Abstract

We propose a two-dimensional (2D) polymer-walled liquid-crystal (LC) phase-grating device, which can be used to control the haze with a very low power. 2D polymer walls can be formed in an LC cell through ultraviolet light irradiation while applying an in-plane electric field through phase separation induced by the spatial elastic energy difference. The transparent and translucent states can be realized by applying vertical and in-plane electric fields to the 2D polymer-walled LC cell, respectively. The cell can be operated with a very low power as the transparent [translucent] state is maintained even after the applied vertical [in-plane] electric field is removed. It consumes power only during state switching. The fabricated device exhibits outstanding performances, such as a very low operating voltage (< 10 V), low haze (< 2%) in the transparent state, high haze (> 90%) in the translucent state, and short switching time (< 2 ms), compared to those of other bistable LC devices, which can be used to control the haze.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  8. G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Dynamic scattering: a new electrooptic effect in certain classes of nematic liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  9. J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Kim, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Ion-doped liquid-crystal cell with low opaque-state specular transmittance based on electro-hydrodynamic effect,” Dyes Pigments 150, 16–20 (2018).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, J. Kim, M. Cha, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals between high-haze translucent and haze-free transparent states,” Liq. Cryst. 45(10), 1419–1427 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. J.-W. Huh, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Seo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of diffractive smectic-A liquid crystal device between haze-free transparent and high-haze translucent states,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3152–3158 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  30. X. J. Yu and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  31. D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-I. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  32. J.-H. Kim, M. Yoneya, J. Yamamoto, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface alignment bistability of nematic liquid crystals by orientationally frustrated surface patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3055 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface-groove-induced azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal: Berreman’s model reexamined,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 187803 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073504 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  35. J. S. Gwag, Y.-K. Kim, C. H. Lee, and J.-H. Kim, “Realization of multi-stable ground states in a nematic liquid crystal by surface and electric field modification,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11368 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. V. G. Chigrinov and A. Srivastava, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal cells for advanced applications in displays and photonics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 595(1), 39–49 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  37. D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High-efficiency multistable switchable glazing using smectic A liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(3), 301–306 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  38. H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  39. H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, D. Walba, N. A. Clark, and W. Lee, “Bistable SmA liquid-crystal display driven by a two-direction electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 675–681 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  40. T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Interdigitated pixel electrodes with alternating tilts for fast fringe-field switching of liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27569–27576 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 39923 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. Y. Choi, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast turn-off switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals by fine patterning of pixel electrodes,” Crystals (Basel) 7(7), 201 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  46. T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Do, B.-G. Jeon, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of polymer walls through the phase separation of a liquid crystal mixture induced by a spatial elastic energy difference,” unpublished (2018).
  47. Y. Kim, J. Francl, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “A method for the formation of polymer walls in liquid crystal/polymer mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(18), 2253–2255 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  48. H. Ren, S.-T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. R. Verma, A. Sharma, K. Kargupta, and J. Bhaumik, “Electric field induced instability and pattern formation in thin liquid films,” Langmuir 21(8), 3710–3721 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  50. D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6 Pt 1), 060701 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (5)

B.-G. Jeon, T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Do, J.-H. Woo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effects of curing temperature on switching between transparent and translucent states in a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystal cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(10), 4387–4393 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Kim, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Ion-doped liquid-crystal cell with low opaque-state specular transmittance based on electro-hydrodynamic effect,” Dyes Pigments 150, 16–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Jo, T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Control of haze value by dynamic scattering in a liquid crystal mixture without ion dopants,” AIP Adv. 8(8), 085004 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, J. Kim, M. Cha, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals between high-haze translucent and haze-free transparent states,” Liq. Cryst. 45(10), 1419–1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Huh, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Seo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of diffractive smectic-A liquid crystal device between haze-free transparent and high-haze translucent states,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3152–3158 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

Z. Lan, Y. Li, H. Dai, and D. Luo, “Bistable smart window based on ionic liquid doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 2200307 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, Y.-S. Jo, B.-H. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching between homeotropic and focal-conic states in an ion-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29180–29188 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast turn-off switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals by fine patterning of pixel electrodes,” Crystals (Basel) 7(7), 201 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Interdigitated pixel electrodes with alternating tilts for fast fringe-field switching of liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27569–27576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigments 134, 36–40 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, H. Gong, P. Song, J. Sun, S. Guo, H. Cao, L. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Reverse-mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films prepared by patterned polymer walls,” Liq. Cryst. 42(9), 1320–1328 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-K. Kim, C. H. Lee, and J.-H. Kim, “Realization of multi-stable ground states in a nematic liquid crystal by surface and electric field modification,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11368 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

V. G. Chigrinov and A. Srivastava, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal cells for advanced applications in displays and photonics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 595(1), 39–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Li, H.-Y. Tseng, T.-W. Pai, Y.-C. Wu, W.-H. Hsu, H.-C. Jau, C.-W. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Bistable cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with multielectrode driving,” Appl. Opt. 53(22), E33–E37 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-I. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High-efficiency multistable switchable glazing using smectic A liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(3), 301–306 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Bao, C.-M. Liu, and D.-K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

H. Ren, S.-T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, D. Walba, N. A. Clark, and W. Lee, “Bistable SmA liquid-crystal display driven by a two-direction electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 675–681 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface-groove-induced azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal: Berreman’s model reexamined,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 187803 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073504 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. Verma, A. Sharma, K. Kargupta, and J. Bhaumik, “Electric field induced instability and pattern formation in thin liquid films,” Langmuir 21(8), 3710–3721 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

X. J. Yu and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3609–3611 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6 Pt 1), 060701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J.-H. Kim, M. Yoneya, J. Yamamoto, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface alignment bistability of nematic liquid crystals by orientationally frustrated surface patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3055 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Y. Kim, J. Francl, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “A method for the formation of polymer walls in liquid crystal/polymer mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(18), 2253–2255 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[Crossref]

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(9), 1179–1181 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(9), 4406–4412 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, J. H. Morrisy, and B. Needham, “Electrically induced scattering textures in smectic A phases and their electrical reversal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 11(14), 2025–2034 (1978).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Dynamic scattering: a new electrooptic effect in certain classes of nematic liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.-M.

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigments 134, 36–40 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bao, R.

R. Bao, C.-M. Liu, and D.-K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barton, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Dynamic scattering: a new electrooptic effect in certain classes of nematic liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).
[Crossref]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
[Crossref]

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Chen, H.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 39923 (2017).
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Y. Choi, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast turn-off switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals by fine patterning of pixel electrodes,” Crystals (Basel) 7(7), 201 (2017).
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T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).
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T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
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T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
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T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Interdigitated pixel electrodes with alternating tilts for fast fringe-field switching of liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27569–27576 (2016).
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T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
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J. S. Gwag, Y.-K. Kim, C. H. Lee, and J.-H. Kim, “Realization of multi-stable ground states in a nematic liquid crystal by surface and electric field modification,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11368 (2015).
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J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Kim, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Ion-doped liquid-crystal cell with low opaque-state specular transmittance based on electro-hydrodynamic effect,” Dyes Pigments 150, 16–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Huh, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Seo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of diffractive smectic-A liquid crystal device between haze-free transparent and high-haze translucent states,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3152–3158 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, Y.-S. Jo, B.-H. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching between homeotropic and focal-conic states in an ion-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29180–29188 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).
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J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
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Jau, H.-C.

Jeon, B.-G.

B.-G. Jeon, T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Do, J.-H. Woo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effects of curing temperature on switching between transparent and translucent states in a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystal cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(10), 4387–4393 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, J. Kim, M. Cha, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals between high-haze translucent and haze-free transparent states,” Liq. Cryst. 45(10), 1419–1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Choi, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast turn-off switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals by fine patterning of pixel electrodes,” Crystals (Basel) 7(7), 201 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Do, B.-G. Jeon, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of polymer walls through the phase separation of a liquid crystal mixture induced by a spatial elastic energy difference,” unpublished (2018).

Ji, S.-M.

Y.-S. Jo, T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Control of haze value by dynamic scattering in a liquid crystal mixture without ion dopants,” AIP Adv. 8(8), 085004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Kim, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Ion-doped liquid-crystal cell with low opaque-state specular transmittance based on electro-hydrodynamic effect,” Dyes Pigments 150, 16–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, Y.-S. Jo, B.-H. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching between homeotropic and focal-conic states in an ion-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29180–29188 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).
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Jo, Y.-S.

Kargupta, K.

R. Verma, A. Sharma, K. Kargupta, and J. Bhaumik, “Electric field induced instability and pattern formation in thin liquid films,” Langmuir 21(8), 3710–3721 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, J. Kim, M. Cha, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals between high-haze translucent and haze-free transparent states,” Liq. Cryst. 45(10), 1419–1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. C.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-I. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

J.-W. Huh, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Seo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of diffractive smectic-A liquid crystal device between haze-free transparent and high-haze translucent states,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3152–3158 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Kim, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Ion-doped liquid-crystal cell with low opaque-state specular transmittance based on electro-hydrodynamic effect,” Dyes Pigments 150, 16–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, Y.-S. Jo, B.-H. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching between homeotropic and focal-conic states in an ion-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29180–29188 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-K. Kim, C. H. Lee, and J.-H. Kim, “Realization of multi-stable ground states in a nematic liquid crystal by surface and electric field modification,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11368 (2015).
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D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-I. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
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Y. Kim, J. Francl, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “A method for the formation of polymer walls in liquid crystal/polymer mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(18), 2253–2255 (1998).
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J. S. Gwag, Y.-K. Kim, C. H. Lee, and J.-H. Kim, “Realization of multi-stable ground states in a nematic liquid crystal by surface and electric field modification,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11368 (2015).
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H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, D. Walba, N. A. Clark, and W. Lee, “Bistable SmA liquid-crystal display driven by a two-direction electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 675–681 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
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J. S. Gwag, Y.-K. Kim, C. H. Lee, and J.-H. Kim, “Realization of multi-stable ground states in a nematic liquid crystal by surface and electric field modification,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11368 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-I. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-I. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, D. Walba, N. A. Clark, and W. Lee, “Bistable SmA liquid-crystal display driven by a two-direction electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 675–681 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
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Li, Q.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
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Li, Y.

Z. Lan, Y. Li, H. Dai, and D. Luo, “Bistable smart window based on ionic liquid doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 2200307 (2017).
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A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
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D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-I. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
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Lin, Y. H.

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H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3609–3611 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.-M.

R. Bao, C.-M. Liu, and D.-K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luo, D.

Z. Lan, Y. Li, H. Dai, and D. Luo, “Bistable smart window based on ionic liquid doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 2200307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Moheghi, A.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morris, S. M.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High-efficiency multistable switchable glazing using smectic A liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(3), 301–306 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morrisy, J. H.

D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, J. H. Morrisy, and B. Needham, “Electrically induced scattering textures in smectic A phases and their electrical reversal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 11(14), 2025–2034 (1978).
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Needham, B.

D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, J. H. Morrisy, and B. Needham, “Electrically induced scattering textures in smectic A phases and their electrical reversal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 11(14), 2025–2034 (1978).
[Crossref]

Nemati, H.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nobili, M.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(9), 1179–1181 (1997).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.-W.

J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Kim, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Ion-doped liquid-crystal cell with low opaque-state specular transmittance based on electro-hydrodynamic effect,” Dyes Pigments 150, 16–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, Y.-S. Jo, B.-H. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching between homeotropic and focal-conic states in an ion-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29180–29188 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigments 134, 36–40 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pai, T.-W.

Park, K.-H.

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.-J.

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pishnyak, O. P.

D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6 Pt 1), 060701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, T. Z.

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, S.-T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3609–3611 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seo, J.-H.

J.-W. Huh, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Seo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of diffractive smectic-A liquid crystal device between haze-free transparent and high-haze translucent states,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3152–3158 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shao, R.

H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, D. Walba, N. A. Clark, and W. Lee, “Bistable SmA liquid-crystal display driven by a two-direction electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 675–681 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sharma, A.

R. Verma, A. Sharma, K. Kargupta, and J. Bhaumik, “Electric field induced instability and pattern formation in thin liquid films,” Langmuir 21(8), 3710–3721 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, P.

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shin, S. T.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-I. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6 Pt 1), 060701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, D. H.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-I. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Song, P.

H. Wang, H. Gong, P. Song, J. Sun, S. Guo, H. Cao, L. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Reverse-mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films prepared by patterned polymer walls,” Liq. Cryst. 42(9), 1320–1328 (2015).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, A.

V. G. Chigrinov and A. Srivastava, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal cells for advanced applications in displays and photonics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 595(1), 39–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

H. Wang, H. Gong, P. Song, J. Sun, S. Guo, H. Cao, L. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Reverse-mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films prepared by patterned polymer walls,” Liq. Cryst. 42(9), 1320–1328 (2015).
[Crossref]

Taheri, B.

Y. Kim, J. Francl, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “A method for the formation of polymer walls in liquid crystal/polymer mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(18), 2253–2255 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tan, G.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, H.-Y.

Vaz, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Verma, R.

R. Verma, A. Sharma, K. Kargupta, and J. Bhaumik, “Electric field induced instability and pattern formation in thin liquid films,” Langmuir 21(8), 3710–3721 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voloschenko, D.

D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6 Pt 1), 060701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walba, D.

H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, D. Walba, N. A. Clark, and W. Lee, “Bistable SmA liquid-crystal display driven by a two-direction electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 675–681 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, H. Gong, P. Song, J. Sun, S. Guo, H. Cao, L. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Reverse-mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films prepared by patterned polymer walls,” Liq. Cryst. 42(9), 1320–1328 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weng, Y.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, J. L.

Y. Kim, J. Francl, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “A method for the formation of polymer walls in liquid crystal/polymer mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(18), 2253–2255 (1998).
[Crossref]

Woo, J.-H.

B.-G. Jeon, T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Do, J.-H. Woo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effects of curing temperature on switching between transparent and translucent states in a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystal cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(10), 4387–4393 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Huh, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Seo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of diffractive smectic-A liquid crystal device between haze-free transparent and high-haze translucent states,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3152–3158 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, J. Kim, M. Cha, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals between high-haze translucent and haze-free transparent states,” Liq. Cryst. 45(10), 1419–1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Choi, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast turn-off switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals by fine patterning of pixel electrodes,” Crystals (Basel) 7(7), 201 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Interdigitated pixel electrodes with alternating tilts for fast fringe-field switching of liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27569–27576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, B. G.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, S.-T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3609–3611 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

Wu, Y.-C.

Xie, Z. L.

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, J.

J.-H. Kim, M. Yoneya, J. Yamamoto, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface alignment bistability of nematic liquid crystals by orientationally frustrated surface patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3055 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. K.

D. K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

Yang, D.-K.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Bao, C.-M. Liu, and D.-K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
[Crossref]

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Wang, H. Gong, P. Song, J. Sun, S. Guo, H. Cao, L. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Reverse-mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films prepared by patterned polymer walls,” Liq. Cryst. 42(9), 1320–1328 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Yokoyama, H.

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface-groove-induced azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal: Berreman’s model reexamined,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 187803 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073504 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, M. Yoneya, J. Yamamoto, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface alignment bistability of nematic liquid crystals by orientationally frustrated surface patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3055 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yoneya, M.

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface-groove-induced azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal: Berreman’s model reexamined,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 187803 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073504 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, M. Yoneya, J. Yamamoto, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface alignment bistability of nematic liquid crystals by orientationally frustrated surface patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3055 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-W. Huh, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Seo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of diffractive smectic-A liquid crystal device between haze-free transparent and high-haze translucent states,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3152–3158 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, J. Kim, M. Cha, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals between high-haze translucent and haze-free transparent states,” Liq. Cryst. 45(10), 1419–1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

B.-G. Jeon, T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Do, J.-H. Woo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effects of curing temperature on switching between transparent and translucent states in a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystal cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(10), 4387–4393 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Jo, T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Control of haze value by dynamic scattering in a liquid crystal mixture without ion dopants,” AIP Adv. 8(8), 085004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Kim, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Ion-doped liquid-crystal cell with low opaque-state specular transmittance based on electro-hydrodynamic effect,” Dyes Pigments 150, 16–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast turn-off switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals by fine patterning of pixel electrodes,” Crystals (Basel) 7(7), 201 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, Y.-S. Jo, B.-H. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching between homeotropic and focal-conic states in an ion-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29180–29188 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Interdigitated pixel electrodes with alternating tilts for fast fringe-field switching of liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27569–27576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigments 134, 36–40 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-I. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Do, B.-G. Jeon, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of polymer walls through the phase separation of a liquid crystal mixture induced by a spatial elastic energy difference,” unpublished (2018).

Yu, B.-H.

Yu, B.-Y.

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, X. J.

X. J. Yu and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Dynamic scattering: a new electrooptic effect in certain classes of nematic liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

H. Wang, H. Gong, P. Song, J. Sun, S. Guo, H. Cao, L. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Reverse-mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films prepared by patterned polymer walls,” Liq. Cryst. 42(9), 1320–1328 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zumer, S.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

J.-W. Huh, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Seo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of diffractive smectic-A liquid crystal device between haze-free transparent and high-haze translucent states,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3152–3158 (2018).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (2)

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Jo, T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Control of haze value by dynamic scattering in a liquid crystal mixture without ion dopants,” AIP Adv. 8(8), 085004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

R. Bao, C.-M. Liu, and D.-K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(9), 1179–1181 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. J. Yu and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-I. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, M. Yoneya, J. Yamamoto, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface alignment bistability of nematic liquid crystals by orientationally frustrated surface patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3055 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073504 (2007).
[Crossref]

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H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, J. Francl, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “A method for the formation of polymer walls in liquid crystal/polymer mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(18), 2253–2255 (1998).
[Crossref]

Crystals (Basel) (1)

Y. Choi, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast turn-off switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals by fine patterning of pixel electrodes,” Crystals (Basel) 7(7), 201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dyes Pigments (2)

J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Kim, S.-W. Oh, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Ion-doped liquid-crystal cell with low opaque-state specular transmittance based on electro-hydrodynamic effect,” Dyes Pigments 150, 16–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigments 134, 36–40 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Z. Lan, Y. Li, H. Dai, and D. Luo, “Bistable smart window based on ionic liquid doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 2200307 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (2)

B.-G. Jeon, T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Do, J.-H. Woo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effects of curing temperature on switching between transparent and translucent states in a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystal cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(10), 4387–4393 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
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[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

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J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

H.-Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, D. Walba, N. A. Clark, and W. Lee, “Bistable SmA liquid-crystal display driven by a two-direction electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(6), 675–681 (2008).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

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Liq. Cryst. (2)

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, B.-G. Jeon, J. Kim, M. Cha, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals between high-haze translucent and haze-free transparent states,” Liq. Cryst. 45(10), 1419–1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, H. Gong, P. Song, J. Sun, S. Guo, H. Cao, L. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Reverse-mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films prepared by patterned polymer walls,” Liq. Cryst. 42(9), 1320–1328 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

V. G. Chigrinov and A. Srivastava, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal cells for advanced applications in displays and photonics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 595(1), 39–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6 Pt 1), 060701 (2002).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Ren, S.-T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
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J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Surface-groove-induced azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal: Berreman’s model reexamined,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(18), 187803 (2007).
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Proc. IEEE (1)

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[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

J. S. Gwag, Y.-K. Kim, C. H. Lee, and J.-H. Kim, “Realization of multi-stable ground states in a nematic liquid crystal by surface and electric field modification,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11368 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High-efficiency multistable switchable glazing using smectic A liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(3), 301–306 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

E. L. Wood, G. P. Bryan-Brown, P. Brett, A. Graham, J. C. Jones, and J. R. Hughes, “Zenithal bistable device (ZBD) suitable for portable applications,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 31(1), 124–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

T.-H. Choi, S.-M. Do, B.-G. Jeon, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of polymer walls through the phase separation of a liquid crystal mixture induced by a spatial elastic energy difference,” unpublished (2018).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Structure of an LC cell with crossed interdigitated electrodes and elastic energy profiles in the cell driven by an in-plane electric field: (a) near the bottom substrate, (b) near the top substrate, and (c) away from both substrates.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photopolymerization process for the fabrication of the LC cell with 2D polymer walls: (a) preparation of an empty cell with double-layered electrodes on each substrate, (b) UV exposure for polymerization under an applied in-plane electric field after injection of the LC/RM mixture into the empty cell, and (c) completion of the LC cell with 2D polymer walls.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Separation of the two substrates of the cell after the LC removal. (b) POM, (c) SEM, and (d) AFM images of the separated substrate.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated LC director distributions and phase difference profiles of the output light at the applied voltage of 20 V along the (a) x- or y- and (b) diagonal (D) directions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured diffraction efficiency of the zeroth order as a function of the applied vertical voltage. POM images and diffraction patterns (b) under a vertical voltage and (c) after the applied vertical voltage was removed.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measured diffraction efficiency of the zeroth order as a function of the applied in-plane voltage. POM images and diffraction patterns (b) under an in-plane voltage and (c) after the applied in-plane voltage was removed.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured (a) specular transmittance, (b) haze, and (c) images of the fabricated 2D polymer-walled cell, switched from the translucent to the transparent state.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured (a) specular transmittance and (b) haze values of the fabricated pure LC and 2D polymer-walled cells, switched from the transparent to the translucent state. (c) Photographs of the pure LC and 2D polymer-walled cells placed on a printed paper, in the transparent and translucent states.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Switching characteristics of the 2D polymer-walled LC cell.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Temporal switching behaviors of the fabricated pure and 2D polymer-walled LC cells.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Electrooptical characteristics of bistable LC devices.

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