Abstract

Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) for on-chip interconnect, as a degree of freedom to enable further scaling the communication capacity, has attracted wide attention. However, selective loading information to the multimode light carriers of MDM systems is not as simple as the situation in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). In this paper, we demonstrate a scalable mode-selective modulation device for on-chip optical interconnect. It consists of two functional blocks. In one block, we use carrier-depletion add-drop silicon microring resonators to implement the simultaneous mode de-multiplexing from the multimode bus waveguide and high-speed modulation function. In the other block, we use asymmetric directional coupler based mode multiplexers to restore the modulated signals from fundamental mode to original mode sequences. By this structure, each mode channel from input port is separated and can be processed individually. In other words, we can selectively modulate arbitrary mode channels as requirement. The structure could be scaled to numerous mode channels. As a proof of concept, we design and fabricate a device with four microring resonators and a four-channel mode multiplexer. The insertion losses for all modes are less than 2.1 dB, and the inter-mode crosstalk is lower than −19.7 dB. 25 Gbps on-off key (OOK) electrical signals are utilized to drive the microring resonators, the optical eye-diagrams derived from every mode channels are clear and open. The preliminary demonstration of the device with a 50 Gbps OOK signals is also investigated. Our approach can provide more manipulation flexibility to the multimode optical interconnect.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (5)

2016 (4)

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On‐chip silicon 8‐channel hybrid (de) multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode‐and polarization‐division‐multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (4)

2010 (1)

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, “Multimode add-drop multiplexing by adiabatic linearly tapered coupling,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9381–9387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Y. Kawaguchi and K. Tsutsumi, “Mode multiplexing and demultiplexing devices using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1701–1702 (2002).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, S.

Baba, T.

Bai, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of polarization-multiplexing combined with on-chip mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference. Optical Society of America, 2014: Th4A. 3.
[Crossref]

Bergmen, K.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

Chen, C. P.

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of polarization-multiplexing combined with on-chip mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference. Optical Society of America, 2014: Th4A. 3.
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

Chen, W.

Chu, T.

Da Ros, F.

Dadap, J. I.

Dai, D.

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On‐chip silicon 8‐channel hybrid (de) multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode‐and polarization‐division‐multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dai, T.

Ding, J.

Ding, Y.

Driscoll, J. B.

J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, M. Lu, and R. M. Osgood, “Asymmetric Y junctions in silicon waveguides for on-chip mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1854–1856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of polarization-multiplexing combined with on-chip mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference. Optical Society of America, 2014: Th4A. 3.
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R. J.

R. J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity trends and limits of optical communication networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenberg, M.

Grote, R. R.

J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, M. Lu, and R. M. Osgood, “Asymmetric Y junctions in silicon waveguides for on-chip mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1854–1856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of polarization-multiplexing combined with on-chip mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference. Optical Society of America, 2014: Th4A. 3.
[Crossref]

He, S.

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On‐chip silicon 8‐channel hybrid (de) multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode‐and polarization‐division‐multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Hirayama, N.

Horikawa, T.

Hu, T.

Hu, Y.

Huang, B.

Huang, C.

Imai, M.

Ishizaka, Y.

Jia, H.

Jiang, G.

Jiang, X.

Johnson, S. G.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawaguchi, Y.

Koshiba, M.

Li, G.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

Lipson, M.

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, M.

Luo, L. W.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1166–1185.
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, Y.

Ophir, N.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of polarization-multiplexing combined with on-chip mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference. Optical Society of America, 2014: Th4A. 3.
[Crossref]

Orenstein, M.

Osgood, R. M.

J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, M. Lu, and R. M. Osgood, “Asymmetric Y junctions in silicon waveguides for on-chip mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1854–1856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of polarization-multiplexing combined with on-chip mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference. Optical Society of America, 2014: Th4A. 3.
[Crossref]

Ou, H.

Peucheret, C.

Pishvai Bazargani, H.

Poitras, C. B.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Priti, R. B.

Qiu, C.

Qiu, H.

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, K.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, H.

Shi, Y.

Shu, C.

Soref, R.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Souhan, B.

Stern, B.

Su, Y.

Sun, Y.

Takahashi, H.

Tkach, R. W.

R. J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity trends and limits of optical communication networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H.

Tsutsumi, K.

Y. Kawaguchi and K. Tsutsumi, “Mode multiplexing and demultiplexing devices using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1701–1702 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tzuang, L. D.

Uematsu, T.

Usuki, T.

Wang, G.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On‐chip silicon 8‐channel hybrid (de) multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode‐and polarization‐division‐multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer, “Scaling optical fiber networks: challenges and solutions,” Opt. Photonics News 26(3), 28–35 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

Xia, C.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

Xiong, K.

Xiong, Y.

Xu, H.

Xu, J.

Xu, K.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Yang, L.

Yang, T.

Ye, M.

Ye, W. N.

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

Yu, P.

Yu, Y.

Yuan, C.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, L.

Zhou, L.

Zhou, T.

Zhou, W.

Zhu, Q.

Zhu, X.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Kawaguchi and K. Tsutsumi, “Mode multiplexing and demultiplexing devices using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1701–1702 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On‐chip silicon 8‐channel hybrid (de) multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode‐and polarization‐division‐multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the four-channel mode-selective modulation device (MRR: microring resonator, CW: continuous wave laser, MUX: multiplexer).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Scattering matrix model of an add-drop microring resonator. (b) The relationship of the insertion loss and the coupling coefficient. (c) The relationship of the extinction ratio and the coupling coefficient. (d) The relationship of the effective indices and waveguide widths for different modes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Micrograph of the device.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup (ASE: amplified spontaneous emission, TL: tunable laser, PC: polarization controller, DCPS: direct-current power supply, DUT: device under test, PPG: Pulse pattern generator, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer, DCA: digital communication analyzer, RTO: real-time oscilloscope, VOA: variable optical attenuator).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized static transmission spectra of the mode-selective modulation device for the different mode channels at the multimode output port O when broadband light (1525-1565 nm) is coupled into the mode channels TE0 (a), TE1 (b), TE2 (c) and TE3 (d) of the multimode input port I, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Resonance wavelength shift of the microring modulator by thermal tuning. (b) Linear fitting and calculation of the thermal tuning efficiency. (c) Spectral responses under different applied voltages. (d) VπLπ under different applied voltages.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured 25 Gbps eye-diagrams and BER characteristic of the mode-selective modulation device for four different mode channels at 1550 nm. (b) Measured 25 Gbps eye-diagrams at four wavelengths for four different mode channels. (c) Measured 50 Gbps eye-diagrams of the mode-selective modulation device for four different mode channels at 1550 nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Structural parameters of the microring resonators

Equations (1)

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V π L π = δV δλ LFSR 2  

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