Abstract

The correlated color temperature (CCT) of the monitor white needs to be controlled for the preferred image reproduction according to the surround lighting changes. The preferred display white prediction model according to the surround lighting color is proposed both for the emissive transparent display and opaque displays. To develop the model, the preferred CCT of the monitor white of a simulated emissive transparent display and an opaque display were investigated under four different surround lighting CCTs by conducting psychophysical experiments with twenty subjects.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. S. Oh and Y. Kwak, “Hue and warm-cool feeling as the visual resemblance criteria for iso-CCT judgment,” Color Res. Appl. (2018), doi:.
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. S. Baek, Y. Kwak, and S. O. Park, “Monitor brightness changes under a wide range of surround conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34(2), 216–223 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Y. J. Cho, “Device and method for auto-adjustment of image condition in display using data representing both brightness or contrast and color temperature,” U.S. Patent No 6,292,228 (2001).
  4. S. H. Lee, J. H. Koo, D. K. Choi, K. I. Song, K. R. Kwon, S. K. Jeon, and B. G. Kim, “Surrounding light judging method and video compensation control apparatus using the same,” U.S. Patent No 6,822,695 (2004).
  5. K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “User-preferred color temperature adjustment for smartphone display under varying illuminants,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 061708 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “Assessment of white for displays under dark- and chromatic-adapted conditions,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28945–28957 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. J. Kwon, C. M. Yang, M. C. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Simulation of blur in transmitted image through transparent plastic for transparent OLEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 851–858 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Qin, J. Xie, F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Evaluation of a transparent display’s pixel structure regarding subjective quality of diffracted see-through images,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–14 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. S. Berns, “Methods for characterizing CRT displays,” Displays 16(4), 173–182 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. A. Henley and M. D. Fairchild, “Quantifying mixed adaptation in cross-media color reproduction,” in Proceedings of Color and Imaging conference, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2000) 305–310.
  12. O. S. Kwon, T. Y. Park, and Y. H. Ha, “High fidelity color reproduction of plasma displays under ambient lighting,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55(3), 1015–1020 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. De Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. W. G. Hunt, Reproduction of Colour 5th Ed. (Fountain, 1995), Chap. 5.
  15. CIE, CIE 159:2004 A Colour Appearance Model for Colour Management Systems: CIECAM02 (CIE, 2004).

2017 (2)

Y. S. Baek, Y. Kwak, and S. O. Park, “Monitor brightness changes under a wide range of surround conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34(2), 216–223 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, J. Xie, F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Evaluation of a transparent display’s pixel structure regarding subjective quality of diffracted see-through images,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “Assessment of white for displays under dark- and chromatic-adapted conditions,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28945–28957 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Kwon, C. M. Yang, M. C. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Simulation of blur in transmitted image through transparent plastic for transparent OLEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 851–858 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “User-preferred color temperature adjustment for smartphone display under varying illuminants,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 061708 (2014).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

O. S. Kwon, T. Y. Park, and Y. H. Ha, “High fidelity color reproduction of plasma displays under ambient lighting,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55(3), 1015–1020 (2009).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. De Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. S. Berns, “Methods for characterizing CRT displays,” Displays 16(4), 173–182 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. Y.

H. J. Kwon, C. M. Yang, M. C. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Simulation of blur in transmitted image through transparent plastic for transparent OLEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 851–858 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baek, Y. S.

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, “Methods for characterizing CRT displays,” Displays 16(4), 173–182 (1996).
[Crossref]

Blommaert, F. J. J.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. De Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

Choi, K.

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “Assessment of white for displays under dark- and chromatic-adapted conditions,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28945–28957 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “User-preferred color temperature adjustment for smartphone display under varying illuminants,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 061708 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Ridder, H.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. De Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fairchild, M. D.

S. A. Henley and M. D. Fairchild, “Quantifying mixed adaptation in cross-media color reproduction,” in Proceedings of Color and Imaging conference, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2000) 305–310.

Ha, Y. H.

O. S. Kwon, T. Y. Park, and Y. H. Ha, “High fidelity color reproduction of plasma displays under ambient lighting,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55(3), 1015–1020 (2009).
[Crossref]

Henley, S. A.

S. A. Henley and M. D. Fairchild, “Quantifying mixed adaptation in cross-media color reproduction,” in Proceedings of Color and Imaging conference, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2000) 305–310.

Huang, Y. P.

Z. Qin, J. Xie, F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Evaluation of a transparent display’s pixel structure regarding subjective quality of diffracted see-through images,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ito, M.

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

Katoh, N.

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. W.

H. J. Kwon, C. M. Yang, M. C. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Simulation of blur in transmitted image through transparent plastic for transparent OLEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 851–858 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. C.

H. J. Kwon, C. M. Yang, M. C. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Simulation of blur in transmitted image through transparent plastic for transparent OLEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 851–858 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, P. R.

H. J. Kwon, C. M. Yang, M. C. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Simulation of blur in transmitted image through transparent plastic for transparent OLEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 851–858 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kwak, Y.

Y. S. Baek, Y. Kwak, and S. O. Park, “Monitor brightness changes under a wide range of surround conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34(2), 216–223 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oh and Y. Kwak, “Hue and warm-cool feeling as the visual resemblance criteria for iso-CCT judgment,” Color Res. Appl. (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

Kwon, H. J.

H. J. Kwon, C. M. Yang, M. C. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Simulation of blur in transmitted image through transparent plastic for transparent OLEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 851–858 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kwon, O. S.

O. S. Kwon, T. Y. Park, and Y. H. Ha, “High fidelity color reproduction of plasma displays under ambient lighting,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55(3), 1015–1020 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, F. C.

Z. Qin, J. Xie, F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Evaluation of a transparent display’s pixel structure regarding subjective quality of diffracted see-through images,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nakabayashi, K.

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.

S. Oh and Y. Kwak, “Hue and warm-cool feeling as the visual resemblance criteria for iso-CCT judgment,” Color Res. Appl. (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

Ohno, S.

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

Park, S. O.

Park, T. Y.

O. S. Kwon, T. Y. Park, and Y. H. Ha, “High fidelity color reproduction of plasma displays under ambient lighting,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55(3), 1015–1020 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qin, Z.

Z. Qin, J. Xie, F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Evaluation of a transparent display’s pixel structure regarding subjective quality of diffracted see-through images,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H. P. D.

Z. Qin, J. Xie, F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Evaluation of a transparent display’s pixel structure regarding subjective quality of diffracted see-through images,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Suk, H. J.

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “Assessment of white for displays under dark- and chromatic-adapted conditions,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28945–28957 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “User-preferred color temperature adjustment for smartphone display under varying illuminants,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 061708 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, J.

Z. Qin, J. Xie, F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Evaluation of a transparent display’s pixel structure regarding subjective quality of diffracted see-through images,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. M.

H. J. Kwon, C. M. Yang, M. C. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Simulation of blur in transmitted image through transparent plastic for transparent OLEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 851–858 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yendrikhovskij, S. N.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. De Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. De Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

Displays (1)

R. S. Berns, “Methods for characterizing CRT displays,” Displays 16(4), 173–182 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Z. Qin, J. Xie, F. C. Lin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Evaluation of a transparent display’s pixel structure regarding subjective quality of diffracted see-through images,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

O. S. Kwon, T. Y. Park, and Y. H. Ha, “High fidelity color reproduction of plasma displays under ambient lighting,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55(3), 1015–1020 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

H. J. Kwon, C. M. Yang, M. C. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Simulation of blur in transmitted image through transparent plastic for transparent OLEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 851–858 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

N. Katoh, K. Nakabayashi, M. Ito, and S. Ohno, “Effect of ambient light on the color appearance of softcopy images: Mixed chromatic adaptation for self-luminous displays,” J. Electron. Imaging 7(4), 794–806 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “User-preferred color temperature adjustment for smartphone display under varying illuminants,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 061708 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (6)

S. Oh and Y. Kwak, “Hue and warm-cool feeling as the visual resemblance criteria for iso-CCT judgment,” Color Res. Appl. (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

S. A. Henley and M. D. Fairchild, “Quantifying mixed adaptation in cross-media color reproduction,” in Proceedings of Color and Imaging conference, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2000) 305–310.

R. W. G. Hunt, Reproduction of Colour 5th Ed. (Fountain, 1995), Chap. 5.

CIE, CIE 159:2004 A Colour Appearance Model for Colour Management Systems: CIECAM02 (CIE, 2004).

Y. J. Cho, “Device and method for auto-adjustment of image condition in display using data representing both brightness or contrast and color temperature,” U.S. Patent No 6,292,228 (2001).

S. H. Lee, J. H. Koo, D. K. Choi, K. I. Song, K. R. Kwon, S. K. Jeon, and B. G. Kim, “Surrounding light judging method and video compensation control apparatus using the same,” U.S. Patent No 6,822,695 (2004).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setting showing the simulated 100% transparent display.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Surround luminance measurement points (a) and example of surround luminance distribution (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Chromaticities of surround lightings and simulated display white points in CIE u′v′ chromacity coordinates.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Test display simulation process.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Examples of the simulated 6,000K display images: (a) opaque display under 3,000K surround, (b) transparent display under 3,000K surround, (c) opaque under 6,000K surround and (d) transparent display under 6000K surround.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Average selected CCT of each test image under each surround condition.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison between the preferred display CCTs for the transparent OLED display and opaque display under (a) 6,000 K surround, (b) 5,000K surround, (c) 4,000K surround and (d) 3,000K surround conditions.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Preferred self-luminous white CCT and total white CCT for the emissive transparent display compared to the preferred display CCT for the opaque display.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Average preferred display CCTs from all the test images according to the surround CCT.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Predicted preferred display CCT using the mixed chromatic adaptation ratio 0.727.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average measurement CIE colorimetric data for each surround lighting condition

Equations (7)

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LM S adaptation = R adaptation LM S monitor +(1 R adaptation )LM S surround
LM S adaptation = R adaptation LM S prototypical_white +(1 R adaptation )LM S surround
[ L M S ]= M CAT02 [ X Y Z ]=[ 0.7328 0.4296 0.1624 0.7036 1.6975 0.0061 0.0030 0.0136 0.9834 ][ X Y Z ]
LM S adaptation =0.727LM S prototypical_white +0.273LM S surround
LM S monitor = LM S prototypical_white LM S prototypical_white LM S adaptation D+(1+D) where D=F[ 1 1 3.6 e ( L A 42 92 ) ]
[ X monitor Y monitor Z monitor ]= M CAT02 1 [ L monitor M monitor S monitor ]
XY Z emissive_transparent_display =XY Z Monitor TXY Z surround

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