Abstract

In this study, a novel and efficient method enabling fabrication of a multichannel helical long-period fiber grating (HLPG) with almost the same channel spacing and the same rejection depth has been proposed and demonstrated for the first time both theoretically and experimentally, which is realized based on utilization of the so-called phase-only sampling technique. Unlike the previous amplitude-type sampling method where either a strong rectangular-type or a Sinc-like index-modulation distribution is generally demanded, the proposed method requires the minimum as well as a uniform index-modulation to the designed multichannel gratings, which considerably facilitates the fabrication process and makes the multichannel HLPGs to be fabricated in even a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF) by using the CO2 laser writing technique. As examples, a 3-channel and a 9-channel HLPGs have been successfully demonstrated numerically and experimentally. The experimental results agree with the designed ones, which represents the first realization of a multichannel HLPG, to the best of our knowledge. It is believed that the proposed multichannel HLPG could find potential applications to multi-wavelength orbit-angular-momentum (OAM) mode converter as well as the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) sensors.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

2017 (2)

F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, S. Tombelli, C. Trono, and A. Giannetti, “Biosensing with optical fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 6(4), 663–679 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, and C. Trono, “Manufacturing and spectral features of different types of long period fiber gratings: phase-shifted, turn-around point, internally tilted, and pseudo-random,” Fibers (Basel) 5(3), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

L. Xian, P. Wang, and H. Li, “Power-interrogated and simultaneous measurement of temperature and torsion using paired helical long-period fiber gratings with opposite helicities,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20260–20267 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li and X. Chen, “High channel-count ultra-narrow comb-filter based on a triply sampled fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1112–1115 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu and L. Yang, “Conversion of orbital angular momentum of light in chiral fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1978–1980 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. N. Alexeyev, T. A. Fadeyeva, B. P. Lapin, and M. A. Yavorsky, “Generation and conversion of optical vortices in long-period twisted elliptical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 51(10), C193–C197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

Y. Wang, “Review of long period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 081101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (6)

2005 (5)

2004 (6)

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, and A. Z. Hu, “Novel long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses and applications in optical fiber communications,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 209–221 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1352–1354 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, J. Azaña, and L. R. Chen, “Spectral Talbot-like phenomena in one-dimensional photonic bandgap structures,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1590–1592 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1464–1466 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bland-Hawthorn, M. Englund, and G. Edvell, “New approach to atmospheric OH suppression using an aperiodic fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5902–5909 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

R. Slavik, S. Doucet, and S. LaRochelle, “High-performance all-fiber Fabry-Perot filter with superimposed chirped Bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(4), 1059–1065 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Y. Sheng, Y. Li, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Phased-only sampled fiber Bragg gratings for high channel counts chromatic dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(9), 2074–2083 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce lone-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Humbert and A. Malki, “High performance bandpass filters based on electric arc-induced phase-shifted long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 1506–1507 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. Bhatia, “Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing,” Opt. Express 4(11), 457–466 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. J. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (5)

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1590–1592 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, “Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1596–1598 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, “Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(6), 842–844 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (4)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber gratings filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(8), 1760–1773 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “All-optical switching in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 883–885 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(10), 1370–1372 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

1995 (1)

F. Ouellette, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, T. Stephens, and B. Eggleton, “Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings,” Electon. Lett. 31(11), 899–901 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. D. Pool, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, “Helical-grating two-mode fiber spatial-mode coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 598–604 (1991).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220(4598), 671–680 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexeyev, C. N.

Arregui, F. J.

Ashwell, G. J.

Azaña, J.

Bagratashvili, V. N.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(10), 1370–1372 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bai, Z.

Baldini, F.

F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, S. Tombelli, C. Trono, and A. Giannetti, “Biosensing with optical fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 6(4), 663–679 (2017).
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F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, and C. Trono, “Manufacturing and spectral features of different types of long period fiber gratings: phase-shifted, turn-around point, internally tilted, and pseudo-random,” Fibers (Basel) 5(3), 29 (2017).
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Bennion, I.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1352–1354 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. J. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bergano, N. S.

Bhatia, V.

Biancalana, F.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
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Birks, T. A.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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J. Bland-Hawthorn, M. Englund, and G. Edvell, “New approach to atmospheric OH suppression using an aperiodic fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5902–5909 (2004).
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Bock, W. J.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Bucholtz, F.

Buryak, A.

Chan, C. C.

X. Dong, N. Pan, P. Shum, and C. C. Chan, “Sampled long-period fiber grating filters with narrow stop bands,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(10), 2401–2403 (2009).
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Chao, N.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
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Chen, L. R.

Chen, X.

H. Li and X. Chen, “High channel-count ultra-narrow comb-filter based on a triply sampled fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1112–1115 (2014).
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X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1352–1354 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K. S.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, “Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1596–1598 (1998).
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Chiavaioli, F.

F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, and C. Trono, “Manufacturing and spectral features of different types of long period fiber gratings: phase-shifted, turn-around point, internally tilted, and pseudo-random,” Fibers (Basel) 5(3), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, S. Tombelli, C. Trono, and A. Giannetti, “Biosensing with optical fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 6(4), 663–679 (2017).
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S. Choi, T. Eom, Y. Jung, B. Lee, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Broad-band tunable all-fiber bandpass filter based on hollow optical fiber and long-period grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 115–117 (2005).
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S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1464–1466 (2004).
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Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 778–781 (2001).
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Churikov, V. M.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
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M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, “Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(6), 842–844 (1998).
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Conti, C.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
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J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
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de Sandro, J. P.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(10), 1370–1372 (1997).
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Deparis, O.

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Dong, X.

X. Dong, N. Pan, P. Shum, and C. C. Chan, “Sampled long-period fiber grating filters with narrow stop bands,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(10), 2401–2403 (2009).
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Durkin, M. K.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, “Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(6), 842–844 (1998).
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Eggleton, B.

F. Ouellette, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, T. Stephens, and B. Eggleton, “Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings,” Electon. Lett. 31(11), 899–901 (1995).
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J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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Eom, T.

S. Choi, T. Eom, Y. Jung, B. Lee, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Broad-band tunable all-fiber bandpass filter based on hollow optical fiber and long-period grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 115–117 (2005).
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A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
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Everall, L. J.

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. J. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
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Fang, L.

Feinberg, J.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1590–1592 (1998).
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Fernandes, J. R. A.

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce lone-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
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Foglia Manzillo, P.

Fu, C.

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
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S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220(4598), 671–680 (1983).
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V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
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Giaccari, P.

Giannetti, A.

F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, S. Tombelli, C. Trono, and A. Giannetti, “Biosensing with optical fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 6(4), 663–679 (2017).
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Gillingham, P.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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Glytsis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
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D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1590–1592 (1998).
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Guan, B. O.

Han, W.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 778–781 (2001).
[Crossref]

Han, Y. G.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 778–781 (2001).
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Hayashi, J.

Haynes, R.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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Horton, A. J.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, and A. Z. Hu, “Novel long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses and applications in optical fiber communications,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 209–221 (2004).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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G. Humbert and A. Malki, “High performance bandpass filters based on electric arc-induced phase-shifted long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 1506–1507 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ibsen, M.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, “Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(6), 842–844 (1998).
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Ishaq, I.

Ivanov, O. V.

James, S. W.

Jiang, J.

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, and A. Z. Hu, “Novel long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses and applications in optical fiber communications,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 209–221 (2004).
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Judkins, J. B.

Jung, Y.

S. Choi, T. Eom, Y. Jung, B. Lee, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Broad-band tunable all-fiber bandpass filter based on hollow optical fiber and long-period grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 115–117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kang, M. S.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ke, H.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, “Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1596–1598 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kersey, A. D.

Kino, G. S.

Kirkpatrick, S.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220(4598), 671–680 (1983).
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Kiyan, R.

Ko, D. K.

Kopp, V. I.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korolev, I. G.

Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Krcmarík, D.

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krug, P. A.

F. Ouellette, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, T. Stephens, and B. Eggleton, “Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings,” Electon. Lett. 31(11), 899–901 (1995).
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Kulishov, M.

Laming, R. I.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, “Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(6), 842–844 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(10), 1370–1372 (1997).
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LaRochelle, S.

Lawrence, J. S.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

S. Choi, T. Eom, Y. Jung, B. Lee, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Broad-band tunable all-fiber bandpass filter based on hollow optical fiber and long-period grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 115–117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. H.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 778–781 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. W.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Lee, J. W.

S. Choi, T. Eom, Y. Jung, B. Lee, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Broad-band tunable all-fiber bandpass filter based on hollow optical fiber and long-period grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 115–117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. R.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
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A. M. Vengsarkar, N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, and P. J. Lemaire, “Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers,” Opt. Lett. 21(5), 336–338 (1996).
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J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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Li, J.

Li, M.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Liao, C.

Liu, S.

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B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(10), 1370–1372 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. J. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[Crossref]

Löhmannsröben, H. G.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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Magné, J.

Malki, A.

G. Humbert and A. Malki, “High performance bandpass filters based on electric arc-induced phase-shifted long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 1506–1507 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marques, P. V. S.

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce lone-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
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Matias, I. R.

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
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Nelson, K. T.

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V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
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Oh, K.

W. Shin, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, J. Lee, D. K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Bandwidth-tunable band-rejection filter based on helicoidal fiber grating pair of opposite helicities,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1214–1216 (2007).
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S. Choi, T. Eom, Y. Jung, B. Lee, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Broad-band tunable all-fiber bandpass filter based on hollow optical fiber and long-period grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 115–117 (2005).
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Oh, S.

Okhotnikov, O.

Ortega, B.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(10), 1370–1372 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ouellette, F.

F. Ouellette, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, T. Stephens, and B. Eggleton, “Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings,” Electon. Lett. 31(11), 899–901 (1995).
[Crossref]

Paek, U.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 778–781 (2001).
[Crossref]

Paek, U. C.

Paladino, D.

Pan, N.

X. Dong, N. Pan, P. Shum, and C. C. Chan, “Sampled long-period fiber grating filters with narrow stop bands,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(10), 2401–2403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Patrick, H. J.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Peng, J. H.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, “Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1596–1598 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pilla, P.

Pool, C. D.

C. D. Pool, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, “Helical-grating two-mode fiber spatial-mode coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 598–604 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pottiez, O.

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ran, Z. L.

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, and A. Z. Hu, “Novel long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses and applications in optical fiber communications,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 209–221 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, and A. Z. Hu, “Novel long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses and applications in optical fiber communications,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 209–221 (2004).
[Crossref]

Reekie, L.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(10), 1370–1372 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rego, G.

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce lone-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, and V. Sulimov, “High temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(10), 1574–1579 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, M. M.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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Rothenberg, J. E.

Russell, P. St. J.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
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Ryder, S. D.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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Salgado, H. M.

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce lone-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
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Santos, J. L.

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce lone-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
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Savin, S.

Shaw, H. J.

Sheng, Y.

Shigehara, M.

Shin, W.

Shum, P.

X. Dong, N. Pan, P. Shum, and C. C. Chan, “Sampled long-period fiber grating filters with narrow stop bands,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(10), 2401–2403 (2009).
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Singer, J.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
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A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Slavik, R.

Slavík, R.

Slusher, R. E.

Stark, J. B.

Starodubov, D. S.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1590–1592 (1998).
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Steblina, V.

Stephens, T.

F. Ouellette, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, T. Stephens, and B. Eggleton, “Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings,” Electon. Lett. 31(11), 899–901 (1995).
[Crossref]

Suganurna, H.

Sulimov, V.

Sun, L. P.

Tatam, R. P.

Tombelli, S.

F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, S. Tombelli, C. Trono, and A. Giannetti, “Biosensing with optical fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 6(4), 663–679 (2017).
[Crossref]

Townsend, C. D.

C. D. Pool, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, “Helical-grating two-mode fiber spatial-mode coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 598–604 (1991).
[Crossref]

Trinh, C.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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Trono, C.

F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, and C. Trono, “Manufacturing and spectral features of different types of long period fiber gratings: phase-shifted, turn-around point, internally tilted, and pseudo-random,” Fibers (Basel) 5(3), 29 (2017).
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F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, S. Tombelli, C. Trono, and A. Giannetti, “Biosensing with optical fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 6(4), 663–679 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tsypina, S. I.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(10), 1370–1372 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220(4598), 671–680 (1983).
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Vengsarkar, A. M.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
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B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “All-optical switching in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 883–885 (1997).
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A. M. Vengsarkar, N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, and P. J. Lemaire, “Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers,” Opt. Lett. 21(5), 336–338 (1996).
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A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
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V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 692–694 (1996).
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Wang, C.

Wang, J.

Wang, P.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. P.

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, and A. Z. Hu, “Novel long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses and applications in optical fiber communications,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 209–221 (2004).
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Weiss, T.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
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Williams, J. A. R.

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
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L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. J. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Wong, G. K. L.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
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Wu, C.

Xian, L.

Xu, H.

Yang, K.

Yang, L.

Yavorsky, M. A.

Yu, B.

Yu, B. A.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Zhang, L.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1352–1354 (2004).
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L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. J. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
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Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
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Zhang, Y.

Zhou, K.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1352–1354 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T.

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, and A. Z. Hu, “Novel long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses and applications in optical fiber communications,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 209–221 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electon. Lett. (1)

F. Ouellette, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, T. Stephens, and B. Eggleton, “Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings,” Electon. Lett. 31(11), 899–901 (1995).
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Electron. Lett. (2)

G. Humbert and A. Malki, “High performance bandpass filters based on electric arc-induced phase-shifted long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 1506–1507 (2003).
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D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fibers (Basel) (1)

F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, and C. Trono, “Manufacturing and spectral features of different types of long period fiber gratings: phase-shifted, turn-around point, internally tilted, and pseudo-random,” Fibers (Basel) 5(3), 29 (2017).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. J. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (7)

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1352–1354 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(10), 1370–1372 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1590–1592 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, T. Eom, Y. Jung, B. Lee, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh, “Broad-band tunable all-fiber bandpass filter based on hollow optical fiber and long-period grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 115–117 (2005).
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H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, “Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1596–1598 (1998).
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M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, “Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(6), 842–844 (1998).
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H. Li and X. Chen, “High channel-count ultra-narrow comb-filter based on a triply sampled fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1112–1115 (2014).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Wang, “Review of long period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 081101 (2010).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (12)

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, and V. Sulimov, “High temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(10), 1574–1579 (2001).
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R. P. Murphy, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Multiplexing of fiber-optic long-period grating-based interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 825–829 (2007).
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R. P. Murphy, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Multiplexing of fiber-optic long-period grating-based interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 825–829 (2007).
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A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
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M. Harurnoto, M. Shigehara, and H. Suganurna, “Gain-flattening filter using long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(6), 1027–1033 (2002).
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H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
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H. Li, Y. Sheng, Y. Li, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Phased-only sampled fiber Bragg gratings for high channel counts chromatic dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(9), 2074–2083 (2003).
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H. Li, M. Li, Y. Sheng, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Advances in the design and fabrication of high-channel-count fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(9), 2739–2750 (2007).
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R. Slavik, S. Doucet, and S. LaRochelle, “High-performance all-fiber Fabry-Perot filter with superimposed chirped Bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(4), 1059–1065 (2003).
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T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
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C. Fu, S. Liu, Z. Bai, J. He, C. Liao, Y. Wang, Z. Li, Y. Zhang, K. Yang, B. Yu, and Y. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode converter based on helical long period fiber grating inscribed by hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1683–1688 (2018).
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C. D. Pool, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, “Helical-grating two-mode fiber spatial-mode coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 598–604 (1991).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
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Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 778–781 (2001).
[Crossref]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Dong, N. Pan, P. Shum, and C. C. Chan, “Sampled long-period fiber grating filters with narrow stop bands,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(10), 2401–2403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, S. Tombelli, C. Trono, and A. Giannetti, “Biosensing with optical fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 6(4), 663–679 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H. G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J. G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 581 (2011).
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Opt. Commun. (3)

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, and A. Z. Hu, “Novel long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses and applications in optical fiber communications,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 209–221 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce lone-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
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Opt. Express (8)

I. Del Villar, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, A. Cusano, D. Paladino, and A. Cutolo, “Fringe generation with non-uniformly coated long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9326–9340 (2007).
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P. Pilla, P. Foglia Manzillo, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and A. Cusano, “Spectral behavior of thin film coated cascaded tapered long period gratings in multiple configurations,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9765–9780 (2008).
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V. Bhatia, “Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing,” Opt. Express 4(11), 457–466 (1999).
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J. Bland-Hawthorn, M. Englund, and G. Edvell, “New approach to atmospheric OH suppression using an aperiodic fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5902–5909 (2004).
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A. Buryak, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and V. Steblina, “Comparison of inverse scattering algorithms for designing ultrabroadband fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1995–2004 (2009).
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L. Xian, P. Wang, and H. Li, “Power-interrogated and simultaneous measurement of temperature and torsion using paired helical long-period fiber gratings with opposite helicities,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20260–20267 (2014).
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G. Inoue, P. Wang, and H. Li, “Flat-top band-rejection filter based on two successively-cascaded helical fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 24(5), 5442–5447 (2016).
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J. Li, G. Chen, P. Ma, L. P. Sun, C. Wu, and B. O. Guan, “Sampled Bragg gratings formed in helically twisted fibers and their potential application for the simultaneous measurement of mechanical torsion and temperature,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12903–12911 (2018).
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Opt. Lett. (16)

L. Fang and J. Wang, “Flexible generation/conversion/exchange of fiber-guided orbital angular momentum modes using helical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 4010–4013 (2015).
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C. Wang, J. Azaña, and L. R. Chen, “Spectral Talbot-like phenomena in one-dimensional photonic bandgap structures,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1590–1592 (2004).
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J. Magné, P. Giaccari, S. LaRochelle, J. Azaña, and L. R. Chen, “All-fiber comb filter with tunable free spectral range,” Opt. Lett. 30(16), 2062–2064 (2005).
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H. Xu and L. Yang, “Conversion of orbital angular momentum of light in chiral fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1978–1980 (2013).
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O. V. Ivanov, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by twisting a standard single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3290–3292 (2005).
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S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1464–1466 (2004).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optimization result for 3-channel phase-only sampling function. (a) Phase distribution in one period and (b) the corresponding channel spectrum.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optimization result for 9-channel phase-only sampling function. (a) Phase distribution in one period and (b) the corresponding channel spectrum.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Design results for phase-only sampled HLPGs with (a) 3-channel and (b) 9-channel.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup for fabrication of multichannel HLPG.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Local pitches of the designed phase-only sampled HLPGs for (a) 3-channel and (b) 9-channel.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measuring results for transmission spectrum of the fabricated multichannel HLPGs with (a) 3-channel and (b) 9-channel.

Equations (17)

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Δ n M (z,ϕ)=Re{ ( Δn(z,ϕ)/2exp(ilϕ) )exp{ il2πz/ Λ 0 } }×S(z),
S( z )= m= S m exp( i2mπz/P ) ,
t c (β)=(Δ n M (z))=(Δ n s (z))(S(z))=(Δ n s (z)) m= m= s m δ(βm π P ) ,
Δλ= λ 2 { ( n eff core n eff clad )λ ( n eff core n eff clad ) λ }P λ Λ 0 P ( 1 1 Λ 0 ( n eff core n eff clad ) λ ),
s(z)=exp( iφ( z ) )=exp{ i n=1 J α n cos( 2πnz/P ) }= m= S m exp( i2mπz/P ) ,
E(z)= m=M M [ | S m ( α 1 , α 2 , α J ) | 2 η 2M+1 ] 2 ,
η= m=M M | S m | 2 .
φ 3 (z)=1.437×cos(2πz/P).
φ 9 (z)=-2.935×cos(2πz/P)-0.758×cos(4πz/P) +0.420×cos(6πz/P)-0.318×cos(8πz/P)+0.171×cos(10πz/P).
Λ j = Λ 0 ( 1Δ φ j /2π ), 1jM,
Δ n s (z)=Re{ ( Δ n 0 /2exp(i φ g ) )exp{ i2πz/ Λ 0 } },
d E A dz =iκ E B exp{ i(2βz) },
d E B dz =i E A κ*exp{ i(2βz) },
ρ( z,β )= E B ( z,β ) E A ( z,β ) ,
dρ( z,β ) dz =iκ*exp{ i2βz }iκ ρ 2 exp{ i2βz },
dρ( z,β ) dz =iκ*exp{ i2βz }.
t (β) c =i κ(z)*exp{ i2βz } dz.

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