Abstract

Ultrafast semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs) passively modelocked using semiconductor saturable absorbers mirrors (SESAMs) generate optical frequency combs (OFCs) with gigahertz line spacings - a regime where solid-state and fiber lasers struggle with geometrical and Q-switching limitations. We stabilized both the frequency comb spacing and the offset without any additional external optical amplification or pulse compression. The overall noise performance is competitive with other gigahertz OFCs. A SESAM-modelocked vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) at a center wavelength around 1 µm generates 122-fs pulses with 160 mW average output power and we only needed 17-pJ pulse energy coupled into a silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide for supercontinuum generation (SCG) and OFC offset stabilization.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, and U. Keller, “Watt-level 10-gigahertz solid-state laser enabled by self-defocusing nonlinearities in an aperiodically poled crystal,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1673 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guina, A. Rantamäki, and A. Härkönen, “Optically pumped VECSELs: review of technology and progress,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(38), 383001 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Science 356(6343), 1164–1168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. E. Alfieri, D. Waldburger, S. M. Link, E. Gini, M. Golling, G. Eisenstein, and U. Keller, “Optical efficiency and gain dynamics of modelocked semiconductor disk lasers,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6402–6420 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, S. Droste, D. Westly, N. Nader, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Self-referenced frequency combs using high-efficiency silicon-nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2314–2317 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jornod, K. Gürel, V. J. Wittwer, P. Brochard, S. Hakobyan, S. Schilt, D. Waldburger, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization of a gigahertz semiconductor disk laser,” Optica 4(12), 1482–1487 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

2014 (4)

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude Noise and Timing Jitter Characterization of a High-Power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1500309 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent Ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 937–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Zaugg, A. Klenner, M. Mangold, A. S. Mayer, S. M. Link, F. Emaury, M. Golling, E. Gini, C. J. Saraceno, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz self-referenceable frequency comb from a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16445–16455 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Offset frequency dynamics and phase noise properties of a self-referenced 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18440–18451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

Addamane, S.

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alfieri, C. G. E.

Allan, D. U.

D. A. Howe, D. U. Allan, and J. A. Barnes, “Properties of Signal Sources and Measurement Methods,” in Thirty Fifth Annual Frequency Control Symposium, 1981), 669–716.
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, C. W.

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, G.

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barnes, J. A.

D. A. Howe, D. U. Allan, and J. A. Barnes, “Properties of Signal Sources and Measurement Methods,” in Thirty Fifth Annual Frequency Control Symposium, 1981), 669–716.
[Crossref]

Bartels, A.

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Billat, A.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brès, C.-S.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brochard, P.

Byer, R. L.

A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent Ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 937–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carlson, D. R.

Coddington, I.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Domenico, G.

Diddams, S. A.

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, S. Droste, D. Westly, N. Nader, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Self-referenced frequency combs using high-efficiency silicon-nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2314–2317 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Offset frequency dynamics and phase noise properties of a self-referenced 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18440–18451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Droste, S.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eisenstein, G.

Emaury, F.

Feldman, A.

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gini, E.

Goldner, P.

Golling, M.

Grassani, D.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guina, M.

M. Guina, A. Rantamäki, and A. Härkönen, “Optically pumped VECSELs: review of technology and progress,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(38), 383001 (2017).
[Crossref]

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H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
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Hader, J.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
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T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
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A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
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M. Guina, A. Rantamäki, and A. Härkönen, “Optically pumped VECSELs: review of technology and progress,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(38), 383001 (2017).
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Heinecke, D. C.

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B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
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H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
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Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
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T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
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A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
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Jones, R. J.

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
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Jornod, N.

Joshi, C.

Keller, U.

C. G. E. Alfieri, D. Waldburger, S. M. Link, E. Gini, M. Golling, G. Eisenstein, and U. Keller, “Optical efficiency and gain dynamics of modelocked semiconductor disk lasers,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6402–6420 (2017).
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N. Jornod, K. Gürel, V. J. Wittwer, P. Brochard, S. Hakobyan, S. Schilt, D. Waldburger, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization of a gigahertz semiconductor disk laser,” Optica 4(12), 1482–1487 (2017).
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A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, and U. Keller, “Watt-level 10-gigahertz solid-state laser enabled by self-defocusing nonlinearities in an aperiodically poled crystal,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1673 (2017).
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S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Science 356(6343), 1164–1168 (2017).
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D. Waldburger, S. M. Link, M. Mangold, C. G. E. Alfieri, E. Gini, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “High-power 100 fs semiconductor disk lasers,” Optica 3(8), 844–852 (2016).
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A. Klenner, A. S. Mayer, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz frequency comb offset stabilization based on supercontinuum generation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(10), 11043–11053 (2016).
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A. R. Johnson, A. S. Mayer, A. Klenner, K. Luke, E. S. Lamb, M. R. E. Lamont, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, F. W. Wise, M. Lipson, U. Keller, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in a silicon nitride waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5117–5120 (2015).
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A. Klenner and U. Keller, “All-optical Q-switching limiter for high-power gigahertz modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8532–8544 (2015).
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B. W. Tilma, M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, D. Waldburger, A. Klenner, A. S. Mayer, E. Gini, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “Recent advances in ultrafast semiconductor disk lasers,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(7), e310 (2015).
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M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude Noise and Timing Jitter Characterization of a High-Power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1500309 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
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C. A. Zaugg, A. Klenner, M. Mangold, A. S. Mayer, S. M. Link, F. Emaury, M. Golling, E. Gini, C. J. Saraceno, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz self-referenceable frequency comb from a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16445–16455 (2014).
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C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999).
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H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
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Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Klenner, A.

A. Klenner, A. S. Mayer, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz frequency comb offset stabilization based on supercontinuum generation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(10), 11043–11053 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klenner and U. Keller, “All-optical Q-switching limiter for high-power gigahertz modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8532–8544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Johnson, A. S. Mayer, A. Klenner, K. Luke, E. S. Lamb, M. R. E. Lamont, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, F. W. Wise, M. Lipson, U. Keller, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in a silicon nitride waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5117–5120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Tilma, M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, D. Waldburger, A. Klenner, A. S. Mayer, E. Gini, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “Recent advances in ultrafast semiconductor disk lasers,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(7), e310 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Zaugg, A. Klenner, M. Mangold, A. S. Mayer, S. M. Link, F. Emaury, M. Golling, E. Gini, C. J. Saraceno, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz self-referenceable frequency comb from a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16445–16455 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude Noise and Timing Jitter Characterization of a High-Power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1500309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
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Koch, S. W.

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
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Krausz, F.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
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Kunert, B.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
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Lamont, M. R. E.

Laurain, A.

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lemke, N.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lind, A.

Link, S. M.

C. G. E. Alfieri, D. Waldburger, S. M. Link, E. Gini, M. Golling, G. Eisenstein, and U. Keller, “Optical efficiency and gain dynamics of modelocked semiconductor disk lasers,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6402–6420 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Science 356(6343), 1164–1168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Waldburger, S. M. Link, M. Mangold, C. G. E. Alfieri, E. Gini, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “High-power 100 fs semiconductor disk lasers,” Optica 3(8), 844–852 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. W. Tilma, M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, D. Waldburger, A. Klenner, A. S. Mayer, E. Gini, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “Recent advances in ultrafast semiconductor disk lasers,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(7), e310 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude Noise and Timing Jitter Characterization of a High-Power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1500309 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Zaugg, A. Klenner, M. Mangold, A. S. Mayer, S. M. Link, F. Emaury, M. Golling, E. Gini, C. J. Saraceno, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz self-referenceable frequency comb from a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16445–16455 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luke, K.

Maas, D. J. H. C.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Science 356(6343), 1164–1168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manescau, A.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mangold, M.

D. Waldburger, S. M. Link, M. Mangold, C. G. E. Alfieri, E. Gini, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “High-power 100 fs semiconductor disk lasers,” Optica 3(8), 844–852 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. W. Tilma, M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, D. Waldburger, A. Klenner, A. S. Mayer, E. Gini, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “Recent advances in ultrafast semiconductor disk lasers,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(7), e310 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude Noise and Timing Jitter Characterization of a High-Power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1500309 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. A. Zaugg, A. Klenner, M. Mangold, A. S. Mayer, S. M. Link, F. Emaury, M. Golling, E. Gini, C. J. Saraceno, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz self-referenceable frequency comb from a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16445–16455 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marandi, A.

A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent Ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 937–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mayer, A. S.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirin, R. P.

Moloney, J. V.

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Morier-Genoud, F.

Moser, M.

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nader, N.

Newbury, N. R.

Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

Papp, S. B.

Paschotta, R.

Pasquini, L.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petit, J.

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phillips, C. R.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, and U. Keller, “Watt-level 10-gigahertz solid-state laser enabled by self-defocusing nonlinearities in an aperiodically poled crystal,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1673 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinlan, F.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rantamäki, A.

M. Guina, A. Rantamäki, and A. Härkönen, “Optically pumped VECSELs: review of technology and progress,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(38), 383001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ruiz-Perez, A.

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
[Crossref]

Saraceno, C. J.

Scheller, M.

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schibli, T. R.

Schiller, S.

Schilt, S.

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shoji, T. D.

Silverman, K. L.

Sparenberg, M.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

Steinmetz, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stolz, W.

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Südmeyer, T.

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takata, K.

A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent Ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 937–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tempea, G.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomann, P.

Tilma, B. W.

D. Waldburger, S. M. Link, M. Mangold, C. G. E. Alfieri, E. Gini, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “High-power 100 fs semiconductor disk lasers,” Optica 3(8), 844–852 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. W. Tilma, M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, D. Waldburger, A. Klenner, A. S. Mayer, E. Gini, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “Recent advances in ultrafast semiconductor disk lasers,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(7), e310 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude Noise and Timing Jitter Characterization of a High-Power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1500309 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. A. Zaugg, A. Klenner, M. Mangold, A. S. Mayer, S. M. Link, F. Emaury, M. Golling, E. Gini, C. J. Saraceno, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz self-referenceable frequency comb from a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16445–16455 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tropper, A. C.

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viana, B.

Waldburger, D.

Wang, T. L.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent Ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 937–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weber, A.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

Weng, W.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Westly, D.

Wilken, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

Wittwer, V. J.

Xie, W.

Yamamoto, Y.

A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent Ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 937–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zaugg, C. A.

B. W. Tilma, M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, D. Waldburger, A. Klenner, A. S. Mayer, E. Gini, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “Recent advances in ultrafast semiconductor disk lasers,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(7), e310 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude Noise and Timing Jitter Characterization of a High-Power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1500309 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Zaugg, A. Klenner, M. Mangold, A. S. Mayer, S. M. Link, F. Emaury, M. Golling, E. Gini, C. J. Saraceno, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz self-referenceable frequency comb from a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16445–16455 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude Noise and Timing Jitter Characterization of a High-Power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1500309 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. W. Baker, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Ruiz-Perez, W. Stolz, S. Addamane, G. Balakrishnan, S. W. Koch, R. J. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, “Multi-Angle VECSEL Cavities for Dispersion Control and Peak-Power Scaling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 326–329 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Guina, A. Rantamäki, and A. Härkönen, “Optically pumped VECSELs: review of technology and progress,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(38), 383001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

B. W. Tilma, M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, D. Waldburger, A. Klenner, A. S. Mayer, E. Gini, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “Recent advances in ultrafast semiconductor disk lasers,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(7), e310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, and U. Keller, “Watt-level 10-gigahertz solid-state laser enabled by self-defocusing nonlinearities in an aperiodically poled crystal,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1673 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Marandi, Z. Wang, K. Takata, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent Ising machine,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 937–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (3)

Phys. Rep. (1)

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Science 356(6343), 1164–1168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

D. A. Howe, D. U. Allan, and J. A. Barnes, “Properties of Signal Sources and Measurement Methods,” in Thirty Fifth Annual Frequency Control Symposium, 1981), 669–716.
[Crossref]

W. Riley and D. A. Howe, “Handbook of Frequency Stability Analysis ” Special Pulbications (NIST SP) 1065 (2008).

F. Riehle, “Frequency Standards: Basics and Applications,” in Frequency Standards: Basics and Applications, 1 ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Laser and stabilization setup. (a) Schematic of the laser and stabilization setup including the laser cavity, pulse repetition rate (frep) detection, supercontinuum generation, f-to-2f interferometry, signal pre-processing, and stabilization feedback loop. OC, output coupler; T, transmission; R, radius of curvature; PPLN, periodically poled lithium niobate; BPF, optical band-pass filter; UHFLI, digital ultra-high lock-in amplifier (Zurich Instruments); V-to-A, voltage to current; (b) Silicon nitride waveguide dispersion for a cross-section of 750 x 780 nm simulated for the TM0 mode featuring two zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDW). Inset: illustration of the 5 cm long spiraled waveguide. (c) Generated octave-spanning supercontinuum for a coupled pulse energy of 17 pJ. The highlighted wavelength regions are used for f-to-2f interferometry.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Carrier envelope-offset (CEO) frequency detection, control, and stabilization. (a) Microwave spectrum of the f-to-2f photodiode signal showing the two CEO beat frequencies between DC and the pulse repetition rate. The signal-to-noise ratio of the CEO beat frequency measured with a resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 10 kHz is 25 dB. (b) Free-running CEO beat in logarithmic and linear scale with a narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ≈20 kHz. (c) Tuning of the CEO frequency (fCEO) as a function of pump power. (d) Tuning of the CEO frequency signal strength and the photodiode noise floor for different coupled pulse energies inside the silicon nitride waveguide. (e) Stabilized CEO frequency featuring a resolution-limited coherent peak with (dark orange) and without (light orange) averaging. A span of 2 MHz and 200 Hz is shown measured with a RBW of 3 kHz and 1 Hz, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Noise characterization of the CEO frequency. (a) Frequency noise power spectral density (PSD) of the CEO frequency: free-running, CEO stabilized, and both CEO and pulse repetition rate stabilized. The noise of the stabilized CEO frequencies lies below the β-separation line indicating a tight lock. The corresponding integrated phase noise values are shown below. (b) Frequency stability of the CEO frequency recorded over 15 min with an averaging time of 1 s. (c) Allan deviation of the CEO frequency with the corresponding relative Allan deviation with respect to the optical frequencies on the right axis. The Allan deviations are calculated from the recorded time traces and from the frequency noise PSDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Noise characterization of the repetition rate stabilization. (a) Frequency noise PSD of the pulse repetition rate: free-running, pulse repetition rate stabilized, and both repetition rate and CEO stabilized. The frequency noise PSD was measured at the 12th harmonic of the repetition rate and subsequently divided by factor of 122 to account for the quadratic scaling of the noise with the harmonic number. The corresponding timing jitters are shown below. (b) Frequency stability of the pulse repetition rate recorded over 15 min with an averaging time of 1 s. (c) Allan deviation of the pulse repetition rate with the corresponding relative Allan deviation with respect to the optical frequencies on the right axis. The Allan deviations are calculated from the recorded time traces and from the frequency noise PSDs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Modelocking characterization of the SDL. (a) Autocorrelation of the modelocked pulses fitted with a 122 fs sech2-shaped pulse. (b) Optical spectrum centered around 1025.3 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 11.8 nm. (c) Microwave spectra of the 1.599 GHz pulse repetition rates showing a 20 MHz span measured with a resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 3 kHz. (d) Microwave spectra of the equally powerful higher harmonics of the repetition rates measured with a RBW of 30 kHz.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulation of the generated supercontinuum. The simulation of the generated supercontinuum by the silicon nitride waveguide for 8 pJ (green) and 14 pJ (orange) of coupled pulse energy, respectively. For the pulse energy of 14 pJ, the coherence of the spectral parts used for f-to-2f interferometry is drastically reduced. The coupled pulse energies in the simulation are smaller than the pulse energies in the experiment, since in the experiment, not all the power is coupled into the desired TM0 mode.

Equations (2)

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σ y ( τ=m τ 0 )= 1 2 m 2 τ 0 2 ( N2m ) i=1 N2m ( x i+2m 2 x i+m + x i ) 2 ,
σ y ( τ )= 0 S y ( f ) 2 sin 4 ( πτf ) ( πτf ) 2 df ,

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