Abstract

Using two field cruise observations collected during September and December 2016 in the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS), and East China Sea (ECS), our study explores the variability of the particulate backscattering ratio (i.e., a ratio of particulate backscattering, bbp in m−1, to particulate scattering, bp in m−1, denoted as b˜bp, dimensionless). A large variation of b˜bp (using 550 nm as a delegate) in magnitude is observed in the study regions, ranging from 0.0004 to 0.043 (with an average of 0.015 ± 0.0082), which implies optically complex water conditions. Spectral variation in b˜bp is analyzed quantitatively by our proposed so-called “spectral dependence index,” K, recommended as a standard way to determine quantitatively the spectral dependence of b˜bp in water bodies worldwide. The driving mechanism on the b˜bp variability in the study regions is researched for the first time, based on those synchronous data on particle intrinsic attributes, herein mainly referring to particle concentration (TSM, for the content of total suspended matter), composition (using a ratio of Chla/TSM as a surrogate, where Chla refers to the content of chlorophyll a), mean particle size (DA), and mean apparent density (ρa). The TSM, Chla/TSM, and DA cumulatively contribute most (97.8%) of the b˜bp variability, while other factors, such as the ρa, show a weak influence (0.04%). Meanwhile, we model b˜bp with direct linkages to TSM, Chla/TSM, and DA by using a linear regression method, with low estimation errors (such as mean absolute percentage error, MAPE, of about 14%). In short, our findings promote an understanding on the essence of the b˜bp in the BS, YS, and ECS, and are significantly beneficial to the comprehensive grasp of those complex features on suspended particles and those related to biogeochemical processes in marine waters.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  42. A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7019–7031 (2007).
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2018 (1)

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

D. Sun, S. Chen, Z. Qiu, S. Wang, Y. Huan, Y. He, and T. Zhang, “Second‐order variability of inherent optical properties of particles in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea: Driving factor analysis and modeling,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 62(3), 1266–1287 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

L. Qiao, L. Huang, Z. Wang, Z. Yao, and S. Liu, “Flux and its seasonal variation of suspended particulate matter in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea,” Geol. J. 51, 22–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. Xi, P. Larouche, C. Michel, and S. Tang, “Beam attenuation, scattering and backscattering of marine particles in relation to particle size distribution and composition in Hudson Bay (Canada),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(5), 3286–3300 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, “Spectral attenuation and backscattering as indicators of average particle size,” Appl. Opt. 54(24), 7264–7277 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

D. G. Bowers, P. S. Hill, and K. M. Braithwaite, “The effect of particulate organic content on the remote sensing of marine suspended sediments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 144, 172–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

C. Bian, W. Jiang, Q. Quan, T. Wang, R. J. Greatbatch, and W. Li, “Distributions of suspended sediment concentration in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea based on field surveys during the four seasons of 2011,” J. Mar. Syst. 121–122, 24–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. Mckee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam ttenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to article size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(1), 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (6)

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(6), 4571–4604 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(2), 739–752 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the clearest natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7019–7031 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lubac and H. Loisel, “Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110(1), 45–58 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7019–7031 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. McKee and A. Cunningham, “Identification and characterisation of two optical water types in the Irish Sea from in situ inherent optical properties and seawater constituents,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 305–316 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5294–5309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

X. Gao and J. Song, “Phytoplankton distributions and their relationship with the environment in the Changjiang Estuary, China,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 50(3), 327–335 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44(9), 1667–1680 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

E. N. Flory, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and J. Grant, “The relationship between floc area and backscatter during a spring phytoplankton bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(2), 213–223 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Wei, J. Sun, A. Moll, and L. Zhao, “Phytoplankton dynamics in the Bohai Sea—observations and modelling,” J. Mar. Syst. 44(3-4), 233–251 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. He, X. Lu, Z. Qiu, and J. Zhao, “Shallow water tidal constituents in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea from a numerical adjoint model with TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(13-14), 1521–1529 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light Scattering Properties of Marine Particles in Coastal and Open Ocean Waters as Related to the Particle Mass Concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 843–859 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (3)

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Van Heukelem and C. S. Thomas, “Computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography method development with applications to the isolation and analysis of phytoplankton pigments,” J. Chromatogr. A 910(1), 31–49 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Macdonald, M. Twardowski, W. Pegau, A. Barnard, E. Boss, and J. Zaneveld, “Characterization of spectral backscattering in the Gulf of California,” Eos (Wash. D.C.) 80, 49 (2000).

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1988 (3)

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 93(C8), 9270–9280 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 93(C9), 10749–10768 (1988).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 28(11), 1375–1393 (1981).
[Crossref]

Arnone, R. A.

Astoreca, R.

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. Mckee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam ttenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to article size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(1), 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

Babin, M.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light Scattering Properties of Marine Particles in Coastal and Open Ocean Waters as Related to the Particle Mass Concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 843–859 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans109 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barnard, A.

J. Macdonald, M. Twardowski, W. Pegau, A. Barnard, E. Boss, and J. Zaneveld, “Characterization of spectral backscattering in the Gulf of California,” Eos (Wash. D.C.) 80, 49 (2000).

Barnard, A. H.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5294–5309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Berseneva, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal water (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans110 (2005).

Berthon, J. F.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(2), 739–752 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bian, C.

C. Bian, W. Jiang, Q. Quan, T. Wang, R. J. Greatbatch, and W. Li, “Distributions of suspended sediment concentration in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea based on field surveys during the four seasons of 2011,” J. Mar. Syst. 121–122, 24–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, “Spectral attenuation and backscattering as indicators of average particle size,” Appl. Opt. 54(24), 7264–7277 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7019–7031 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7019–7031 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 1035–1050 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Macdonald, M. Twardowski, W. Pegau, A. Barnard, E. Boss, and J. Zaneveld, “Characterization of spectral backscattering in the Gulf of California,” Eos (Wash. D.C.) 80, 49 (2000).

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans109 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bowers, D. G.

D. G. Bowers, P. S. Hill, and K. M. Braithwaite, “The effect of particulate organic content on the remote sensing of marine suspended sediments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 144, 172–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. G. Bowers, K. M. Braithwaite, W. A. M. Nimmo-Smith, and G. W. Graham, “Light scattering by particles suspended in the sea: The role of particle size and density,” Cont. Shelf Res. 29(14), 1748–1755 (2009).
[Crossref]

Braithwaite, K. M.

D. G. Bowers, P. S. Hill, and K. M. Braithwaite, “The effect of particulate organic content on the remote sensing of marine suspended sediments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 144, 172–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. G. Bowers, K. M. Braithwaite, W. A. M. Nimmo-Smith, and G. W. Graham, “Light scattering by particles suspended in the sea: The role of particle size and density,” Cont. Shelf Res. 29(14), 1748–1755 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bricaud, A.

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 28(11), 1375–1393 (1981).
[Crossref]

Brown, I.

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Calzado, V. S.

Chami, M.

D. McKee, M. Chami, I. Brown, V. S. Calzado, D. Doxaran, and A. Cunningham, “Role of measurement uncertainties in observed variability in the spectral backscattering ratio: a case study in mineral-rich coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 48(24), 4663–4675 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal water (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans110 (2005).

Chen, S.

D. Sun, S. Chen, Z. Qiu, S. Wang, Y. Huan, Y. He, and T. Zhang, “Second‐order variability of inherent optical properties of particles in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea: Driving factor analysis and modeling,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 62(3), 1266–1287 (2017).
[Crossref]

Churilova, T. Y.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal water (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans110 (2005).

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Claustre, H.

M. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the clearest natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cowles, T. J.

Cunningham, A.

D. McKee, M. Chami, I. Brown, V. S. Calzado, D. Doxaran, and A. Cunningham, “Role of measurement uncertainties in observed variability in the spectral backscattering ratio: a case study in mineral-rich coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 48(24), 4663–4675 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. McKee and A. Cunningham, “Identification and characterisation of two optical water types in the Irish Sea from in situ inherent optical properties and seawater constituents,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 305–316 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dana, D. R.

Davis, C. O.

Donaghay, P. L.

Dong, Q.

M. Zhang, J. Tang, Q. Song, and Q. Dong, “Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Doxaran, D.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fell, F.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light Scattering Properties of Marine Particles in Coastal and Open Ocean Waters as Related to the Particle Mass Concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 843–859 (2003).
[Crossref]

Flory, E. N.

E. N. Flory, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and J. Grant, “The relationship between floc area and backscatter during a spring phytoplankton bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(2), 213–223 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fournier-Sicre, V.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light Scattering Properties of Marine Particles in Coastal and Open Ocean Waters as Related to the Particle Mass Concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 843–859 (2003).
[Crossref]

Freeman, S.

M. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the clearest natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

Freeman, S. A.

Gao, J.

Gao, X.

X. Gao and J. Song, “Phytoplankton distributions and their relationship with the environment in the Changjiang Estuary, China,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 50(3), 327–335 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goode, W.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gould, R. W.

Graham, G. W.

D. G. Bowers, K. M. Braithwaite, W. A. M. Nimmo-Smith, and G. W. Graham, “Light scattering by particles suspended in the sea: The role of particle size and density,” Cont. Shelf Res. 29(14), 1748–1755 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grant, J.

E. N. Flory, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and J. Grant, “The relationship between floc area and backscatter during a spring phytoplankton bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(2), 213–223 (2004).
[Crossref]

Greatbatch, R. J.

C. Bian, W. Jiang, Q. Quan, T. Wang, R. J. Greatbatch, and W. Li, “Distributions of suspended sediment concentration in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea based on field surveys during the four seasons of 2011,” J. Mar. Syst. 121–122, 24–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Sun, S. Chen, Z. Qiu, S. Wang, Y. Huan, Y. He, and T. Zhang, “Second‐order variability of inherent optical properties of particles in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea: Driving factor analysis and modeling,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 62(3), 1266–1287 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. He, X. Lu, Z. Qiu, and J. Zhao, “Shallow water tidal constituents in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea from a numerical adjoint model with TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(13-14), 1521–1529 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hill, P. S.

D. G. Bowers, P. S. Hill, and K. M. Braithwaite, “The effect of particulate organic content on the remote sensing of marine suspended sediments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 144, 172–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. N. Flory, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and J. Grant, “The relationship between floc area and backscatter during a spring phytoplankton bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(2), 213–223 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huan, Y.

D. Sun, S. Chen, Z. Qiu, S. Wang, Y. Huan, Y. He, and T. Zhang, “Second‐order variability of inherent optical properties of particles in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea: Driving factor analysis and modeling,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 62(3), 1266–1287 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

Huang, L.

L. Qiao, L. Huang, Z. Wang, Z. Yao, and S. Liu, “Flux and its seasonal variation of suspended particulate matter in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea,” Geol. J. 51, 22–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huot, Y.

M. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the clearest natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(6), 4571–4604 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ishizaka, J.

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.

C. Bian, W. Jiang, Q. Quan, T. Wang, R. J. Greatbatch, and W. Li, “Distributions of suspended sediment concentration in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea based on field surveys during the four seasons of 2011,” J. Mar. Syst. 121–122, 24–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khomenko, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal water (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans110 (2005).

Korotaev, G.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans109 (2004).
[Crossref]

Korotaev, G. K.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal water (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans110 (2005).

Ladner, S.

Lamela, G.

Larouche, P.

H. Xi, P. Larouche, C. Michel, and S. Tang, “Beam attenuation, scattering and backscattering of marine particles in relation to particle size distribution and composition in Hudson Bay (Canada),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(5), 3286–3300 (2015).
[Crossref]

Le, C.

Lee, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans109 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. E.-G.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal water (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans110 (2005).

Li, W.

C. Bian, W. Jiang, Q. Quan, T. Wang, R. J. Greatbatch, and W. Li, “Distributions of suspended sediment concentration in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea based on field surveys during the four seasons of 2011,” J. Mar. Syst. 121–122, 24–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Liu, S.

L. Qiao, L. Huang, Z. Wang, Z. Yao, and S. Liu, “Flux and its seasonal variation of suspended particulate matter in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea,” Geol. J. 51, 22–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Loisel, H.

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. Mckee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam ttenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to article size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(1), 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(2), 739–752 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Lubac and H. Loisel, “Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110(1), 45–58 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

Y. He, X. Lu, Z. Qiu, and J. Zhao, “Shallow water tidal constituents in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea from a numerical adjoint model with TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(13-14), 1521–1529 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lubac, B.

B. Lubac and H. Loisel, “Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110(1), 45–58 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lv, H.

Macdonald, J.

J. Macdonald, M. Twardowski, W. Pegau, A. Barnard, E. Boss, and J. Zaneveld, “Characterization of spectral backscattering in the Gulf of California,” Eos (Wash. D.C.) 80, 49 (2000).

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Maffione, R. A.

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[Crossref]

Martynov, O. V.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal water (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans110 (2005).

Mckee, D.

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. Mckee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam ttenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to article size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(1), 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. McKee, M. Chami, I. Brown, V. S. Calzado, D. Doxaran, and A. Cunningham, “Role of measurement uncertainties in observed variability in the spectral backscattering ratio: a case study in mineral-rich coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 48(24), 4663–4675 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. McKee and A. Cunningham, “Identification and characterisation of two optical water types in the Irish Sea from in situ inherent optical properties and seawater constituents,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 305–316 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mériaux, X.

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. Mckee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam ttenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to article size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(1), 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(2), 739–752 (2007).
[Crossref]

Michel, C.

H. Xi, P. Larouche, C. Michel, and S. Tang, “Beam attenuation, scattering and backscattering of marine particles in relation to particle size distribution and composition in Hudson Bay (Canada),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(5), 3286–3300 (2015).
[Crossref]

Milligan, T. G.

E. N. Flory, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and J. Grant, “The relationship between floc area and backscatter during a spring phytoplankton bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(2), 213–223 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mobley, C. D.

Moll, A.

H. Wei, J. Sun, A. Moll, and L. Zhao, “Phytoplankton dynamics in the Bohai Sea—observations and modelling,” J. Mar. Syst. 44(3-4), 233–251 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moore, C. M.

Morel, A.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(6), 4571–4604 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light Scattering Properties of Marine Particles in Coastal and Open Ocean Waters as Related to the Particle Mass Concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 843–859 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 93(C9), 10749–10768 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 28(11), 1375–1393 (1981).
[Crossref]

Neukermans, G.

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. Mckee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam ttenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to article size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(1), 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nimmo-Smith, W. A. M.

D. G. Bowers, K. M. Braithwaite, W. A. M. Nimmo-Smith, and G. W. Graham, “Light scattering by particles suspended in the sea: The role of particle size and density,” Cont. Shelf Res. 29(14), 1748–1755 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pegau, W.

J. Macdonald, M. Twardowski, W. Pegau, A. Barnard, E. Boss, and J. Zaneveld, “Characterization of spectral backscattering in the Gulf of California,” Eos (Wash. D.C.) 80, 49 (2000).

Pegau, W. S.

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7019–7031 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7019–7031 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans109 (2004).
[Crossref]

Platt, T.

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33(30), 7070–7077 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 93(C8), 9270–9280 (1988).
[Crossref]

Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(2), 739–752 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qiao, L.

L. Qiao, L. Huang, Z. Wang, Z. Yao, and S. Liu, “Flux and its seasonal variation of suspended particulate matter in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea,” Geol. J. 51, 22–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Z.

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Sun, S. Chen, Z. Qiu, S. Wang, Y. Huan, Y. He, and T. Zhang, “Second‐order variability of inherent optical properties of particles in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea: Driving factor analysis and modeling,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 62(3), 1266–1287 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. He, X. Lu, Z. Qiu, and J. Zhao, “Shallow water tidal constituents in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea from a numerical adjoint model with TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(13-14), 1521–1529 (2004).
[Crossref]

Quan, Q.

C. Bian, W. Jiang, Q. Quan, T. Wang, R. J. Greatbatch, and W. Li, “Distributions of suspended sediment concentration in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea based on field surveys during the four seasons of 2011,” J. Mar. Syst. 121–122, 24–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, R.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(6), 4571–4604 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rhea, W. J.

Rhoades, B.

Risovic, D.

Sathyendranath, S.

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33(30), 7070–7077 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 93(C8), 9270–9280 (1988).
[Crossref]

Shybanov, E.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans109 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shybanov, E. B.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal water (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans110 (2005).

Slade, W. H.

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Snyder, W. A.

Song, J.

X. Gao and J. Song, “Phytoplankton distributions and their relationship with the environment in the Changjiang Estuary, China,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 50(3), 327–335 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Q.

M. Zhang, J. Tang, Q. Song, and Q. Dong, “Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stavn, R.

Stramski, D.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(6), 4571–4604 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the clearest natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light Scattering Properties of Marine Particles in Coastal and Open Ocean Waters as Related to the Particle Mass Concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 843–859 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, J. M.

Sun, D.

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Sun, S. Chen, Z. Qiu, S. Wang, Y. Huan, Y. He, and T. Zhang, “Second‐order variability of inherent optical properties of particles in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea: Driving factor analysis and modeling,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 62(3), 1266–1287 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Sun, Y. Li, Q. Wang, J. Gao, H. Lv, C. Le, and C. Huang, “Light scattering properties and their relation to the biogeochemical composition of turbid productive waters: a case study of Lake Taihu,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 1979–1989 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

H. Wei, J. Sun, A. Moll, and L. Zhao, “Phytoplankton dynamics in the Bohai Sea—observations and modelling,” J. Mar. Syst. 44(3-4), 233–251 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sundman, L. K.

Sydor, M.

Tang, J.

M. Zhang, J. Tang, Q. Song, and Q. Dong, “Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, S.

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Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(6), 4571–4604 (2007).
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J. Macdonald, M. Twardowski, W. Pegau, A. Barnard, E. Boss, and J. Zaneveld, “Characterization of spectral backscattering in the Gulf of California,” Eos (Wash. D.C.) 80, 49 (2000).

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans109 (2004).
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Twardowski, M. S.

Ulloa, O.

Van Heukelem, L.

L. Van Heukelem and C. S. Thomas, “Computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography method development with applications to the isolation and analysis of phytoplankton pigments,” J. Chromatogr. A 910(1), 31–49 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, S.

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
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D. Sun, S. Chen, Z. Qiu, S. Wang, Y. Huan, Y. He, and T. Zhang, “Second‐order variability of inherent optical properties of particles in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea: Driving factor analysis and modeling,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 62(3), 1266–1287 (2017).
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C. Bian, W. Jiang, Q. Quan, T. Wang, R. J. Greatbatch, and W. Li, “Distributions of suspended sediment concentration in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea based on field surveys during the four seasons of 2011,” J. Mar. Syst. 121–122, 24–35 (2013).
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Whitmire, A. L.

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H. Xi, P. Larouche, C. Michel, and S. Tang, “Beam attenuation, scattering and backscattering of marine particles in relation to particle size distribution and composition in Hudson Bay (Canada),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(5), 3286–3300 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, Z.

L. Qiao, L. Huang, Z. Wang, Z. Yao, and S. Liu, “Flux and its seasonal variation of suspended particulate matter in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea,” Geol. J. 51, 22–34 (2016).
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Zaneveld, J.

J. Macdonald, M. Twardowski, W. Pegau, A. Barnard, E. Boss, and J. Zaneveld, “Characterization of spectral backscattering in the Gulf of California,” Eos (Wash. D.C.) 80, 49 (2000).

Zaneveld, J. R.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
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Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
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Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, J. Tang, Q. Song, and Q. Dong, “Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans115 (2010).
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Zhang, T.

D. Sun, S. Chen, Z. Qiu, S. Wang, Y. Huan, Y. He, and T. Zhang, “Second‐order variability of inherent optical properties of particles in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea: Driving factor analysis and modeling,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 62(3), 1266–1287 (2017).
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Y. He, X. Lu, Z. Qiu, and J. Zhao, “Shallow water tidal constituents in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea from a numerical adjoint model with TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(13-14), 1521–1529 (2004).
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Zhao, L.

H. Wei, J. Sun, A. Moll, and L. Zhao, “Phytoplankton dynamics in the Bohai Sea—observations and modelling,” J. Mar. Syst. 44(3-4), 233–251 (2004).
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Biogeosciences (1)

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(6), 4571–4604 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the clearest natural waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4(4), 2441–2491 (2007).
[Crossref]

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D. G. Bowers, K. M. Braithwaite, W. A. M. Nimmo-Smith, and G. W. Graham, “Light scattering by particles suspended in the sea: The role of particle size and density,” Cont. Shelf Res. 29(14), 1748–1755 (2009).
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Y. He, X. Lu, Z. Qiu, and J. Zhao, “Shallow water tidal constituents in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea from a numerical adjoint model with TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(13-14), 1521–1529 (2004).
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L. Qiao, L. Huang, Z. Wang, Z. Yao, and S. Liu, “Flux and its seasonal variation of suspended particulate matter in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea,” Geol. J. 51, 22–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Chromatogr. A (1)

L. Van Heukelem and C. S. Thomas, “Computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography method development with applications to the isolation and analysis of phytoplankton pigments,” J. Chromatogr. A 910(1), 31–49 (2001).
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M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
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[Crossref]

H. Wei, J. Sun, A. Moll, and L. Zhao, “Phytoplankton dynamics in the Bohai Sea—observations and modelling,” J. Mar. Syst. 44(3-4), 233–251 (2004).
[Crossref]

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D. Sun, S. Chen, Z. Qiu, S. Wang, Y. Huan, Y. He, and T. Zhang, “Second‐order variability of inherent optical properties of particles in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea: Driving factor analysis and modeling,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 62(3), 1266–1287 (2017).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans109 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, J. Tang, Q. Song, and Q. Dong, “Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans115 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal water (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans110 (2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Study areas in the BS, YS, and ECS, overlaid by those stations during two cruises that are carried out in Sep. and Dec. 2016, respectively. Bathymetric contours are color coded.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spectra of particulate backscattering ratios, depicted by the in situ data sets collected in this study.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Statistical linear relationships between the particulate backscattering ratios at wavelengths including 442 nm (A), 488 nm (B), 620 nm (C), and 700 nm (D), with that at the 550 nm reference. These regressions were produced by using 118 in situ samples, observed by the HS-6 instrument. Panel E refers to the spectral dependence index, K, defined in this study.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scatter plots of b ˜ bp(550) vs. (A) Chla, (B) TSM, (C) ISM, (D) OSM, (E) Chla/TSM, (F) ρa, and (G) DA.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calibration of the multivariate linear regression model by using the calibration samples (n = 75) and the validation of the model by using independent validation samples (n = 43). The solid red lines refer to the linear fit between measured and estimated values, and the pairs of two dotted red lines indicate the scope of ± RMSE, along the 1:1 lines.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparisons of the observed b ˜ bp variability between this study and previous studies all over the world.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 A: b ˜ bp versus particle size distribution (PSD) slope, overlain by the n ˜ p contours (blue solid curves), as derived by Twardowski et al. (2001) model. Red and green solid circles denote different data points with the Chla/TSM < 0.3 and Chla/TSM ≥ 0.3, respectively. B: Statistical histogram of the Chla/TSM (10−3) collected in this study.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Symbols and Units for the Parameters Used in This Study

Tables Icon

Table 2 Description of the Two Cruise Surveys in This Study

Tables Icon

Table 3 Statistical Distribution of Those Water Bio-Optical Parameters

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Table 4 Correlations between Various Parameters with the Particulate Backscattering Ratio

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

b ˜ bp = 0 Q bbe x 2 f(x)dx 0 Q be x 2 f(x)dx
N( D i )=6V( D i )/π D i 3
[AC] i = 3 2 D i V( D i )
D A = i=2 31 [AC] i D i [AC] t
ρ a = TSM V( D t )
MAPE= 1 n i=1 n | x i y i x i | ( 100% )
RMSE= 1 n i=1 n ( x i y i ) 2
NRMS=stdev( | x i y i x i | )
mean ratio= 1 n i=1 n ( x i y i )
ln( b ˜ bp )=0.083ln(TSM)+0.208ln(Chla/TSM)1.121ln( D A ) ( R 2 =0.955, p<0.001, n=75)

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