Abstract

We propose a new recording system that employs a spherical wave and a toroidal wave to holographically record an aberration-reduced Rowland-circle spherical grating. Two more variables in this recording system are available for the design compared with a conventional symmetric dual-plane-wave recording system, which allows both the astigmatism and sagittal coma of the grating to be corrected to minimum. We derive the aberration coefficients of such grating and give the universal design principles for the recording system. An aberration-reduced grating used in a spectrometer equipped with linear array CCDs is then specifically designed and fabricated. The performances of the aberration-reduced grating and that of the conventional grating recorded by dual plane waves are compared in terms of the ray-tracing spot diagrams, and the photographed spectral images. The experimental results show that the spectral intensity of the aberration-reduced grating is about 4.5 times that of the conventional grating, while the resolution of the aberration-reduced grating is close to that of the conventional grating.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. X. Chen and L. Zeng, “Astigmatism-reduced spherical concave grating holographically recorded by a cylindrical wave and a plane wave for Rowland circle mounting,” Appl. Opt. 57(25), 7281–7286 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. F. Masuda, H. Noda, and T. Namioka, “Design and performance of toroidal holographic gratings,” J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 27(3), 211–223 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  3. https://www.spectro.com/products/icp-oes-aes-spectrometers/spectroblue-icp-oes .
  4. C. Montero-Orille, X. Prieto-Blanco, H. González-Núñez, and R. de la Fuente, “Design of Dyson imaging spectrometers based on the Rowland circle concept,” Appl. Opt. 50(35), 6487–6494 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. Namioka, “Theory of the ellipsoidal concave grating. I,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51(1), 4–12 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Duban, “Holographic aspheric gratings printed with aberrant waves,” Appl. Opt. 26(19), 4263–4273 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. B. J. Brown and I. J. Wilson, “Holographic grating aberration correction for a Rowland circle mount I,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 28(12), 1587–1599 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. J. Brown and I. J. Wilson, “Holographic grating aberration correction for a Rowland circle mount II,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 28(12), 1601–1610 (1981).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

2011 (1)

1987 (1)

1981 (2)

B. J. Brown and I. J. Wilson, “Holographic grating aberration correction for a Rowland circle mount I,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 28(12), 1587–1599 (1981).
[Crossref]

B. J. Brown and I. J. Wilson, “Holographic grating aberration correction for a Rowland circle mount II,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 28(12), 1601–1610 (1981).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

F. Masuda, H. Noda, and T. Namioka, “Design and performance of toroidal holographic gratings,” J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 27(3), 211–223 (1978).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

Brown, B. J.

B. J. Brown and I. J. Wilson, “Holographic grating aberration correction for a Rowland circle mount I,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 28(12), 1587–1599 (1981).
[Crossref]

B. J. Brown and I. J. Wilson, “Holographic grating aberration correction for a Rowland circle mount II,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 28(12), 1601–1610 (1981).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

de la Fuente, R.

Duban, M.

González-Núñez, H.

Masuda, F.

F. Masuda, H. Noda, and T. Namioka, “Design and performance of toroidal holographic gratings,” J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 27(3), 211–223 (1978).
[Crossref]

Montero-Orille, C.

Namioka, T.

F. Masuda, H. Noda, and T. Namioka, “Design and performance of toroidal holographic gratings,” J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 27(3), 211–223 (1978).
[Crossref]

T. Namioka, “Theory of the ellipsoidal concave grating. I,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51(1), 4–12 (1961).
[Crossref]

Noda, H.

F. Masuda, H. Noda, and T. Namioka, “Design and performance of toroidal holographic gratings,” J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 27(3), 211–223 (1978).
[Crossref]

Prieto-Blanco, X.

Wilson, I. J.

B. J. Brown and I. J. Wilson, “Holographic grating aberration correction for a Rowland circle mount I,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 28(12), 1587–1599 (1981).
[Crossref]

B. J. Brown and I. J. Wilson, “Holographic grating aberration correction for a Rowland circle mount II,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 28(12), 1601–1610 (1981).
[Crossref]

Zeng, L.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. (1)

F. Masuda, H. Noda, and T. Namioka, “Design and performance of toroidal holographic gratings,” J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 27(3), 211–223 (1978).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (Lond.) (2)

B. J. Brown and I. J. Wilson, “Holographic grating aberration correction for a Rowland circle mount I,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 28(12), 1587–1599 (1981).
[Crossref]

B. J. Brown and I. J. Wilson, “Holographic grating aberration correction for a Rowland circle mount II,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 28(12), 1601–1610 (1981).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

https://www.spectro.com/products/icp-oes-aes-spectrometers/spectroblue-icp-oes .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of (a) the Rowland-circle mounting, (b) the toroidal wave and (c) the recording geometry of exposure by a spherical wave and a toroidal wave. Figure 1(b) shows solely the toroidal wave of the recording system for a clearer definition. The grating used in the mounting system shown in Fig. 1(a) is recorded by the system shown in Fig. 1(c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spot diagrams of (a) CRSG, (b) IRSG and (c) ARSG at seven different wavelengths. The diagram of each wavelength uses the same coordinate axis as the 200nm’s. The dashed lines indicate the height range of the CCD’s pixel. When drawing the spot diagrams by ray tracing, point A as shown Fig. 1(a) is taken as the only light source and both the toroidal wave and the cylindrical wave are assumed to be ideal.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of (a) the recording system for ARSG and (b) part of the recording system, showing the position and attitude of the cylindrical lens. The half-wave plate before the PBS is used to adjust the relative intensities of the two beams, and that after the PBS is used to ensure that the polarization states of the two waves are consistent. The common purpose of the two half-wave plates is to improve the contrast of interference fringes. The cylindrical lens, with the size 40 × 40 mm (width × height), is made of BK7 glass.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The spectral images of (a) ARSG1 with the slit width of 107 μm, (b) CRSG with the slit width of 107 μm, and (c) ARSG2 with the slit width of 28 μm taken by the 2D CCD with area of 6784 μm × 5427 μm. (d) Spectral intensity distribution of ARSG1, ARSG2 and CRSG. The dashed lines indicate the pixel height range of the linear array CCD. The slit height is 1 mm. The CCD’s exposure times of ARSG1, ARSG2 and CRSG were the same. Part of the CRSG’s spectral image is not captured as shown in Fig. 4(b) due to the limitation of the 2D CCD’s photosensitive area.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spot diagrams of ARSG at seven different wavelengths. The diagram of each wavelength uses the same coordinate axis as the 200nm’s. The dashed lines indicate the height range of the CCD’s pixel. When drawing the spot diagrams by ray tracing, point A as shown Fig. 1(a) is taken as the only light source and the toroidal recording wave simulated is as generated by a cylindrical lens shown in Fig. 3.

Equations (17)

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F ( w , l ) = ( A P + P B ) + m λ λ 0 ( P C P E P ) = ( A P + P B ) + m λ λ 0 { P C [ l 2 + ( ( ( e x D ) 2 + ( w y D ) 2 ) 1 2 + r E r D ) 2 ] 1 2 } ,
F ( w , l ) = F 0 0 + F 10 w + 1 2 F 20 w 2 + 1 2 F 02 l 2 + 1 2 F 30 w 3 + 1 2 F 12 w l 2 ,
F i j = M i j + m λ λ 0 H i j .
M 20 = cos 2 θ A r A cos θ A R + cos 2 θ B r B cos θ B R 0 ,
H 20 = cos 2 θ C r C cos θ C R cos 2 θ D r D + cos θ D R 0 ,
M 02 = 1 r A cos θ A R + 1 r B cos θ B R ,
H 02 = 1 r C cos θ C R 1 r E + cos θ D R ,
M 30 = sin θ A r A ( cos 2 θ A r A cos θ A R ) + sin θ B r B ( cos 2 θ B r B cos θ B R ) 0 ,
H 30 = sin θ C r C ( cos 2 θ C r C cos θ C R ) sin θ D r D ( cos 2 θ D r D cos θ D R ) 0 ,
M 12 = sin θ A r A ( 1 r A cos θ A R ) + sin θ B r B ( 1 r B cos θ B R ) ,
H 12 = sin θ C r C ( 1 r C cos θ C R ) sin θ D r D ( r D r E 2 cos θ D R ) .
I i j ( θ C , r E ) = λ 1 λ 2 F i j 2 d λ ,
I i j ( θ C , r E ) = λ 1 λ 2 M i j 2 d λ + H i j ( θ C , r E ) 2 m λ 0 λ 1 λ 2 ( λ M i j ) d λ + H i j 2 ( θ C , r E ) ( m λ 0 ) 2 λ 1 λ 2 λ 2 d λ ,
S i j = λ 0 m λ 1 λ 2 ( λ M i j ) d λ λ 1 λ 2 λ 2 d λ .
[ I i j ] min = λ 1 λ 2 M i j 2 d λ ( λ 1 λ 2 ( λ M i j ) d λ ) 2 λ 1 λ 2 λ 2 d λ .
{ H 02 ( θ C , r E ) = S 02 H 12 ( θ C , r E ) = S 12 .
I i j = λ 1 λ 2 k ( λ ) F i j 2 d λ ,

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