Abstract

Broadband polarimetric imaging consists of forming an image under spectrally wide illumination after having optimized the polarization state analyzer (PSA) to maximize the target/background discriminability. In previous works, the image sensor was monochrome, and only the intensity contrast was optimized. However, due to its spectrally varying response, the PSA not only changes the light’s intensity, but also its color. This color information can serve as a further parameter to improve discrimination. In this paper, we employ a color camera in a broadband Stokes (passive) polarimetric imaging system and take into color difference’s contribution to discrimination ability in optimizing the PSA setting. We show through experiments that a significant improvement of discrimination ability over monochrome imaging is obtained, especially when there are multiple objects in the scene.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

Alouini, M.

Álvarez, J.

Anna, G.

Antonelli, M.-R.

Bankhead, J.

Barzda, V.

Benali, A.

Boffety, M.

Boito, P.

Brady, P. C.

Bretenaker, F.

Carré, A.

Carrizo, C.

Chen, Q.

Chenault, D. B.

Chipman, R.

Cummings, M. E.

De Martino, A.

Deby, S.

Dereniak, E.

Dereniak, E. L.

Dolfi, D.

Escuti, M. J.

Fade, J.

Frein, L.

Gayet, B.

Gilerson, A. A.

Goldstein, D. L.

Goudail, F.

Gu, G.

Gu, Y.

Hamel, C.

Han, J.

Hill, D.

Hoover, B. G.

Hu, H.

Huang, B.

M. Yu, T. Liu, H. Huang, H. Hu, and B. Huang, “Multispectral Stokes imaging polarimetry based on color camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 6900910 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, T. Liu, J. Han, and H. Hu, “Polarimetric target detection under uneven illumination,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23603–23612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

M. Yu, H. Huang, H. Hu, L. Wu, H. Zhai, and T. Liu, “Colorimetric discrimination for Stokes polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3765–3773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yu, T. Liu, H. Huang, H. Hu, and B. Huang, “Multispectral Stokes imaging polarimetry based on color camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 6900910 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ibrahim, A. I.

Johnson, S. J.

Kattawar, G. W.

Kontenis, L.

Krouglov, S.

Kudenov, M. W.

Kupinski, M. K.

Liu, T.

Locke, A.

Manhas, S.

Martínez-Pastor, J.

McMillan, R.

Novikova, T.

Oka, K.

Orlik, X.

Pagnoux, D.

Panigrahi, S.

Pierangelo, A.

Qian, W.

Ramachandran, H.

Ren, K.

Richert, M.

Sabatke, D.

Samim, M.

Sauer, H.

Serrano, C.

Shaw, J. A.

Stohn, A.

Sullivan, J. M.

Thomas, L.

Twardowski, M. S.

Tyo, J. S.

Validire, P.

Vanel, J. C.

Verdier, M.

Vizet, J.

Wan, M.

Wang, Z.

Wu, L.

Yu, M.

M. Yu, H. Huang, H. Hu, L. Wu, H. Zhai, and T. Liu, “Colorimetric discrimination for Stokes polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3765–3773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yu, T. Liu, H. Huang, H. Hu, and B. Huang, “Multispectral Stokes imaging polarimetry based on color camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 6900910 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhai, H.

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. S. Tyo, Z. Wang, S. J. Johnson, and B. G. Hoover, “Design and optimization of partial Mueller matrix polarimeters,” Appl. Opt. 49(12), 2326–2333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fade, S. Panigrahi, A. Carré, L. Frein, C. Hamel, F. Bretenaker, H. Ramachandran, and M. Alouini, “Long-range polarimetric imaging through fog,” Appl. Opt. 53(18), 3854–3865 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5453–5469 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Kudenov, M. J. Escuti, E. L. Dereniak, and K. Oka, “White-light channeled imaging polarimeter using broadband polarization gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50(15), 2283–2293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wan, G. Gu, W. Qian, K. Ren, and Q. Chen, “Stokes-vector-based polarimetric imaging system for adaptive target/background contrast enhancement,” Appl. Opt. 55(21), 5513–5519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gu, C. Carrizo, A. A. Gilerson, P. C. Brady, M. E. Cummings, M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, A. I. Ibrahim, and G. W. Kattawar, “Polarimetric imaging and retrieval of target polarization characteristics in underwater environment,” Appl. Opt. 55(3), 626–637 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Anna, H. Sauer, F. Goudail, and D. Dolfi, “Fully tunable active polarization imager for contrast enhancement and partial polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 51(21), 5302–5309 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

M. Yu, T. Liu, H. Huang, H. Hu, and B. Huang, “Multispectral Stokes imaging polarimetry based on color camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 6900910 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Express (8)

B. Huang, T. Liu, J. Han, and H. Hu, “Polarimetric target detection under uneven illumination,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23603–23612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pierangelo, A. Benali, M.-R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, P. Validire, B. Gayet, and A. De Martino, “Ex-vivo characterization of human colon cancer by Mueller polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1582–1593 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Richert, X. Orlik, and A. De Martino, “Adapted polarization state contrast image,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14199–14210 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yu, H. Huang, H. Hu, L. Wu, H. Zhai, and T. Liu, “Colorimetric discrimination for Stokes polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3765–3773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Manhas, J. Vizet, S. Deby, J. C. Vanel, P. Boito, M. Verdier, A. De Martino, and D. Pagnoux, “Demonstration of full 4×4 Mueller polarimetry through an optical fiber for endoscopic applications,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3047–3054 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kontenis, M. Samim, S. Krouglov, and V. Barzda, “Third-harmonic generation Stokes-Mueller polarimetric microscopy,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13174–13189 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sabatke, A. Locke, E. Dereniak, and R. McMillan, “Linear calibration and reconstruction techniques for channeled spectropolarimetry,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2940–2952 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Thomas, M. Boffety, and F. Goudail, “Improving target discrimination ability of active polarization imagers by spectral broadening,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33514–33528 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The variation of the colors of a scene with four different regions with the PSA voltages.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Quantum efficiencies of RGB channels of the color camera (AVT Stringray F-033C)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The schematic of the experiment setup. (b) Spectrum of the LED light source.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The schematic of the scene containing two regions.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The intensity image of the scene.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Left column: Monochrome polarimetric contrast C, defined in Eq. (8), as a function of (V1, V2) for (a) the scene with 2 regions, (c) the scene with 3 regions, (e) the scene with 4 regions. Contrast values are normalized to 1 in all maps separately. Right column: polarimetric monochrome image with optimal contrast of (b) the scene with 2 regions, (d) the scene with 3 regions, (f) the scene with 4 regions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Left column: Color polarimetric contrast as a function of (V1, V2) for (a) the scene with 2 regions, (c) the scene with 3 regions, (e) the scene with 4 regions. Contrast values are normalized to 1 in all maps separately. Right column: color polarimetric image with optimal contrast of (b) the scene with 2 regions, (d) the scene with 3 regions, (f) the scene with 4 regions.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Schematic of the coordinates of three objects and the corresponding triangle in RGB color space. (b) Schematic of the coordinates of four objects and the corresponding tetrahedron in RGB color space.

Equations (9)

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i u = 1 2 T ( V 1 , V 2 ) T S u , u [ a , b ] ,
T o p t = arg max T ( | i a i b | ) = arg max ( V 1 - V 2 ) { | 1 2 T( V 1 , V 2 ) T ( S a S b ) | } .
I u = 1 2 T ( V 1 , V 2 , λ ) T S u ( λ ) d λ , u [ a , b ] .
T o p t = arg max T { | I a I b | } = arg max ( V 1 , V 2 ) { | 1 2 T( V 1 , V 2 , λ ) T [ S a ( λ ) S b ( λ ) ] d λ | } .
i k ( V 1 , V 2 ) = 1 2 Q k ( λ )T( V 1 , V 2 , λ ) T S( λ ) d λ , k [ R , G , B ] .
P i = ( R i , G i , B i ) = ( i R u ( V 1 , V 2 ) , i G u ( V 1 , V 2 ) , i B u ( V 1 , V 2 ) ) , u [ a , b ] .
T o p t ( V 1 , V 2 ) = arg max V 1 , V 2 { ( R a R b ) 2 + ( G a G b ) 2 + ( B a B b ) 2 } .
C = j = 1 n 1 i = j + 1 n d i j ,
d i j = | I i I j |

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