Abstract

Polycrystalline zinc selenide (ZnSe) has been the subject of many nonlinear optics studies for wavelengths under 4.0 µm including sum/difference frequency generation, harmonic generation, and filamentation. In this report, the conversion efficiency of high harmonic generation (HHG) in ZnSe is quantified for mid-infrared wavelengths ranging from 2.7 µm to 8.0 µm. By increasing the fundamental wavelength, we demonstrate that HHG in thick ZnSe targets is limited by the band gap. The high conversion efficiency of mid-infrared to near-infrared light in ZnSe raises concerns of a nonlinear retinal hazard. We contrast the HHG behavior of ZnSe against the observed harmonic generation of calcium fluoride, BK7, and fused silica over the same wavelengths.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (1)

C. B. Marble, S. P. O’Connor, D. T. Nodurft, V. V. Yakovlev, and A. W. Wharmby, “Zinc selenide: an extraordinarily nonlinear material,” Proc. SPIE 10528, 105281X (2018).

2017 (8)

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(6), 061101 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hickstein, D. R. Carlson, A. Kowligy, M. Kirchner, S. R. Domingue, N. Nader, H. Timmers, A. Lind, G. G. Ycas, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “High harmonic generation in periodically poled waveguides,” Optica 4(12), 1538–1544 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. A. Lanin, E. A. Stepanov, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Mapping the electron band structure by intraband high-harmonic generation in solids,” Optica 4(5), 516–519 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. M. Archipovaite, S. Petit, J. C. Delagnes, and E. Cormier, “100 kHz Yb-fiber laser pumped 3 μm optical parametric amplifier for probing solid-state systems in the strong field regime,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 891–894 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kanai, P. Malevich, S. S. Kangaparambil, K. Ishida, M. Mizui, K. Yamanouchi, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, A. Pugzlys, and A. Baltuska, “Parametric amplification of 100 fs mid-infrared pulses in ZnGeP2 driven by a Ho:YAG chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 683–686 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Šuminas, G. Tamošauskas, G. Valiulis, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Multi-octave spanning nonlinear interactions induced by femtosecond filamentation in polycrystalline ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(24), 241106 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, R. Šuminas, V. Jukna, and A. Couairon, “Ultrafast supercontinuum generation in bulk condensed media,” Lith. J. Phys. 57(3), 113–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 724 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

T. T. Luu and H. J. Wörner, “High-order harmonic generation in solids: A unifying approach,” Phys. Rev. B 94(11), 115164 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Filament-induced visible-to-mid-IR supercontinuum in a ZnSe crystal: Towards multi-octave supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 60, 355–358 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

M. Wu, S. Ghimire, D. A. Reis, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043839 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Hawkins, M. Y. Ivanov, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Effect of multiple conduction bands on high-harmonic emission from dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 91(1), 013405 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

N. Garejev, I. Gražulevičiūtė, D. Majus, G. Tamošauskas, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Third- and fifth-harmonic generation in transparent solids with few-optical-cycle midinfrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033846 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Durand, A. Houard, K. Lim, A. Durécu, O. Vasseur, and M. Richardson, “Study of filamentation threshold in zinc selenide,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5852–5858 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

O. D. Mücke, “Isolated high-order harmonics pulse from two-color-driven Bloch oscillations in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(8), 081202 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Saha and S. Deb, “Broadband second-harmonic generation in the near-infrared region in a tapered zinc selenide slab using total internal reflection quasi-phase matching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(10R), 102201 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. J. Rodriguez, F. X. Wang, and M. Kauranen, “Calibration of the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of surface and bulk of glass,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8704–8710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Golde, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “High harmonics generated in semiconductor nanostructures by the coupled dynamics of optical inter- and intraband excitations,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(7), 075330 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, P. Kupecek, P. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. I. Petrov, V. I. Shcheslavskiy, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, V. I. Marine, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Extremely efficient direct third harmonic generation in thin nanostructured films of ZnO,” Proc. SPIE 5337, 166–172 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

A. H. Chin, O. G. Calderón, and J. Kono, “Extreme midinfrared nonlinear optics in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(15), 3292–3295 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Chinh, W. Seibt, and K. Siegbahn, “Dot patterns from second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in polycrystalline ZnSe,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(5), 2612–2614 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

U. Gubler and C. Bosshard, “Optical third-harmonic generation of fused silica in gas atmosphere: Absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 61(16), 10702–10710 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. W. Feise and D. S. Citrin, “Semiclassical theory of terahertz multiple-harmonic generation in semiconductor superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3536–3538 (1999).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

Archipovaite, G. M.

Baltuska, A.

Baudrier-Raybaut, M.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, P. Kupecek, P. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beetar, J.

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(6), 061101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Béjot, P.

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Filament-induced visible-to-mid-IR supercontinuum in a ZnSe crystal: Towards multi-octave supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 60, 355–358 (2016).
[Crossref]

Billard, F.

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Filament-induced visible-to-mid-IR supercontinuum in a ZnSe crystal: Towards multi-octave supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 60, 355–358 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bosshard, C.

U. Gubler and C. Bosshard, “Optical third-harmonic generation of fused silica in gas atmosphere: Absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 61(16), 10702–10710 (2000).
[Crossref]

Calderón, O. G.

A. H. Chin, O. G. Calderón, and J. Kono, “Extreme midinfrared nonlinear optics in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(15), 3292–3295 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlson, D. R.

Chang, Z.

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 724 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chelnokov, E.

G. I. Petrov, V. I. Shcheslavskiy, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, V. I. Marine, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Extremely efficient direct third harmonic generation in thin nanostructured films of ZnO,” Proc. SPIE 5337, 166–172 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chew, A.

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 724 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, A. H.

A. H. Chin, O. G. Calderón, and J. Kono, “Extreme midinfrared nonlinear optics in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(15), 3292–3295 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chinh, T. D.

T. D. Chinh, W. Seibt, and K. Siegbahn, “Dot patterns from second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in polycrystalline ZnSe,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(5), 2612–2614 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chini, M.

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 724 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(6), 061101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Citrin, D. S.

M. W. Feise and D. S. Citrin, “Semiclassical theory of terahertz multiple-harmonic generation in semiconductor superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3536–3538 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cormier, E.

Couairon, A.

R. Šuminas, G. Tamošauskas, G. Valiulis, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Multi-octave spanning nonlinear interactions induced by femtosecond filamentation in polycrystalline ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(24), 241106 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, R. Šuminas, V. Jukna, and A. Couairon, “Ultrafast supercontinuum generation in bulk condensed media,” Lith. J. Phys. 57(3), 113–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Garejev, I. Gražulevičiūtė, D. Majus, G. Tamošauskas, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Third- and fifth-harmonic generation in transparent solids with few-optical-cycle midinfrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033846 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deb, S.

A. Saha and S. Deb, “Broadband second-harmonic generation in the near-infrared region in a tapered zinc selenide slab using total internal reflection quasi-phase matching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(10R), 102201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Delagnes, J. C.

Désévédavy, F.

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Filament-induced visible-to-mid-IR supercontinuum in a ZnSe crystal: Towards multi-octave supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 60, 355–358 (2016).
[Crossref]

DiChiara, A. D.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

DiMauro, L. F.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

Domingue, S. R.

Dubietis, A.

R. Šuminas, A. Marcinkevičiūtė, G. Tamošauskas, and A. Dubietis, “Even and odd harmonics-enhanced supercontinuum generation in zinc-blende semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, A22–A27 (2019).

R. Šuminas, G. Tamošauskas, G. Valiulis, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Multi-octave spanning nonlinear interactions induced by femtosecond filamentation in polycrystalline ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(24), 241106 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, R. Šuminas, V. Jukna, and A. Couairon, “Ultrafast supercontinuum generation in bulk condensed media,” Lith. J. Phys. 57(3), 113–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Garejev, I. Gražulevičiūtė, D. Majus, G. Tamošauskas, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Third- and fifth-harmonic generation in transparent solids with few-optical-cycle midinfrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033846 (2014).
[Crossref]

Durand, M.

Durécu, A.

Fang, C.

Faucher, O.

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Filament-induced visible-to-mid-IR supercontinuum in a ZnSe crystal: Towards multi-octave supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 60, 355–358 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, A. B.

Feise, M. W.

M. W. Feise and D. S. Citrin, “Semiclassical theory of terahertz multiple-harmonic generation in semiconductor superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3536–3538 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. Wu, S. Ghimire, D. A. Reis, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043839 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gadret, G.

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Filament-induced visible-to-mid-IR supercontinuum in a ZnSe crystal: Towards multi-octave supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 60, 355–358 (2016).
[Crossref]

Garejev, N.

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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043836 (2012).
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Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 724 (2017).
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D. Golde, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “High harmonics generated in semiconductor nanostructures by the coupled dynamics of optical inter- and intraband excitations,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(7), 075330 (2008).
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N. Garejev, I. Gražulevičiūtė, D. Majus, G. Tamošauskas, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Third- and fifth-harmonic generation in transparent solids with few-optical-cycle midinfrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033846 (2014).
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M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, P. Kupecek, P. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
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P. G. Hawkins, M. Y. Ivanov, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Effect of multiple conduction bands on high-harmonic emission from dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 91(1), 013405 (2015).
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Hohenleutner, M.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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Huber, R.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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Ivanov, M. Y.

P. G. Hawkins, M. Y. Ivanov, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Effect of multiple conduction bands on high-harmonic emission from dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 91(1), 013405 (2015).
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R. Šuminas, G. Tamošauskas, G. Valiulis, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Multi-octave spanning nonlinear interactions induced by femtosecond filamentation in polycrystalline ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(24), 241106 (2017).
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A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, R. Šuminas, V. Jukna, and A. Couairon, “Ultrafast supercontinuum generation in bulk condensed media,” Lith. J. Phys. 57(3), 113–157 (2017).
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N. Garejev, I. Gražulevičiūtė, D. Majus, G. Tamošauskas, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Third- and fifth-harmonic generation in transparent solids with few-optical-cycle midinfrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033846 (2014).
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O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Filament-induced visible-to-mid-IR supercontinuum in a ZnSe crystal: Towards multi-octave supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 60, 355–358 (2016).
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Kangaparambil, S. S.

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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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Koch, S. W.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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D. Golde, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “High harmonics generated in semiconductor nanostructures by the coupled dynamics of optical inter- and intraband excitations,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(7), 075330 (2008).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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Lemasson, P.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, P. Kupecek, P. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
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N. Garejev, I. Gražulevičiūtė, D. Majus, G. Tamošauskas, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Third- and fifth-harmonic generation in transparent solids with few-optical-cycle midinfrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033846 (2014).
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Marcinkeviciute, A.

Marine, V. I.

G. I. Petrov, V. I. Shcheslavskiy, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, V. I. Marine, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Extremely efficient direct third harmonic generation in thin nanostructured films of ZnO,” Proc. SPIE 5337, 166–172 (2004).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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D. Golde, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “High harmonics generated in semiconductor nanostructures by the coupled dynamics of optical inter- and intraband excitations,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(7), 075330 (2008).
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Mohammad, A.

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Nader, N.

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C. B. Marble, S. P. O’Connor, D. T. Nodurft, V. V. Yakovlev, and A. W. Wharmby, “Zinc selenide: an extraordinarily nonlinear material,” Proc. SPIE 10528, 105281X (2018).

O’Connor, S. P.

C. B. Marble, S. P. O’Connor, D. T. Nodurft, V. V. Yakovlev, and A. W. Wharmby, “Zinc selenide: an extraordinarily nonlinear material,” Proc. SPIE 10528, 105281X (2018).

Ozerov, I.

G. I. Petrov, V. I. Shcheslavskiy, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, V. I. Marine, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Extremely efficient direct third harmonic generation in thin nanostructured films of ZnO,” Proc. SPIE 5337, 166–172 (2004).
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Petit, S.

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G. I. Petrov, V. I. Shcheslavskiy, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, V. I. Marine, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Extremely efficient direct third harmonic generation in thin nanostructured films of ZnO,” Proc. SPIE 5337, 166–172 (2004).
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Reis, D. A.

M. Wu, S. Ghimire, D. A. Reis, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043839 (2015).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043836 (2012).
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Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 724 (2017).
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Rodriguez, F. J.

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M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, P. Kupecek, P. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
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A. Saha and S. Deb, “Broadband second-harmonic generation in the near-infrared region in a tapered zinc selenide slab using total internal reflection quasi-phase matching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(10R), 102201 (2011).
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M. Wu, S. Ghimire, D. A. Reis, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043839 (2015).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043836 (2012).
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O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Filament-induced visible-to-mid-IR supercontinuum in a ZnSe crystal: Towards multi-octave supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 60, 355–358 (2016).
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Šuminas, R.

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A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, R. Šuminas, V. Jukna, and A. Couairon, “Ultrafast supercontinuum generation in bulk condensed media,” Lith. J. Phys. 57(3), 113–157 (2017).
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R. Šuminas, G. Tamošauskas, G. Valiulis, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Multi-octave spanning nonlinear interactions induced by femtosecond filamentation in polycrystalline ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(24), 241106 (2017).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043836 (2012).
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Tamošauskas, G.

R. Šuminas, A. Marcinkevičiūtė, G. Tamošauskas, and A. Dubietis, “Even and odd harmonics-enhanced supercontinuum generation in zinc-blende semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, A22–A27 (2019).

R. Šuminas, G. Tamošauskas, G. Valiulis, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Multi-octave spanning nonlinear interactions induced by femtosecond filamentation in polycrystalline ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(24), 241106 (2017).
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A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, R. Šuminas, V. Jukna, and A. Couairon, “Ultrafast supercontinuum generation in bulk condensed media,” Lith. J. Phys. 57(3), 113–157 (2017).
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N. Garejev, I. Gražulevičiūtė, D. Majus, G. Tamošauskas, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Third- and fifth-harmonic generation in transparent solids with few-optical-cycle midinfrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033846 (2014).
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Timmers, H.

Urbanek, B.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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Valiulis, G.

R. Šuminas, G. Tamošauskas, G. Valiulis, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Multi-octave spanning nonlinear interactions induced by femtosecond filamentation in polycrystalline ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(24), 241106 (2017).
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Wang, F. X.

Wang, L.

Wharmby, A. W.

C. B. Marble, S. P. O’Connor, D. T. Nodurft, V. V. Yakovlev, and A. W. Wharmby, “Zinc selenide: an extraordinarily nonlinear material,” Proc. SPIE 10528, 105281X (2018).

Wörner, H. J.

T. T. Luu and H. J. Wörner, “High-order harmonic generation in solids: A unifying approach,” Phys. Rev. B 94(11), 115164 (2016).
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M. Wu, S. Ghimire, D. A. Reis, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043839 (2015).
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Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 724 (2017).
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P. G. Hawkins, M. Y. Ivanov, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Effect of multiple conduction bands on high-harmonic emission from dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 91(1), 013405 (2015).
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C. B. Marble, S. P. O’Connor, D. T. Nodurft, V. V. Yakovlev, and A. W. Wharmby, “Zinc selenide: an extraordinarily nonlinear material,” Proc. SPIE 10528, 105281X (2018).

G. I. Petrov, V. I. Shcheslavskiy, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, V. I. Marine, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Extremely efficient direct third harmonic generation in thin nanostructured films of ZnO,” Proc. SPIE 5337, 166–172 (2004).
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Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 724 (2017).
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Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 724 (2017).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Šuminas, G. Tamošauskas, G. Valiulis, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Multi-octave spanning nonlinear interactions induced by femtosecond filamentation in polycrystalline ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(24), 241106 (2017).
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S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(6), 061101 (2017).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. D. Chinh, W. Seibt, and K. Siegbahn, “Dot patterns from second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in polycrystalline ZnSe,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(5), 2612–2614 (2001).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Saha and S. Deb, “Broadband second-harmonic generation in the near-infrared region in a tapered zinc selenide slab using total internal reflection quasi-phase matching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(10R), 102201 (2011).
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Lith. J. Phys. (1)

A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, R. Šuminas, V. Jukna, and A. Couairon, “Ultrafast supercontinuum generation in bulk condensed media,” Lith. J. Phys. 57(3), 113–157 (2017).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 724 (2017).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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Nature (1)

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, P. Kupecek, P. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Filament-induced visible-to-mid-IR supercontinuum in a ZnSe crystal: Towards multi-octave supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 60, 355–358 (2016).
[Crossref]

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Garejev, I. Gražulevičiūtė, D. Majus, G. Tamošauskas, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Third- and fifth-harmonic generation in transparent solids with few-optical-cycle midinfrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033846 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wu, S. Ghimire, D. A. Reis, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043839 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Hawkins, M. Y. Ivanov, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Effect of multiple conduction bands on high-harmonic emission from dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 91(1), 013405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. T. Luu and H. J. Wörner, “High-order harmonic generation in solids: A unifying approach,” Phys. Rev. B 94(11), 115164 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (3)

D. Golde, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “High harmonics generated in semiconductor nanostructures by the coupled dynamics of optical inter- and intraband excitations,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(7), 075330 (2008).
[Crossref]

U. Gubler and C. Bosshard, “Optical third-harmonic generation of fused silica in gas atmosphere: Absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 61(16), 10702–10710 (2000).
[Crossref]

O. D. Mücke, “Isolated high-order harmonics pulse from two-color-driven Bloch oscillations in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(8), 081202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. H. Chin, O. G. Calderón, and J. Kono, “Extreme midinfrared nonlinear optics in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(15), 3292–3295 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

G. I. Petrov, V. I. Shcheslavskiy, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, V. I. Marine, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Extremely efficient direct third harmonic generation in thin nanostructured films of ZnO,” Proc. SPIE 5337, 166–172 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. B. Marble, S. P. O’Connor, D. T. Nodurft, V. V. Yakovlev, and A. W. Wharmby, “Zinc selenide: an extraordinarily nonlinear material,” Proc. SPIE 10528, 105281X (2018).

Other (2)

K. Werner, N. Talisa, B. Wilmer, L. Vanderhoef, A. Schweinsberg, C. Wolfe, A. Valenzuela, and E. Chowdhury, “Mid-Wave Infrared Nonlinear Optics in Polycrystalline Zinc Selenide and Zinc Sulfide,” in Frontiers in Optics 2018, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper JTu3A.33.

American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers: ANSI Z136.1–2014 (Laser Institute of America, 2014).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The first experimental setup. D1 and D2 are dichroic mirrors, L1-L3 are Eksma OpticsTM lenses (models 110-5204E, 110-5209E, and 110-5205E respectively). T is the ZnSe target and S is the USB 2000 + or NIR-512 spectrometer. The Ti:sapphire pump and regenerative amplifier (Spectra Physics Spitfire Ace model 8PTFPA-100F-1K-ACE) are not shown.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The second experimental setup. F is the filter wheel. L1-L5 are Eksma OpticsTM lenses (models 110-5204E, 110-5209E, 110-5205E, 112-5217E, and 561-6265 respectively). T is the target media (CaF2, BK7 or fused silica). D1, D2, and S remain unchanged from Fig. 1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Zinc selenide spectra for a (a) 5.0 µm beam and (b) 7.0 µm beam. Red data (dots) shows the near-IR spectra measured with the NIR-512. Blue data (line) shows the visible spectra measured with the USB 2000 + .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) the harmonics observed for wavelengths from 2.7 µm to 3.0 µm. (b) the harmonics observed for wavelengths from 3.5 µm to 8.0 µm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 CaF2 spectra for a 3.0 µm beam. Red data (dots) shows the near-IR spectra measured with the NIR-512. Blue data (line) shows the visible spectra measured with the USB 2000 + . Both sets are plotted after subtracting the background without the CaF2 target.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Beam Properties for Zinc Selenide Study.

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Table 2 Beam Parameters for CaF2, Fused Silica, and BK7.

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