Abstract

Tuning a semiconductor nanomaterial with large two-photon absorption cross section in the near-infrared wavelength and investigating the correlation and origins between its size and third-order nonlinear optical properties are very important in possible applications. In this work, CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with various sizes were successfully prepared, and their size-confined third-order nonlinear optical properties were investigated by Z-scan technique with 100 fs laser pulses at 800 nm wavelength. Both the two-photon absorption and nonlinear refraction were enhanced about 8.1 times with size decrease and then weakened to 2 times with further size decrease. QDs with the diameter of 4.9 nm had the largest nonlinear optical susceptibility of 7.8 × 10−12 esu. The effects of photoinduced dipole moment and local electric field were proposed to explain this trend. And the intrinsic dipole moment and defects in CdSe QDs also had an effect on this nonlinear process.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2018 (1)

B. Zhu, F. Wang, P. Li, C. Wang, and Y. Gu, “Surface oxygen-containing defects of graphene nanosheets with tunable nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20(42), 27105–27114 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

W. Chen, S. Bhaumik, S. A. Veldhuis, G. Xing, Q. Xu, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Giant five-photon absorption from multidimensional core-shell halide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15198 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

A. Teitelboim and D. Oron, “Broadband Near-Infrared to Visible Upconversion in Quantum Dot-Quantum Well Heterostructures,” ACS Nano 10(1), 446–452 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wawrzynczyk, J. Szeremeta, M. Samoc, and M. Nyk, “Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Infrared Emitting PbS and PbSe Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(38), 21939–21945 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Akram and A. H. Al-Khursan, “Second-order nonlinearity in ladder-plus-Y configuration in double quantum dot structure,” Appl. Opt. 55(34), 9866–9874 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Zhu, F. F. Wang, Y. W. Cao, C. Wang, J. Wang, and Y. Z. Gu, “Nonlinear optical enhancement induced by synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and CdS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(25), 252106 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. H. Zhu, F. F. Wang, K. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, and Y. Z. Gu, “Enhanced three-photon absorption in CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals in near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 082602 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

R. Scott, A. W. Achtstein, A. Prudnikau, A. Antanovich, S. Christodoulou, I. Moreels, M. Artemyev, and U. Woggon, “Two Photon Absorption in II-VI Semiconductors: The Influence of Dimensionality and Size,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4985–4992 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Ding, F. Nan, X. N. Liu, X. L. Liu, Y. F. Zhang, S. Liang, D. Z. Yao, X. H. Zhang, and Q. Q. Wang, “Largely Enhanced Optical Nonlinear Response of Heavily Doped Ag:CdTe Nanocrystals around the Excitonic Band Edge,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(44), 24958–24964 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

X. Du, L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, K. Sharafudeen, J. Wen, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and J. R. Qiu, “Coloration and Nonlinear Optical Properties of ZnTe Quantum Dots in ZnO-TeO2-P2O5Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 185–188 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Z. Q. Zhou, C. G. Lu, S. H. Xu, Y. Jiang, B. F. Yun, C. L. Wang, and Y. P. Cui, “Surface states controlled broadband enhancement of two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, J. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Broadband optical non-linearity induced by charge-transfer excitons in type-II CdSe/ZnTe nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 25(32), 4397–4402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. L. Dakovski and J. Shan, “Size dependence of two-photon absorption in semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(1), 014301 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

H. C. Zhang, Y. H. Ye, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, B. P. Yang, and L. Shen, “Effects of Core Size and Shell Thickness on Luminescence Dynamics of Wurtzite CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(29), 15660–15666 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Nyk, D. Wawrzynczyk, J. Szeremeta, and M. Samoc, “Spectrally resolved size-dependent third-order nonlinear optical properties of colloidal CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(4), 041102 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. Singh Bhardwaj, S. Ani Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and J. R. Bellare, “Size dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, and J. Y. Zhang, “Effect of shell thickness on two-photon absorption and refraction of colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 231903 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, and Z. Q. Zhou, “Surface-related two-photon absorption and refraction of CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021908 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

D. J. Norris, A. L. Efros, and S. C. Erwin, “Doped nanocrystals,” Science 319(5871), 1776–1779 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, K. T. Yong, F. Erogbogbo, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Two- and three-photon absorption and frequency upconverted emission of silicon quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2688–2692 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. van Mourik, G. Giraud, D. Tonti, M. Chergui, and G. van der Zwan, “Linear dichroism of CdSe nanodots: Large anisotropy of the band-gap absorption induced by ground-state dipole moments,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(16), 165303 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043126 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

G. S. He, K. T. Yong, Q. Zheng, Y. Sahoo, A. Baev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, and P. N. Prasad, “Multi-photon excitation properties of CdSe quantum dots solutions and optical limiting behavior in infrared range,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12818–12833 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(7), 075325 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. L. Gan, M. Xiao, D. Battaglia, N. Pradhan, and X. G. Peng, “Size dependence of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201103 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. C. Pu, M. J. Yang, C. C. Hsu, C. W. Lai, C. C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. M. Cheng, and P. T. Chou, “The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots,” Small 2(11), 1308–1313 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Huang and K. W. Yu, “Enhanced nonlinear optical responses of materials: Composite effects,” Phys. Rep. 431(3), 87–172 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. A. El-Sayed, “Small is different: shape-, size-, and composition-dependent properties of some colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res. 37(5), 326–333 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

L. Qu and X. Peng, “Control of photoluminescence properties of CdSe nanocrystals in growth,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(9), 2049–2055 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Wang, M. Xiao, L. Qu, and X. Peng, “Lattice contraction in free-standing CdSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 2076–2078 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. Shim and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Permanent dipole moment and charges in colloidal semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys. 111(15), 6955–6964 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. D. Krauss and L. E. Brus, “Charge, Polarizability, and Photoionization of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(23), 4840–4843 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. Cotter, M. G. Burt, and R. J. Manning, “Below-band-gap third-order optical nonlinearity of nanometer-size semiconductor crystallites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(8), 1200–1203 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Y. Wang, “Nonlinear optical properties of nanometer-sized semiconductor clusters,” Acc. Chem. Res. 24(5), 133–139 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

T. Takagahara, “Biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots and their nonlinear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 39(14), 10206–10231 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

L. Bányai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 38(12), 8142–8153 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

L. E. Brus, “Electron-electron and electron-hole interactions in small semiconductor crystallites: The size dependence of the lowest excited electronic states,” J. Chem. Phys. 80(9), 4403–4409 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

Achtstein, A. W.

R. Scott, A. W. Achtstein, A. Prudnikau, A. Antanovich, S. Christodoulou, I. Moreels, M. Artemyev, and U. Woggon, “Two Photon Absorption in II-VI Semiconductors: The Influence of Dimensionality and Size,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4985–4992 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akram, H.

Akundi, M. A.

Al-Khursan, A. H.

Ani Joseph, S.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. Singh Bhardwaj, S. Ani Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and J. R. Bellare, “Size dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Antanovich, A.

R. Scott, A. W. Achtstein, A. Prudnikau, A. Antanovich, S. Christodoulou, I. Moreels, M. Artemyev, and U. Woggon, “Two Photon Absorption in II-VI Semiconductors: The Influence of Dimensionality and Size,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4985–4992 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artemyev, M.

R. Scott, A. W. Achtstein, A. Prudnikau, A. Antanovich, S. Christodoulou, I. Moreels, M. Artemyev, and U. Woggon, “Two Photon Absorption in II-VI Semiconductors: The Influence of Dimensionality and Size,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4985–4992 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baev, A.

Bányai, L.

L. Bányai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 38(12), 8142–8153 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbosa, L. C.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(7), 075325 (2007).
[Crossref]

Battaglia, D.

C. L. Gan, M. Xiao, D. Battaglia, N. Pradhan, and X. G. Peng, “Size dependence of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bellare, J. R.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. Singh Bhardwaj, S. Ani Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and J. R. Bellare, “Size dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bhaumik, S.

W. Chen, S. Bhaumik, S. A. Veldhuis, G. Xing, Q. Xu, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Giant five-photon absorption from multidimensional core-shell halide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15198 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brus, L. E.

T. D. Krauss and L. E. Brus, “Charge, Polarizability, and Photoionization of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(23), 4840–4843 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. E. Brus, “Electron-electron and electron-hole interactions in small semiconductor crystallites: The size dependence of the lowest excited electronic states,” J. Chem. Phys. 80(9), 4403–4409 (1984).
[Crossref]

Burt, M. G.

D. Cotter, M. G. Burt, and R. J. Manning, “Below-band-gap third-order optical nonlinearity of nanometer-size semiconductor crystallites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(8), 1200–1203 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buso, D.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(7), 075325 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y. W.

B. H. Zhu, F. F. Wang, Y. W. Cao, C. Wang, J. Wang, and Y. Z. Gu, “Nonlinear optical enhancement induced by synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and CdS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(25), 252106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cesar, C. L.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(7), 075325 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, D. D.

X. Du, L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, K. Sharafudeen, J. Wen, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and J. R. Qiu, “Coloration and Nonlinear Optical Properties of ZnTe Quantum Dots in ZnO-TeO2-P2O5Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 185–188 (2014).
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W. Chen, S. Bhaumik, S. A. Veldhuis, G. Xing, Q. Xu, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Giant five-photon absorption from multidimensional core-shell halide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15198 (2017).
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D. Cotter, M. G. Burt, and R. J. Manning, “Below-band-gap third-order optical nonlinearity of nanometer-size semiconductor crystallites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(8), 1200–1203 (1992).
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L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(7), 075325 (2007).
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Z. Q. Zhou, C. G. Lu, S. H. Xu, Y. Jiang, B. F. Yun, C. L. Wang, and Y. P. Cui, “Surface states controlled broadband enhancement of two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231111 (2013).
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H. C. Zhang, Y. H. Ye, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, B. P. Yang, and L. Shen, “Effects of Core Size and Shell Thickness on Luminescence Dynamics of Wurtzite CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(29), 15660–15666 (2012).
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S. J. Ding, F. Nan, X. N. Liu, X. L. Liu, Y. F. Zhang, S. Liang, D. Z. Yao, X. H. Zhang, and Q. Q. Wang, “Largely Enhanced Optical Nonlinear Response of Heavily Doped Ag:CdTe Nanocrystals around the Excitonic Band Edge,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(44), 24958–24964 (2015).
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Dong, G. P.

X. Du, L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, K. Sharafudeen, J. Wen, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and J. R. Qiu, “Coloration and Nonlinear Optical Properties of ZnTe Quantum Dots in ZnO-TeO2-P2O5Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 185–188 (2014).
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Du, X.

X. Du, L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, K. Sharafudeen, J. Wen, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and J. R. Qiu, “Coloration and Nonlinear Optical Properties of ZnTe Quantum Dots in ZnO-TeO2-P2O5Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 185–188 (2014).
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D. J. Norris, A. L. Efros, and S. C. Erwin, “Doped nanocrystals,” Science 319(5871), 1776–1779 (2008).
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L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(7), 075325 (2007).
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C. L. Gan, M. Xiao, D. Battaglia, N. Pradhan, and X. G. Peng, “Size dependence of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201103 (2007).
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Giraud, G.

F. van Mourik, G. Giraud, D. Tonti, M. Chergui, and G. van der Zwan, “Linear dichroism of CdSe nanodots: Large anisotropy of the band-gap absorption induced by ground-state dipole moments,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(16), 165303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grätzel, M.

W. Chen, S. Bhaumik, S. A. Veldhuis, G. Xing, Q. Xu, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Giant five-photon absorption from multidimensional core-shell halide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15198 (2017).
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Gu, Y.

B. Zhu, F. Wang, P. Li, C. Wang, and Y. Gu, “Surface oxygen-containing defects of graphene nanosheets with tunable nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20(42), 27105–27114 (2018).
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B. H. Zhu, F. F. Wang, K. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, and Y. Z. Gu, “Enhanced three-photon absorption in CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals in near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 082602 (2016).
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B. H. Zhu, F. F. Wang, Y. W. Cao, C. Wang, J. Wang, and Y. Z. Gu, “Nonlinear optical enhancement induced by synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and CdS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(25), 252106 (2016).
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M. Shim and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Permanent dipole moment and charges in colloidal semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys. 111(15), 6955–6964 (1999).
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L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(7), 075325 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, K. T. Yong, F. Erogbogbo, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Two- and three-photon absorption and frequency upconverted emission of silicon quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2688–2692 (2008).
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G. S. He, K. T. Yong, Q. Zheng, Y. Sahoo, A. Baev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, and P. N. Prasad, “Multi-photon excitation properties of CdSe quantum dots solutions and optical limiting behavior in infrared range,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12818–12833 (2007).
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S. C. Pu, M. J. Yang, C. C. Hsu, C. W. Lai, C. C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. M. Cheng, and P. T. Chou, “The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots,” Small 2(11), 1308–1313 (2006).
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Hsu, C. C.

S. C. Pu, M. J. Yang, C. C. Hsu, C. W. Lai, C. C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. M. Cheng, and P. T. Chou, “The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots,” Small 2(11), 1308–1313 (2006).
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L. Bányai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 38(12), 8142–8153 (1988).
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Y. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, J. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Broadband optical non-linearity induced by charge-transfer excitons in type-II CdSe/ZnTe nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 25(32), 4397–4402 (2013).
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Jiang, Y.

Z. Q. Zhou, C. G. Lu, S. H. Xu, Y. Jiang, B. F. Yun, C. L. Wang, and Y. P. Cui, “Surface states controlled broadband enhancement of two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231111 (2013).
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Kiran, P. P.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043126 (2008).
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Koch, S. W.

L. Bányai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 38(12), 8142–8153 (1988).
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T. D. Krauss and L. E. Brus, “Charge, Polarizability, and Photoionization of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(23), 4840–4843 (1999).
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Kumar, G. R.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043126 (2008).
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Lad, A. D.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043126 (2008).
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Lai, C. W.

S. C. Pu, M. J. Yang, C. C. Hsu, C. W. Lai, C. C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. M. Cheng, and P. T. Chou, “The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots,” Small 2(11), 1308–1313 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P.

B. Zhu, F. Wang, P. Li, C. Wang, and Y. Gu, “Surface oxygen-containing defects of graphene nanosheets with tunable nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20(42), 27105–27114 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, S.

S. J. Ding, F. Nan, X. N. Liu, X. L. Liu, Y. F. Zhang, S. Liang, D. Z. Yao, X. H. Zhang, and Q. Q. Wang, “Largely Enhanced Optical Nonlinear Response of Heavily Doped Ag:CdTe Nanocrystals around the Excitonic Band Edge,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(44), 24958–24964 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. H.

S. C. Pu, M. J. Yang, C. C. Hsu, C. W. Lai, C. C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. M. Cheng, and P. T. Chou, “The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots,” Small 2(11), 1308–1313 (2006).
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Lindberg, M.

L. Bányai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 38(12), 8142–8153 (1988).
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S. J. Ding, F. Nan, X. N. Liu, X. L. Liu, Y. F. Zhang, S. Liang, D. Z. Yao, X. H. Zhang, and Q. Q. Wang, “Largely Enhanced Optical Nonlinear Response of Heavily Doped Ag:CdTe Nanocrystals around the Excitonic Band Edge,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(44), 24958–24964 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. N.

S. J. Ding, F. Nan, X. N. Liu, X. L. Liu, Y. F. Zhang, S. Liang, D. Z. Yao, X. H. Zhang, and Q. Q. Wang, “Largely Enhanced Optical Nonlinear Response of Heavily Doped Ag:CdTe Nanocrystals around the Excitonic Band Edge,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(44), 24958–24964 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, J. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Broadband optical non-linearity induced by charge-transfer excitons in type-II CdSe/ZnTe nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 25(32), 4397–4402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. G.

Z. Q. Zhou, C. G. Lu, S. H. Xu, Y. Jiang, B. F. Yun, C. L. Wang, and Y. P. Cui, “Surface states controlled broadband enhancement of two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mahamuni, S.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043126 (2008).
[Crossref]

Manning, R. J.

D. Cotter, M. G. Burt, and R. J. Manning, “Below-band-gap third-order optical nonlinearity of nanometer-size semiconductor crystallites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(8), 1200–1203 (1992).
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Martucci, A.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(7), 075325 (2007).
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S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. Singh Bhardwaj, S. Ani Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and J. R. Bellare, “Size dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mathews, N.

W. Chen, S. Bhaumik, S. A. Veldhuis, G. Xing, Q. Xu, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Giant five-photon absorption from multidimensional core-shell halide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15198 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mhaisalkar, S.

W. Chen, S. Bhaumik, S. A. Veldhuis, G. Xing, Q. Xu, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Giant five-photon absorption from multidimensional core-shell halide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15198 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

More, D.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043126 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moreels, I.

R. Scott, A. W. Achtstein, A. Prudnikau, A. Antanovich, S. Christodoulou, I. Moreels, M. Artemyev, and U. Woggon, “Two Photon Absorption in II-VI Semiconductors: The Influence of Dimensionality and Size,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4985–4992 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. Singh Bhardwaj, S. Ani Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and J. R. Bellare, “Size dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nan, F.

S. J. Ding, F. Nan, X. N. Liu, X. L. Liu, Y. F. Zhang, S. Liang, D. Z. Yao, X. H. Zhang, and Q. Q. Wang, “Largely Enhanced Optical Nonlinear Response of Heavily Doped Ag:CdTe Nanocrystals around the Excitonic Band Edge,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(44), 24958–24964 (2015).
[Crossref]

Norris, D. J.

D. J. Norris, A. L. Efros, and S. C. Erwin, “Doped nanocrystals,” Science 319(5871), 1776–1779 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nyk, M.

D. Wawrzynczyk, J. Szeremeta, M. Samoc, and M. Nyk, “Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Infrared Emitting PbS and PbSe Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(38), 21939–21945 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Nyk, D. Wawrzynczyk, J. Szeremeta, and M. Samoc, “Spectrally resolved size-dependent third-order nonlinear optical properties of colloidal CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(4), 041102 (2012).
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A. Teitelboim and D. Oron, “Broadband Near-Infrared to Visible Upconversion in Quantum Dot-Quantum Well Heterostructures,” ACS Nano 10(1), 446–452 (2016).
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L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(7), 075325 (2007).
[Crossref]

Peng, X.

L. Qu and X. Peng, “Control of photoluminescence properties of CdSe nanocrystals in growth,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(9), 2049–2055 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Wang, M. Xiao, L. Qu, and X. Peng, “Lattice contraction in free-standing CdSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 2076–2078 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peng, X. G.

C. L. Gan, M. Xiao, D. Battaglia, N. Pradhan, and X. G. Peng, “Size dependence of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pradhan, N.

C. L. Gan, M. Xiao, D. Battaglia, N. Pradhan, and X. G. Peng, “Size dependence of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, K. T. Yong, F. Erogbogbo, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Two- and three-photon absorption and frequency upconverted emission of silicon quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2688–2692 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. He, K. T. Yong, Q. Zheng, Y. Sahoo, A. Baev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, and P. N. Prasad, “Multi-photon excitation properties of CdSe quantum dots solutions and optical limiting behavior in infrared range,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12818–12833 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prudnikau, A.

R. Scott, A. W. Achtstein, A. Prudnikau, A. Antanovich, S. Christodoulou, I. Moreels, M. Artemyev, and U. Woggon, “Two Photon Absorption in II-VI Semiconductors: The Influence of Dimensionality and Size,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4985–4992 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pu, S. C.

S. C. Pu, M. J. Yang, C. C. Hsu, C. W. Lai, C. C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. M. Cheng, and P. T. Chou, “The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots,” Small 2(11), 1308–1313 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, Q.

X. Du, L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, K. Sharafudeen, J. Wen, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and J. R. Qiu, “Coloration and Nonlinear Optical Properties of ZnTe Quantum Dots in ZnO-TeO2-P2O5Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 185–188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. R.

X. Du, L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, K. Sharafudeen, J. Wen, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and J. R. Qiu, “Coloration and Nonlinear Optical Properties of ZnTe Quantum Dots in ZnO-TeO2-P2O5Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 185–188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qu, L.

L. Qu and X. Peng, “Control of photoluminescence properties of CdSe nanocrystals in growth,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(9), 2049–2055 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Wang, M. Xiao, L. Qu, and X. Peng, “Lattice contraction in free-standing CdSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 2076–2078 (2002).
[Crossref]

Radhakrishnan, P.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. Singh Bhardwaj, S. Ani Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and J. R. Bellare, “Size dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rao, D. N.

Ryasnyanskiy, A. I.

Sahoo, Y.

Samoc, M.

D. Wawrzynczyk, J. Szeremeta, M. Samoc, and M. Nyk, “Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Infrared Emitting PbS and PbSe Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(38), 21939–21945 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Nyk, D. Wawrzynczyk, J. Szeremeta, and M. Samoc, “Spectrally resolved size-dependent third-order nonlinear optical properties of colloidal CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(4), 041102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saran, A. D.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. Singh Bhardwaj, S. Ani Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and J. R. Bellare, “Size dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scott, R.

R. Scott, A. W. Achtstein, A. Prudnikau, A. Antanovich, S. Christodoulou, I. Moreels, M. Artemyev, and U. Woggon, “Two Photon Absorption in II-VI Semiconductors: The Influence of Dimensionality and Size,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4985–4992 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shan, J.

G. L. Dakovski and J. Shan, “Size dependence of two-photon absorption in semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(1), 014301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sharafudeen, K.

X. Du, L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, K. Sharafudeen, J. Wen, D. D. Chen, Q. Qian, and J. R. Qiu, “Coloration and Nonlinear Optical Properties of ZnTe Quantum Dots in ZnO-TeO2-P2O5Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 185–188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

H. C. Zhang, Y. H. Ye, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, B. P. Yang, and L. Shen, “Effects of Core Size and Shell Thickness on Luminescence Dynamics of Wurtzite CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(29), 15660–15666 (2012).
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B. Zhu, F. Wang, P. Li, C. Wang, and Y. Gu, “Surface oxygen-containing defects of graphene nanosheets with tunable nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20(42), 27105–27114 (2018).
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B. H. Zhu, F. F. Wang, K. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, and Y. Z. Gu, “Enhanced three-photon absorption in CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals in near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 082602 (2016).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, J. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Broadband optical non-linearity induced by charge-transfer excitons in type-II CdSe/ZnTe nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 25(32), 4397–4402 (2013).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

B. H. Zhu, F. F. Wang, K. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, and Y. Z. Gu, “Enhanced three-photon absorption in CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals in near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(8), 082602 (2016).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The typical absorption (the solid lines) and PL (the dashed lines) spectra of CdSe QDs. The insets show the typical TEM and HRTEM images of S6 with size of 3.8 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Typical OA (a), CA (b), and CA/OA Z-scan (c) curves of CdSe QDs. The blue solid lines are the fitting curves by theoretical formulae of [26].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3(3), 10Reχ(3) and Imχ(3) versus the size of CdSe QDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Plots of output intensity versus input intensity. The blue solid lines are fitting curves.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The experimental data (the dots) and theoretical fitting curves (the blue dash line) of χ(3) of CdSe QDs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Typical XRD spectrum of CdSe QDs. The inset represents the PL QY versus QDs’ size.

Equations (1)

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χ ( 3 ) = 3 i 16 R ε 0 { 4 A 2 ( i ω 1 + γ ) ( ω 1 2 + γ 2 ) σ B σ 2 × × [ 2 [ i ( ω 2 σ ω 1 ) + γ ] ( ω 1 2 + γ 2 ) + 1 ( i ω 1 + γ ) ( i ω 2 σ + γ ) [ 1 i ( ω 2 σ ω 1 ) + γ 1 i ω 1 + γ ] ] }

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