Abstract

Polarization-dependent diffraction based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements (PBOEs) offers considerable benefits compared to conventional metasurfaces, such as negligible absorption, nearly 100% diffraction efficiency and an inexpensive fabrication process. Polarization holography is a simple way to fabricate PBOEs, which entails the interference of beams with different polarizations to generate a spatial-varying polarization field. Thus, the quality of recorded PBOEs manifests high sensitivity to the length change and phase shift between polarized beams, usually caused by environmental vibration and air flow. Here, new polarization holography based on modified Sagnac interferometry is developed for fabricating liquid crystal–based PB gratings and lenses, where the pitch of grating and optical power of lens could be easily tuned. This approach offers high tolerance to environmental disturbance during the exposure process. Detailed design parameters are analyzed, and the fabricated PBOEs with high optical quality are also demonstrated.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (5)

2017 (6)

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

2014 (3)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

C. Oh, J. Kim, J. Muth, S. Serati, and M. J. Escuti, “High-throughput continuous beam steering using rotating polarization gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 200–202 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonics News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. N. Naik, T. Ezawa, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Real-time coherence holography,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13782–13787 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

H. Choi, J. H. Woo, J. W. Wu, D.-W. Kim, T.-K. Lim, and S. H. Song, “Holographic inscription of helical wavefronts in a liquid crystal polarization grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam–Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

J.-M. Vigoureux and D. Van Labeke, “A geometric phase in optical multilayers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(11), 2409–2416 (1998).
[Crossref]

Anand, A.

Bai, B. F.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bauchrowitz, J.

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, S.

Bhowmik, A.

Bhowmik, A. K.

Biener, G.

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam–Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1141–1143 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bomzon, Z.

Bos, P.

Bos, P. J.

Boyd, R. W.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheah, K. W.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, S. M.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. Z.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. H.

Chhaniwal, V.

Chipman, R. A.

Choi, H.

H. Choi, J. H. Woo, J. W. Wu, D.-W. Kim, T.-K. Lim, and S. H. Song, “Holographic inscription of helical wavefronts in a liquid crystal polarization grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

De Leon, I.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dereniak, E. L.

Di, J.

Eberle, T.

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Escuti, M. J.

X. Xiang, J. Kim, R. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Nanoscale liquid crystal polymer Bragg polarization gratings,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19298–19308 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, M. N. Miskiewicz, S. Serati, and M. J. Escuti, “Nonmechanical laser beam steering based on polymer polarization gratings: Design optimization and demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(10), 2068–2077 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, Y. Li, M. N. Miskiewicz, C. Oh, M. W. Kudenov, and M. J. Escuti, “Fabrication of ideal geometric- phase holograms with arbitrary wavefronts,” Optica 2(11), 958–964 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. W. Kudenov, M. J. Escuti, N. Hagen, E. L. Dereniak, and K. Oka, “Snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter using polarization gratings,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1367–1369 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, C. Oh, S. Serati, and M. J. Escuti, “Wide-angle, nonmechanical beam steering with high throughput utilizing polarization gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50(17), 2636–2639 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Kudenov, M. J. Escuti, E. L. Dereniak, and K. Oka, “White-light channeled imaging polarimeter using broadband polarization gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50(15), 2283–2293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Oh, J. Kim, J. Muth, S. Serati, and M. J. Escuti, “High-throughput continuous beam steering using rotating polarization gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 200–202 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ezawa, T.

Finnemeyer, V.

Gao, K.

Gauza, S.

Y. H. Lee, G. Tan, T. Zhan, Y. Weng, G. Liu, F. Gou, F. Peng, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Recent progress in Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and the applications for virtual/augmented realities,” Opt. Data Process. Storage 3(1), 79–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gou, F.

Y. H. Lee, G. Tan, T. Zhan, Y. Weng, G. Liu, F. Gou, F. Peng, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Recent progress in Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and the applications for virtual/augmented realities,” Opt. Data Process. Storage 3(1), 79–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Gou, F. Peng, Q. Ru, Y. H. Lee, H. Chen, Z. He, T. Zhan, K. L. Vodopyanov, and S. T. Wu, “Mid-wave infrared beam steering based on high-efficiency liquid crystal diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22404–22410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagen, N.

Händchen, V.

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasman, E.

He, Z.

Hooper, I. R.

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, L. L.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jamali, A.

Javidi, B.

Jin, G. F.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jones, W. M.

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karimi, E.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-W.

H. Choi, J. H. Woo, J. W. Wu, D.-W. Kim, T.-K. Lim, and S. H. Song, “Holographic inscription of helical wavefronts in a liquid crystal polarization grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Kimball, B. R.

N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, S. R. Nersisyan, D. E. Roberts, B. Ya. Zeldovich, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Broadband waveplate lenses,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7091–7102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonics News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kleiner, V.

Komanduri, R.

Komanduri, R. K.

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kudenov, M. W.

Lee, Y. H.

Li, J. S.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

Li, Y.

Lim, T.-K.

H. Choi, J. H. Woo, J. W. Wu, D.-W. Kim, T.-K. Lim, and S. H. Song, “Holographic inscription of helical wavefronts in a liquid crystal polarization grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

Y. H. Lee, G. Tan, T. Zhan, Y. Weng, G. Liu, F. Gou, F. Peng, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Recent progress in Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and the applications for virtual/augmented realities,” Opt. Data Process. Storage 3(1), 79–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Ma, C.

Mahajan, S.

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

McEldowney, S. C.

McGinty, C.

Mehmet, M.

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meinzer, N.

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miskiewicz, M. N.

Miyamoto, Y.

Muhlenbernd, H.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Müller-Ebhardt, H.

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muth, J.

C. Oh, J. Kim, J. Muth, S. Serati, and M. J. Escuti, “High-throughput continuous beam steering using rotating polarization gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 200–202 (2010).
[Crossref]

Naik, D. N.

Nersisyan, S. R.

N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, S. R. Nersisyan, D. E. Roberts, B. Ya. Zeldovich, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Broadband waveplate lenses,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7091–7102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonics News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
[Crossref]

Niv, A.

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam–Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

Oh, C.

J. Kim, Y. Li, M. N. Miskiewicz, C. Oh, M. W. Kudenov, and M. J. Escuti, “Fabrication of ideal geometric- phase holograms with arbitrary wavefronts,” Optica 2(11), 958–964 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, C. Oh, S. Serati, and M. J. Escuti, “Wide-angle, nonmechanical beam steering with high throughput utilizing polarization gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50(17), 2636–2639 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Oh, J. Kim, J. Muth, S. Serati, and M. J. Escuti, “High-throughput continuous beam steering using rotating polarization gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 200–202 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oka, K.

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Payson, H.

Peng, F.

Y. H. Lee, G. Tan, T. Zhan, Y. Weng, G. Liu, F. Gou, F. Peng, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Recent progress in Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and the applications for virtual/augmented realities,” Opt. Data Process. Storage 3(1), 79–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Gou, F. Peng, Q. Ru, Y. H. Lee, H. Chen, Z. He, T. Zhan, K. L. Vodopyanov, and S. T. Wu, “Mid-wave infrared beam steering based on high-efficiency liquid crystal diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22404–22410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qassim, H.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C. W.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roberts, B.

Roberts, D. E.

Ru, Q.

Schnabel, R.

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulz, S. A.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Serak, S. V.

Serati, S.

Shemo, D. M.

Smith, P. K.

Song, S. H.

H. Choi, J. H. Woo, J. W. Wu, D.-W. Kim, T.-K. Lim, and S. H. Song, “Holographic inscription of helical wavefronts in a liquid crystal polarization grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Steeves, D. M.

N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, S. R. Nersisyan, D. E. Roberts, B. Ya. Zeldovich, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Broadband waveplate lenses,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7091–7102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonics News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
[Crossref]

Steinlechner, S.

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabiryan, N. V.

Y. H. Lee, G. Tan, T. Zhan, Y. Weng, G. Liu, F. Gou, F. Peng, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Recent progress in Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and the applications for virtual/augmented realities,” Opt. Data Process. Storage 3(1), 79–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, S. R. Nersisyan, D. E. Roberts, B. Ya. Zeldovich, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Broadband waveplate lenses,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7091–7102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonics News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takeda, M.

Tan, G.

Y. H. Lee, G. Tan, K. Yin, T. Zhan, and S. T. Wu, “Compact see-through near-eye display with depth adaption,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 26(2), 64–70 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Tan, Y. H. Lee, T. Zhan, J. Yang, S. Liu, D. Zhao, and S. T. Wu, “Foveated imaging for near-eye displays,” Opt. Express 26(19), 25076–25085 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Tan, T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-multiplexed multiplane display,” Opt. Lett. 43(22), 5651–5654 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lee, G. Tan, T. Zhan, Y. Weng, G. Liu, F. Gou, F. Peng, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Recent progress in Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and the applications for virtual/augmented realities,” Opt. Data Process. Storage 3(1), 79–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tan, Q. F.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Trivedi, V.

Upham, J.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vahlbruch, H.

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Labeke, D.

J.-M. Vigoureux and D. Van Labeke, “A geometric phase in optical multilayers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(11), 2409–2416 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vigoureux, J.-M.

J.-M. Vigoureux and D. Van Labeke, “A geometric phase in optical multilayers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(11), 2409–2416 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Vora, P.

Vornehm, J.

Weng, Y.

Y. H. Lee, G. Tan, T. Zhan, Y. Weng, G. Liu, F. Gou, F. Peng, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Recent progress in Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and the applications for virtual/augmented realities,” Opt. Data Process. Storage 3(1), 79–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Woo, J. H.

H. Choi, J. H. Woo, J. W. Wu, D.-W. Kim, T.-K. Lim, and S. H. Song, “Holographic inscription of helical wavefronts in a liquid crystal polarization grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. W.

H. Choi, J. H. Woo, J. W. Wu, D.-W. Kim, T.-K. Lim, and S. H. Song, “Holographic inscription of helical wavefronts in a liquid crystal polarization grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Xi, T.

Xiang, X.

Xiong, J.

Yang, J.

Yin, K.

Y. H. Lee, G. Tan, K. Yin, T. Zhan, and S. T. Wu, “Compact see-through near-eye display with depth adaption,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 26(2), 64–70 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yousefzadeh, C.

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeldovich, B. Ya.

Zentgraf, T.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhan, T.

Zhang, H.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, S.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D.

Zhao, J.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Choi, J. H. Woo, J. W. Wu, D.-W. Kim, T.-K. Lim, and S. H. Song, “Holographic inscription of helical wavefronts in a liquid crystal polarization grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam–Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Oh, J. Kim, J. Muth, S. Serati, and M. J. Escuti, “High-throughput continuous beam steering using rotating polarization gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 200–202 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J.-M. Vigoureux and D. Van Labeke, “A geometric phase in optical multilayers,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(11), 2409–2416 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

Y. H. Lee, G. Tan, K. Yin, T. Zhan, and S. T. Wu, “Compact see-through near-eye display with depth adaption,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 26(2), 64–70 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. M. Chen, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, K. W. Cheah, C. W. Qiu, J. S. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Data Process. Storage (1)

Y. H. Lee, G. Tan, T. Zhan, Y. Weng, G. Liu, F. Gou, F. Peng, N. V. Tabiryan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Recent progress in Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and the applications for virtual/augmented realities,” Opt. Data Process. Storage 3(1), 79–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

X. Xiang, J. Kim, R. Komanduri, and M. J. Escuti, “Nanoscale liquid crystal polymer Bragg polarization gratings,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19298–19308 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Gao, H. H. Cheng, A. K. Bhowmik, and P. J. Bos, “Thin-film Pancharatnam lens with low f-number and high quality,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26086–26094 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High-resolution additive light field near-eye display by switchable Pancharatnam-Berry phase lenses,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4863–4872 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Tan, Y. H. Lee, T. Zhan, J. Yang, S. Liu, D. Zhao, and S. T. Wu, “Foveated imaging for near-eye displays,” Opt. Express 26(19), 25076–25085 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Naik, T. Ezawa, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “3-D coherence holography using a modified Sagnac radial shearing interferometer with geometric phase shift,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10633–10641 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Naik, T. Ezawa, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Real-time coherence holography,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13782–13787 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ma, Y. Li, J. Zhang, P. Li, T. Xi, J. Di, and J. Zhao, “Lateral shearing common-path digital holographic microscopy based on a slightly trapezoid Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13659–13667 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, S. R. Nersisyan, D. E. Roberts, B. Ya. Zeldovich, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Broadband waveplate lenses,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7091–7102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Gao, C. McGinty, H. Payson, S. Berry, J. Vornehm, V. Finnemeyer, B. Roberts, and P. Bos, “High-efficiency large-angle Pancharatnam phase deflector based on dual-twist design,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6283–6293 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Gou, F. Peng, Q. Ru, Y. H. Lee, H. Chen, Z. He, T. Zhan, K. L. Vodopyanov, and S. T. Wu, “Mid-wave infrared beam steering based on high-efficiency liquid crystal diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22404–22410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonics News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

K. Gao, Optical simulation and fabrication of Pancharatnam (geometric) phase devices from liquid crystals, Ph.D. dissertation (Kent State University, 2017).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic illustration of conventional polarization holography setup for the fabrication of (a) PB gratings and (b) PB lenses (NPBS: non-polarizing beam splitter; M: mirror; QWP: quarter-wave plate; S: substrate; BE: beam expander; TL: template lens.).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The schematic of the proposed polarization holography setup for fabricating PB gratings based on modified Sagnac interferometer, where the grating pitch is tuned by (a) the second mirror or (c) the PBS. Schematic illustration of the incoming and outgoing beams in the PBS by rotating (b) mirror or (d) PBS, where θ and θ'are the recording angle of the PB gratings, accordingly (PBS: polarizing beam splitter; HWP: half-wave plate).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of the proposed polarization holography setup for fabricating PB lens based on 2-mirror Sagnac interferometer. (LS: refractive lens system) Top view of the recording beam intensity distribution with (b) a single lens and (c) a set of lenses.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Center fringe intensity variations of the two types of setup under 100Hz vibration.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PBOE fabrication flowchart. BY: Brilliant Yellow; RMM: reactive mesogen mixture.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Polarized optics microscope images of (a) a PB grating (with ~7.8μm period) and (b) a PB lens (with ~48cm focal length at 488nm wavelength) between crossed polarizers.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Polarized optical microscopy images of a PB lens. The transmission axis of the polarizer (upper-left) is vertically placed, and that of the analyzer (lower-left) is oriented at (a) 0°, (b) 45°, (c) 90°, and (d) 135° with respect to the transmission direction of the polarizer.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured first-order diffraction efficiency of a 2″ PBL (inner) in the visible spectrum.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 PB grating fabrication parameter in Fig. 2 with 488 nm source.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The composition of the solutions used for PBOEs fabrication (by weight).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Λ= λ 2sin( θ 2 ) = λ 2sin(φ) ,
Λ'= λ 2sin( θ' 2 ) = λ 2sin(2φ') ,
E out =A( θ a ) W HWP (ψ)P( θ p ) =( cos 2 θ a cos θ a sin θ a cos θ a sin θ a sin 2 θ a )( cos2ψ sin2ψ sin2ψ cos2ψ )( cos θ p sin θ p ),
I= E out E out ,
I θ p =90°, θ a =0° (ψ)= 1cos(4ψ) 2 .

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