010).
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Färm, E.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1(1), 57 (2011).
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Feldkamp, J.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
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Fritz, D. M.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1(1), 57 (2011).
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S. Matsuyama, M. Fujii, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation study of four-mirror alignment of advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 241–245 (2010).
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Fukui, R.

Gorelick, S.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1(1), 57 (2011).
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Goto, S.

M. Yabashi, K. Tono, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, T. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, K. Tamasaku, H. Ohashi, S. Goto, and T. Ishikawa, “Optics for coherent X-ray applications,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 976–985 (2014).
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C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1(1), 57 (2011).
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H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
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H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
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J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, K. Hata, R. Hirose, Y. Takeda, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, K. Omote, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Reflective Imaging Optics Using Concave and Convex Mirrors for a Compact and Achromatic Full-field X-ray Microscope,” Microsc. Microanal. 24(S2Suppl 2), 276 (2018).
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J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, K. Hata, R. Hirose, Y. Takeda, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, K. Omote, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Reflective Imaging Optics Using Concave and Convex Mirrors for a Compact and Achromatic Full-field X-ray Microscope,” Microsc. Microanal. 24(S2Suppl 2), 276 (2018).
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Holt, M. V.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Idir, M.

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2–3), 162–171 (2010).
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Ikeda, N.

Inagaki, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
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Inubushi, Y.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, K. Hata, R. Hirose, Y. Takeda, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, K. Omote, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Reflective Imaging Optics Using Concave and Convex Mirrors for a Compact and Achromatic Full-field X-ray Microscope,” Microsc. Microanal. 24(S2Suppl 2), 276 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, S. Yasuda, J. Yamada, H. Okada, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “50-nm-resolution full-field X-ray microscope without chromatic aberration using total-reflection imaging mirrors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yabashi, K. Tono, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, T. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, K. Tamasaku, H. Ohashi, S. Goto, and T. Ishikawa, “Optics for coherent X-ray applications,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 976–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, H. Yokoyama, R. Fukui, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, W. Yashiro, A. Momose, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront measurement for a hard-X-ray nanobeam using single-grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24977–24986 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, N. Kidani, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Hard-X-ray imaging optics based on four aspherical mirrors with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10310–10319 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard X-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(10), 4549–4553 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Ueno, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Microstitching interferometry for X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(5), 2894–2898 (2003).
[Crossref]

Iwai, T.

Jalinaud, T.

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, T. Jalinaud, J. P. Le Breton, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, G. Tissot, and J. Y. Clotaire, “Large-field high-resolution X-ray microscope for studying laser plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3412–3420 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kang, H. C.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kato, Y.

Katori, Y.

Kidani, N.

Kim, J.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kimura, T.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, P.

Kodama, R.

Kohmura, Y.

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, K. Hata, R. Hirose, Y. Takeda, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, K. Omote, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Reflective Imaging Optics Using Concave and Convex Mirrors for a Compact and Achromatic Full-field X-ray Microscope,” Microsc. Microanal. 24(S2Suppl 2), 276 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, S. Yasuda, J. Yamada, H. Okada, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “50-nm-resolution full-field X-ray microscope without chromatic aberration using total-reflection imaging mirrors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, N. Kidani, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Hard-X-ray imaging optics based on four aspherical mirrors with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10310–10319 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, H. Yokoyama, R. Fukui, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, W. Yashiro, A. Momose, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront measurement for a hard-X-ray nanobeam using single-grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24977–24986 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohn, V.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kordonski, W.

A. Shorey, W. Kordonski, and M. Tricard, “Magnetorheological finishing of large and lightweight optics,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 99–107 (2004).
[Crossref]

Koyama, T.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krzywinski, J.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1(1), 57 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Küchler, M.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kurapova, O.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
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Lammert, H.

F. Siewert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, and H. Lammert, “The nanometer optical component measuring machine: a new sub-nm topography measuring device for X-ray optics at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 847–850 (2004).
[Crossref]

Le Breton, J. P.

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, T. Jalinaud, J. P. Le Breton, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, G. Tissot, and J. Y. Clotaire, “Large-field high-resolution X-ray microscope for studying laser plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3412–3420 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lengeler, B.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[Crossref]

Levecq, X.

M. Idir, P. Mercere, M. H. Modi, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, L. Escolano, and P. Sauvageot, “X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2–3), 162–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Macrander, A. T.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Marioge, J. P.

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, T. Jalinaud, J. P. Le Breton, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, G. Tissot, and J. Y. Clotaire, “Large-field high-resolution X-ray microscope for studying laser plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3412–3420 (1997).
[Crossref]

Maser, J.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Matsuyama, S.

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, K. Hata, R. Hirose, Y. Takeda, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, K. Omote, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Reflective Imaging Optics Using Concave and Convex Mirrors for a Compact and Achromatic Full-field X-ray Microscope,” Microsc. Microanal. 24(S2Suppl 2), 276 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, S. Yasuda, J. Yamada, H. Okada, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “50-nm-resolution full-field X-ray microscope without chromatic aberration using total-reflection imaging mirrors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation of concave-convex imaging mirror system for development of a compact and achromatic full-field x-ray microscope,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 967–974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation of concave-convex imaging mirror system for development of a compact and achromatic full-field x-ray microscope,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 967–974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(9), 093103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yabashi, K. Tono, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, T. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, K. Tamasaku, H. Ohashi, S. Goto, and T. Ishikawa, “Optics for coherent X-ray applications,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 976–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, H. Yokoyama, R. Fukui, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, W. Yashiro, A. Momose, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront measurement for a hard-X-ray nanobeam using single-grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24977–24986 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, N. Kidani, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Hard-X-ray imaging optics based on four aspherical mirrors with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10310–10319 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, M. Fujii, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation study of four-mirror alignment of advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 241–245 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
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S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
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M. Yabashi, K. Tono, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, T. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, K. Tamasaku, H. Ohashi, S. Goto, and T. Ishikawa, “Optics for coherent X-ray applications,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 976–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
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S. Matsuyama, N. Kidani, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Hard-X-ray imaging optics based on four aspherical mirrors with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10310–10319 (2012).
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S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
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K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
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K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
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K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Ueno, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Microstitching interferometry for X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(5), 2894–2898 (2003).
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J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(9), 093103 (2015).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Ueno, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Microstitching interferometry for X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(5), 2894–2898 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard X-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(10), 4549–4553 (2003).
[Crossref]

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M. Yabashi and H. Tanaka, “The next ten years of X-ray science,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 12–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Yabashi, K. Tono, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, T. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, K. Tamasaku, H. Ohashi, S. Goto, and T. Ishikawa, “Optics for coherent X-ray applications,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 976–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

M. Yabashi, K. Tono, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, T. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, K. Tamasaku, H. Ohashi, S. Goto, and T. Ishikawa, “Optics for coherent X-ray applications,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 976–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
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H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
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M. Yabashi, K. Tono, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, T. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, K. Tamasaku, H. Ohashi, S. Goto, and T. Ishikawa, “Optics for coherent X-ray applications,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 976–985 (2014).
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H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
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A. Shorey, W. Kordonski, and M. Tricard, “Magnetorheological finishing of large and lightweight optics,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 99–107 (2004).
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Tyliszczak, T.

Ueno, K.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Ueno, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Microstitching interferometry for X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(5), 2894–2898 (2003).
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M. Eriksson, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Quitmann, “Diffraction-limited storage rings - A window to the science of tomorrow,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 837–842 (2014).
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C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1(1), 57 (2011).
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Vincze, L.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
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H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wakioka, T.

Wang, H.

Winarski, R. P.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
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Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, “Spiegelsysteme streifenden Einfalls als abbildende Optiken für Röntgenstrahlen,” Ann. Phys. 445(1-2), 94–114 (1952).
[Crossref]

Yabashi, M.

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, K. Hata, R. Hirose, Y. Takeda, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, K. Omote, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Reflective Imaging Optics Using Concave and Convex Mirrors for a Compact and Achromatic Full-field X-ray Microscope,” Microsc. Microanal. 24(S2Suppl 2), 276 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, S. Yasuda, J. Yamada, H. Okada, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “50-nm-resolution full-field X-ray microscope without chromatic aberration using total-reflection imaging mirrors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yabashi and H. Tanaka, “The next ten years of X-ray science,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 12–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Yabashi, K. Tono, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, T. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, K. Tamasaku, H. Ohashi, S. Goto, and T. Ishikawa, “Optics for coherent X-ray applications,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 976–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, H. Yokoyama, R. Fukui, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, W. Yashiro, A. Momose, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront measurement for a hard-X-ray nanobeam using single-grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24977–24986 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, N. Kidani, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Hard-X-ray imaging optics based on four aspherical mirrors with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10310–10319 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Ueno, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Microstitching interferometry for X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(5), 2894–2898 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard X-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(10), 4549–4553 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yamada, J.

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, K. Hata, R. Hirose, Y. Takeda, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, K. Omote, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Reflective Imaging Optics Using Concave and Convex Mirrors for a Compact and Achromatic Full-field X-ray Microscope,” Microsc. Microanal. 24(S2Suppl 2), 276 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, S. Yasuda, J. Yamada, H. Okada, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “50-nm-resolution full-field X-ray microscope without chromatic aberration using total-reflection imaging mirrors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation of concave-convex imaging mirror system for development of a compact and achromatic full-field x-ray microscope,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 967–974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation of concave-convex imaging mirror system for development of a compact and achromatic full-field x-ray microscope,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 967–974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(9), 093103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamakawa, D.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamamura, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Ueno, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Microstitching interferometry for X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(5), 2894–2898 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard X-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(10), 4549–4553 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yamauchi, K.

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, K. Hata, R. Hirose, Y. Takeda, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, K. Omote, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Reflective Imaging Optics Using Concave and Convex Mirrors for a Compact and Achromatic Full-field X-ray Microscope,” Microsc. Microanal. 24(S2Suppl 2), 276 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, S. Yasuda, J. Yamada, H. Okada, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “50-nm-resolution full-field X-ray microscope without chromatic aberration using total-reflection imaging mirrors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation of concave-convex imaging mirror system for development of a compact and achromatic full-field x-ray microscope,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 967–974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation of concave-convex imaging mirror system for development of a compact and achromatic full-field x-ray microscope,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 967–974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamada, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(9), 093103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yabashi, K. Tono, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, T. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, K. Tamasaku, H. Ohashi, S. Goto, and T. Ishikawa, “Optics for coherent X-ray applications,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 976–985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, H. Yokoyama, R. Fukui, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, W. Yashiro, A. Momose, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront measurement for a hard-X-ray nanobeam using single-grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24977–24986 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, N. Kidani, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Hard-X-ray imaging optics based on four aspherical mirrors with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10310–10319 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, M. Fujii, and K. Yamauchi, “Simulation study of four-mirror alignment of advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 241–245 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard X-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(10), 4549–4553 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Yamauchi, K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Ueno, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, “Microstitching interferometry for X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(5), 2894–2898 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, K. Inagaki, and Y. Mori, “Figuring with subnanometer-level accuracy by numerically controlled elastic emission machining,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(11), 4028–4033 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yashiro, W.

Yasuda, S.

S. Matsuyama, S. Yasuda, J. Yamada, H. Okada, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “50-nm-resolution full-field X-ray microscope without chromatic aberration using total-reflection imaging mirrors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, H.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, H. Yokoyama, R. Fukui, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, W. Yashiro, A. Momose, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront measurement for a hard-X-ray nanobeam using single-grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24977–24986 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yumoto, H.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of X-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Ueno, K. Endo, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Relative angle determinable stitching interferometry for hard X-ray reflective optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 045102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zeschke, T.

F. Siewert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, and H. Lammert, “The nanometer optical component measuring machine: a new sub-nm topography measuring device for X-ray optics at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 847–850 (2004).
[Crossref]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

F. Siewert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, and H. Lammert, “The nanometer optical component measuring machine: a new sub-nm topography measuring device for X-ray optics at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 847–850 (2004).
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Ann. Phys. (1)

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Other (3)

S. Matsuyama, J. Yamada, S. Yasuda, H. Okada, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Development of full-field x-ray fluorescence microscope using total-reflection mirrors,” presented at SPIE Optics+Photonics 2017, Optical Engineering+Applications, X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods III, 10389–5, San Diego, California, USA, 6–10 August (2017).

S. Matsuyama, S. Yasuda, J. Yamada, Y. Kohmura, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi are preparing a manuscript to be called “Novel full-field X-ray fluorescence microscopy using total reflection imaging mirrors.”

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Arrangement of an advanced KB optics based on concave and convex mirrors. (b) Cross section of a mirror pair. (c), (d) Schematic drawings of rays and angle between rays and optical axis of (c) an elliptical mirror and (d) an advanced KB optics based on Wolter type III optics. The relationships of φE > φ'E and θE < θ'E, where the subscript E indicated the ellipse, do not follow the Abbe’s sine condition. The relationships of φW > φ'W and θW > θ'W, where the subscript W indicated the Wolter type III, can follow the Abbe’s sine condition.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Ray-tracing calculation results of magnification factor with designed mirror pair and an elliptical mirrors.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured shapes and residual errors from the ideal shape of the hyperbolic convex (left) and elliptical concave (right) mirror.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Alignment errors in θx (left) and z (right) direction assumed in the wave-optical simulation. (b) Calculated intensity distributions near the foci with and without alignment errors for an X-ray energy of 10 keV. X-ray beams enter from the left side in each figure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of an experimental setup installed at BL29XUL of SPring-8.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Optical geometry for the fine alignment. (b) Dependence of wavefront error on the translational deviation. Dashed and solid lines denote the raw wavefront errors and fitted cubic functions, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Line profiles of demagnified images. Experimentally obtained values and the Gaussian fit are shown by red dots and line, respectively. The fitted width is 42.7 nm in FWHM. The black solid line indicates the profile calculated with the measured shape errors (shown in Fig. 2) and the experimental condition using our wave-optical simulator, with a width of 40.8 nm in FWHM.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Experimentally obtained wavefront errors with various glancing incident angles. (b) Calculated widths of LSFs in FWHM versus the angular deviation from the center of the FoV [27]. The upper axis indicates FoV for the magnifying imaging corresponding to the angular deviation. The colored circles and arrows with dashed lines indicate the corresponding wavefront errors in graphs (a).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Distribution of demagnified beam size near the focus calculated using the ray-tracing simulator. The horizontal (vertical) direction shows the distance along (perpendicular to) the optical axis. The deep blue region indicates the focal surface [27]. (b) Displacement of the focal point versus angular deviation from the FoV center. The experimental results (red dots) are obtained from the radii of curvature of measured wavefronts. The simulated curve (blue line) corresponds to the calculated focal surface shown in (a).

Equations (1)

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sinφ/sinθ=M(const.)

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